by faculty members
is the use of scholarly expertise for the benefit of organizations outside the scholarly community in return for some sort of compensation.
Universities have widely varying policies on faculty consulting, generally limiting the proportion of a faculty member's time which may be spent on consulting, and instituting rules to avoid conflicts of interest.
Consulting is distinguished from activities which are scholarly or creative, from public service, and from outside activities which are unrelated to the area of scholarly expertise. For instance, a professor of history who designs sailboats on the side is not considered to be consulting, although a professor of engineering might be.
- Aggarwal, Raj, "Faculty Members as Consultants: A Policy Perspective", Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, v32 n2 p17-20 Summer 1981.
- Patton, Carl V. "Consulting by Faculty Members", Bulletin of the AAUP, v66 n4 p181-85 May 1980.
- Reis, Richard M. "When Faculty Consulting Helps -- and When It Hurts -- Your Career", The Chronicle of Higher Education, October 22, 1999, retrieved on September 9 2007.
- UC Berkeley guide to consulting for faculty and academic employees, Policy & Guidelines, Sept. 19, 2006, retrieved on September 9 2007.