March — Cuban poet Herberto Padilla is arrested in Havana and released only after signing a confession stating he is a "vicious character" who took part in counterrevolutionary activities. A letter to Fidel Castro published May 20 in Paris from 60 leftist intellectuals, all supporters of the Cuban revolution, protested Padilla's treatment and accused Castro of imposing Stalinism on Cuba. Among the 60: Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Susan Sontag, Alberto Moravia, Carlos Fuentes, and Mario Vargas Llosa (who said he continued to support the Cuban revolution). Julio Cortázar of Argentina said he stood by Castro in a verse manifesto, Policrítica en la hora de los chacales.
April 8 — release of Right On!, a film directed by Herbert Danska, of poetry recitations with bongo accompaniments on New York city streets