Definitions

Fard

Fard

[fahrd]
Fard (الفرض) also farida (الفريضة) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. The word is also used in Persian, Turkish, Urdu and Hindi (spelled farz) in the same meaning.

Fard or its synonym wajib is one of the five types of Ahkam into which Fiqh categorizes acts of every Muslim. Hanafites however makes a distinction between Wajib and Fard, the latter being more obligatory than the former.. In Bahasa Indonesia, wajib also means obligatory, since the word is derived from Arabic.

Individual duty and sufficiency

The Fiqh distinguishes two sorts of duties:

  • Individual duty or fard al-ayn |الواجب الع relates to tasks every Muslim is required to perform, such as daily prayer (salah), hijab, or the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime (hajj).
  • Sufficiency duty or fard al-kifaya (الواجب الكفائي) is a duty which is imposed on the whole community of believers (ummah). The classic example for it is jihad: the individual is not required to perform it as long as a sufficient number of community members fulfil it.

See also

  • Mitzvah (somewhat similar Jewish concept)
  • Dharma (Hindu/Buddhist/Sikh term that can be used to mean "duty" or "obligation", although there are also other meanings)

References

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