The de Havilland Mosquito was a British combat aircraft that excelled in a number of roles during the Second World War. Originally conceived as an unarmed fast bomber, uses of the Mosquito included: low to medium altitude daytime tactical bomber, high altitude night bomber, pathfinder, day or night fighter, fighter-bomber, intruder, maritime strike and photo reconnaissance aircraft. It was also used as the basis for a single-seat heavy fighter, the de Havilland Hornet. The aircraft served with the Royal Air Force (RAF) and many other air forces during the Second World War and postwar (see Operators below). The Mosquito was known affectionately as the "Mossie" to its crews and was also known as "The Wooden Wonder" or "The Timber Terror" as the bulk of the aircraft was made of laminated plywood.
The Mosquito inspired admiration from all quarters, including the Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe, Hermann Göring. Göring was due to address a parade in Berlin in the morning of 30 January 1943, commemorating the 10th anniversary of the Nazis' being voted into power. The low level attack of three 105 Squadron Mosquito B Mk. IV on the main Berlin broadcasting station put Reichsmarschall Göring off the air for more than an hour, as he was about to launch into a scheduled speech.
The Reichsmarschall was not amused:
The Mosquito inspired a conceptually similar German aircraft, the Focke Wulf Ta 154 Moskito, which, like its namesake, was constructed of wood.
Throughout the 1930s, de Havilland established a reputation in developing innovative high-speed aircraft such as the DH.88 Comet mailplane and DH.91 Albatross airliner that had already successfully employed the composite wood construction that the Mosquito would use. The firm had little experience of working with the Air Ministry, and when a contract was specified for new bombers, de Havilland's all-wood design approach was considered to be out of keeping with official policy.
Their initial design had started off as an adaptation of the Albatross, armed with three gun turrets and a six-man crew, and powered by two Rolls-Royce Merlin engines. However the resulting design had mediocre performance. The designers started looking for ways to improve it, including the addition of another pair of engines. After more work on the concept, they started moving in the other direction instead, removing everything that was unneeded in order to lower the weight. As each of the gun turrets was eliminated, the performance of the aircraft continued to improve, until they realized that, by removing all of them, the aircraft would be so fast it might not need guns at all. What emerged was an entirely different concept, a small twin-engined, two crew aircraft so fast that nothing in the sky could catch it. It could carry 1,000 lb (454 kg) of bombs for 1,500 miles (2,400 km) at a speed of almost 400 mph (644 km/h), which was almost twice that of contemporary British bombers.
In October 1938, the Ministry rejected their proposal, sceptical about the idea of a wooden plane and the concept of the unarmed bomber. They informed de Havilland that their contribution was best served by building wings for one of the existing bomber aircraft programs. Regardless, de Havilland was convinced the idea was sound and continued development on their own. The support of Sir Wilfrid Freeman eventually proved decisive and a contract for fifty aircraft, including one prototype, was finally placed under B.1/40 on 1 March 1940. Design and prototype construction was able to begin almost immediately, but work was cancelled again after Dunkirk in order to focus on existing types. The need for fighters became extremely pressing, and the contract was reinstated in July, but with the order changed to 20 bombers and 30 heavy fighters. The contract was later changed again, adding a prototype for a dedicated reconnaissance version that was even further stripped down for higher speeds.
The Battle of Britain raged while the prototypes were being built, and 25% of the factory time was lost in the bomb shelters. Nevertheless, the original day bomber prototype, W4050, was rolled out on 19 November 1940, and first flew on 25 November, only 10 months after the go-ahead. The original estimates were that as the Mosquito prototype had twice the surface area and over twice the weight of the 1940 Spitfire Mk II, but also with twice its power, the Mosquito would end up being 20 mph (32 km/h) faster. Over the next few months, W4050 surpassed this estimate, easily besting the Spitfire Mk II in testing at Boscombe Down in February 1941 at a top speed of 392 mph (631 km/h) at 22,000 ft (6,705 m) altitude, compared to a top speed of 360 mph (579 km/h) at 19,500 ft (5,944 m) for the Spitfire. Construction of a prototype Mosquito fighter version was carried out at the secret Salisbury Hall facility, and on 15 May 1941, Geoffrey De Havilland personally flew W4052 off a 450 foot field beside the shed it was built in. The first reconnaissance prototype, W4051, followed on 10 June 1941.
During testing, it was found that the Mosquito day bomber prototype had the power and internal capacity to carry not just the 1,000 lbs of bombs originally specified, but four times that figure. In order to better support the higher loads the aircraft was capable of, the wingspan was increased from 52 ft 6in (16.00 m) to 54 ft 2in (16.51 m). It was also fitted with a larger tailplane, improved exhaust system, and lengthened nacelles that improved stability. These modifications became standard across the production versions.
The bulk of the Mosquito was made of custom plywood. The fuselage was a frameless monocoque shell built by forming up plywood made of 3/8" sheets of Ecuadorean balsawood sandwiched between sheets of Canadian birch. These were formed inside large concrete moulds, each holding one half of the fuselage, split vertically. While the casein-based glue in the plywood dried, carpenters cut a sawtooth joint into their edges while other workers installed the controls and cabling on the inside wall. When the glue was completely dried, the two halves were glued and screwed together. A covering of doped Madapolam (a fine plain woven cotton) fabric completed the unit.
The wings were similar but used different materials and techniques. The wing was built as a single unit, not two sides, based on two birch plywood boxes as spars fore and aft. Plywood ribs and stringers were glued and screwed to form the basic wing shape. The skinning was also birch plywood, one layer thick on the bottom and doubled up on the top. Between the two top layers was another layer of fir stringers. Building up the structure used an enormous number of brass screws, 30,000 per wing. The wing was completed with wooden flaps and aluminum ailerons.
When both parts were complete the fuselage was lowered onto the wing, and once again glued and screwed together. The remainder consisted of wooden horizontal and vertical tail surfaces, with aluminum control surfaces. Engine mounts of welded steel tube were added, along with simple landing gear oleos filled with rubber blocks. The total weight of castings and forgings used in the aircraft was only 280 lbs.
The glue used was initially casein-based. After a series of unexplained crashes of aircraft operating in tropical climates, this was changed to a formaldehyde-based adhesive better able to resist deterioration in high humidity conditions. De Havilland also developed a technique to accelerate drying of the glue by heating it using microwaves.
In England, fuselage shells were mainly made by the furniture companies Ronson, E. Gomme, Parker Knoll and Styles & Mealing. The specialized wood veneer used in the construction of the Mosquito was made by Roddis Manufacturing in Marshfield, Wisconsin, United States. Hamilton Roddis had teams of dexterous young women ironing the (unusually thin) strong wood veneer product before shipping to the UK. Wing spars were made by J.B. Heath and Dancer & Hearne. Many of the other parts, including flaps, flap shrouds, fins, leading edge assemblies and bomb doors were also produced in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, which was well suited to these tasks due to a well established furniture-manufacturing industry. Dancer & Hearne processed much of the wood from start to finish, receiving timber and transforming it into finished wing spars at their High Wycombe factory.
About 5,000 of the 7,781 Mosquitos made contained parts made in High Wycombe. In Canada, fuselages were built in the Oshawa, Ontario plant of General Motors of Canada Limited. These were shipped to De Havilland of Canada in Toronto for mating to fuselages and completion. De Havilland Australia started construction in Sydney. These production lines added 1,134 from Canada and 212 from Australia.
The Mosquito is often described as having been faster than enemy fighters, although this is not completely true. On its introduction to service, the aircraft was about as fast as the front-line German fighters that opposed it, the BF 109F and Fw 190A. Nonetheless the fighters' speed advantage was slim enough that by the time those aircraft could reach interception altitude, the Mosquito would have completed its bombing run and would be racing for home. Advancements in German fighters eventually outpaced performance improvements in the Mosquito, but it was always an elusive target even in daylight.
At night, however, no Luftwaffe aircraft even came close. At the time the Mosquito was introduced, most of the dedicated night fighter groups were equipped with aircraft like the Bf 110 or Junkers Ju 88 of much lower performance. Although there were several attempts to address this by introducing a new night fighter of greatly improved performance, a variety of problems from engine troubles to the intensifying Allied bombing campaign meant that they never matured. The Heinkel He 219 and Junkers Ju 388, that were technically the Mosquito's equal, simply did not enter large-scale production. Their tiny numbers meant they were never a serious threat, and in the night bombing role, the Mosquito went largely unopposed for the entire war.
With the introduction of the nitrous oxide boosted Bf 109s and the jet-powered Me 262 late in the war, the Luftwaffe had interceptors with a clear speed advantage over the Mosquito. The PR Mk 32 photo reconnaissance version of the Mosquito attempted to counter this with long-span wings, special high-altitude superchargers and the elimination of as much weight as possible, raising its cruising altitude to 42,000 ft (12,800 m). Even with these changes, the Mosquito was not totally safe; in December 1944, one was intercepted at maximum altitude.
The first bomber squadrons to receive the Mosquito B IV used it for several low-level daylight raids. One of the first was the Oslo raid on 25 September 1942, carried out by four aircraft of 105 Squadron, after which the Mosquito was publicly revealed for the first time.
Another notable daylight mission was carried out in the morning of 30 January 1943, against a Nazi rally in Berlin, giving the lie to the speaker's (Reichmarschall Hermann Göring's) claim that such a mission was impossible. Not content with this, Mosquitos from 139 Squadron also went to Berlin in the afternoon of the same day and tried to interrupt an important speech by Joseph Goebbels, Germany's Propaganda Minister.
Mosquito bomber versions were used as part of Bomber Command; the Pathfinders in No. 8 Group and the Light Night Strike Force (LNSF). The LNSF carried out high speed night raids with precision aiming and navigation. Their mission was twofold: they targeted small but vital installations; and acted as a diversion from the raids of the heavy bombers, simulating large formations through the use of chaff. On nights when no heavy bomber raid was planned, the LNSF would often strike to deny the German air defences of a rest.
As part of 8 Group Mosquitos took part in many bombing operations as pathfinders, marking targets accurately with flares for later attack by massive formations of heavy bombers. Bomber Command Mosquitos flew over 28,000 operations, dropping 35,000 tons of bombs, and losing just 193 aircraft in the process (a loss rate of 0.7%, compared to a 2.2% loss rate for the four engined heavies). It has been calculated that a Mosquito could be loaded with a 4,000 lb. "cookie" bomb, fly to Germany, drop the bomb, return, bomb up and refuel, fly to Germany again and drop a second 4,000 lb bomb and return, and still land before a Stirling (the slowest of Bomber Command's four-engined bombers) which left at the same time armed with a full bomb load, could strike Germany.
A Mosquito IX also holds the record for the most missions flown by an Allied bomber in the Second World War. LR503, "F for Freddie", first serving with 109 and subsequently 105 Squadron, flew 213 sorties during the war, only to crash on 10 May 1945, two days after VE Day at Calgary airport during a victory tour, an accident attributed to pilot error.
The Mosquito selected for the conversion work to carry Highball was the Mk IV series II: the work entailed removing the bomb bay doors and equipping the aircraft with specialised carriers enabling them to carry two Highballs, each weighing 1,280 lb (580 kg), in tandem. Because the bombs were designed to skip across water and to provide weapon stability and accuracy, before release they were spun backwards at 700 to 900 revolutions per minute by a ram air turbine mounted in the bomb bay's mid section, fed by an extendable air scoop. The bombs were to be dropped from a maximum altitude of 60 ft (18.2 m) at a speed of 360 mph (580 km/h).
In the event, through lack of weapons, training and aircraft, 618 Squadron was kept frustratingly inactive and never attacked Tirpitz. Instead the unit was selected for carrier-borne operations in the Pacific.
For this role 25 Mosquito B Mk IVs were further modified:
These Mosquitoes were transported to Australia on board the carriers HMS Fencer and HMS Striker, arriving on 23 December 1944. In order to keep up aircrew proficiency and safeguard the modified Mosquitoes 12 disassembled FB Mk VIs were also sent, arriving in Sydney in February 1945. These were reassembled at de Havilland Australia's Mascot factory. Once again, because of political-strategic infighting between the British Pacific Fleet and the U.S. military, the unit was never in action, and was disbanded at RAAF Narromine in July 1946.
The converted Mosquitoes were stripped of all military equipment and sold off. The sole surviving 618 Squadron Mosquito, an FB Mk VI HR621, is currently undergoing restoration at the Camden Aviation Museum, NSW.
The first fighter Mosquito introduced into service was the NF Mk II in mid-1942, with four 20 mm Hispano cannon in the fuselage belly and four .303 in. Browning machine-guns mounted in the nose. It carried Aircraft Interception radar (AI) Mk IV / Mk V when operating as a defensive night fighter over the UK, although at the time this was omitted from Mk IIs operating as night "Intruders", roaming over Europe at night to cause maximum disruption to lines of communications and flying operations. These were fitted with a device called Serrate to allow them to track down German night fighters by emissions from their own Lichtenstein B/C, C-1, or SN-2, as well as a device codenamed Perfectos that tracked emissions from German IFF systems.
On 30 May 1942, the NF Mk II scored its first kill and by the end of the war, Mosquito night fighters had claimed approximately 600 enemy aircraft, along with 600 V-1 flying bombs. This variant also operated over Malta, Italy, Sicily and North Africa from late 1942 on. The Mosquito NF XII became the first aircraft to carry the highly effective centimetric radar.
From early 1944, the Mosquito also operated in the bomber support role with Bomber Command's 100 Group, their task being to harass the Luftwaffe NachtJagd (night fighters) attacking the bomber streams over Germany. The Mosquito squadrons of 100 Group used several different marks of Mosquitoes for different purposes: N.F XIXs and NF 30s were used for dedicated nightfighter operations providing escort for the bomber streams; F. Mk IIs and FB Mk VIs were used for "Flower" (patrolling enemy airfields well ahead of the bomber stream and dropping bombs to keep enemy nightfighters on the ground as well as attacking nightfighters in the landing pattern) and "Mahmoud" operations (Mahmouds were mounted independently of Bomber Command activity whereby Mosquitoes flew to known assembly points for German nightfighters (usually visual or radio beacons) and attacked any in the area); B Mk IVs and P.R Mk XVIs were used for Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) operations, using special equipment to detect and identify German radar and radio transmissions. Some 258 Luftwaffe night fighters were claimed destroyed by the Group, for the loss of some 70 Mosquitoes. The omnipresence of the potent night fighter threat led to what the Luftwaffe crews dubbed "Mosquitoschreck" (Mosquito scare), as the German aircrews were never sure when or where they might come under attack from the marauding 100 Group fighters, and indirectly led to a high proportion of aircraft and crew losses from crashes as night fighters hurried in to land to avoid the Mosquito threat (real or imagined).
Mosquito nightfighters continued to operate over Europe until the end of the war with a low casualty rate, in spite of the efforts of the Heinkel He 219-equipped units and Messerschmitt 262 jet fighters which were flown at night by pilots from 10./NJG 11. The commander of this unit, Oberleutnant Kurt Welter, claimed perhaps 25 Mosquitoes shot down by night and two further Mosquitoes by day while flying the Me 262, adding to his previous seven Mosquito kills in "hot-rodded" Bf 109G-6/AS or Fw 190 A-8 fighters. From September 1944 through to May 1945 a total of 92 night-flying Mosquitoes of all marks flying bombing, target marking, intruder and nightfighter operations were lost. As far as can be ascertained, three of his Me 262 claims over Mosquitoes coincide with RAF records.
One of the higher risk uses of the fighter-bomber Mosquito FB VI was by 21 Sqn., 464(RAAF) Squadron and 487(NZ) Squadron of No. 2 Group, 2nd Tactical Air Force in Operation Jericho, a mission to destroy the walls and guards' quarters of Amiens prison to allow members of the French Resistance to escape. In the aftermath of the operation the Mosquito of Group Captain Percy Pickard was shot down.
On 11 April 1944, after a request by Dutch resistance workers, six Mosquito FB VIs of No. 613 (City of Manchester) Squadron made a pinpoint attack at rooftop height on the Kunstzaal Kleizkamp Art Gallery in The Hague, Netherlands, which was being used by the Gestapo to store the Dutch Central Population Registry. Their bombs, a mixture of high explosive and incendiary, went in through the doors and windows, and the records were destroyed. Only persons in the building were killed - nearby civilians in a bread queue were unharmed.
On 21 March 1945, another similar raid, Operation Carthage, again by 21 Sqn., 464(RAAF) Sqn. and 487(NZ) Sqn. involved a very low-level bombing attack on the Gestapo headquarters in the Shellhus, near the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark. The attack had been requested several times by members of the Danish resistance, but was initially deemed too dangerous by the RAF. Twenty Mosquitos were involved, split into three attack waves. They were escorted by 30 RAF Mustangs. The main attack on the Gestapo headquarters caused the death of 55 German soldiers and 47 Danes working for the Gestapo, together with destruction of the Gestapo records in the headquarters. Eight Gestapo prisoners were killed while 18 prisoners escaped. A Mosquito flying in the first wave of the attack struck a tall lamp-post and crashed into a nearby Catholic school (the French school). Mosquitos of the third wave bombed this area by mistake, killing 86 children, 10 nuns, 8 teachers, and 21 other civilians; no civilians had been killed during the main attack. Four Mosquitos were lost and nine pilots/crew members died. The attack saved the lives of many resistance workers as the Gestapo archives and organisation were severely damaged.
In 1945, an RAF PR Mk XVI Mosquito of Eastern Air Command operating out of airfields in Burma set a twin-engine record on a single photo-reconnaissance mission covering 2,400 miles in 8 hours and 50 minutes. The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) ordered 120 Mosquitos for photographic reconnaissance, but only 40 were delivered and given the U.S. designation F-8 (six Canadian-built B Mk VII and 34 B Mk XX). Only 16 reached Europe, where 11 were turned over to the RAF and five were sent to Italy. The RAF provided 145 PR Mk XVI aircraft to the Eighth Air Force between 22 April 1944 and the end of the war. These were used for a variety of photographic and night reconnaissance missions.
Because Sweden was neutral, the aircraft carried civilian markings and were operated by crews who were nominally "civilian employees" of BOAC. They carried small, high value cargoes such as precision ball bearings and machine-tool steel. Occasionally, important passengers were carried in an improvised cabin in the bomb bay, one notable passenger being the physicist Niels Bohr, who was evacuated from Stockholm in 1943 in an unarmed Mosquito sent by the RAF. The flight almost ended in tragedy as Bohr did not don his oxygen equipment as instructed, and passed out. He would have died had not the pilot, surmising from Bohr's lack of response to intercom communication that he had lost consciousness, descended to a lower altitude for the remainder of the flight. Bohr's comment was that he had slept like a baby for the entire flight.
Sweden purchased 60 ex-RAF Mk XIX Mosquitos in 1948 to be used as a night fighter under the J 30 designation. The aircraft were assigned to the F1 Wing at Västerås, thereby becoming the first (and only) dedicated night fighter unit of the Swedish Air Force. Its Mosquitos were replaced by jet fighters, de Havilland Venom Mk 51s, (designated J 33) in 1953. One-third of the J 30s crashed or broke down during service, mainly due to rudder problems. Swedish Air Force General Björn Bjuggren wrote in his memoirs that mechanical problems in the swivelling nose-mounted radar antenna caused destructive vibrations that broke apart one or two J 30s in the air.
The original Mosquito design dated from 1938, but it was not until March 1940 that there was sufficient interest in the aircraft for construction to commence. Three prototypes were built, each with a different configuration. The first to fly was the bomber prototype W4050 on 25 November 1940, followed by the night fighter model on 15 May 1941 and the photo-reconnaissance model on 10 June 1941.
Ninety-seven NF Mk IIs were upgraded with centrimetric AI Mk VIII radar and these were designated the Mosquito NF.Mk XII. The Mosquito NF Mk XIII, of which 270 were built, was the production equivalent of the Mk XII conversions. The centimetric radar sets were mounted in a solid "thimble" (Mk XII / XIII) or "bull nose" (Mk XVII / XIX) radome, which required the machine guns to be dispensed with. The other night fighter variants were the Mk XV, Mk XVII (converted Mk IIs), Mk XIX and Mk 30. The last three marks mounted the U.S.-built AI Mk X radar.
After the war, two more night fighter versions were developed, the NF Mk 36 and the NF Mk 38.
To warn German night fighters that they were being tracked by these radars, the Germans introduced Naxos ZR radar detectors.
Mosquito night intruders of No. 100 Group RAF, Bomber Command, were also fitted with a device called "Serrate" to allow them to track down German night fighters from their Lichtenstein B/C and SN-2 radar emissions, as well as a device named "Perfectos" that tracked German IFF.
Other fighter-bomber variants were the Mosquito FB Mk XVIII (sometimes known as the Tsetse) of which 27 were made by converting Mk VIs. These were fitted with a Molins 57 mm '6-pounder Class M' cannon, a QF 6 pounder anti-tank gun modified with an auto-loader to allow both semi- or fully-automatic fire, in the nose, along with two .303 in (7.7 mm) sighting machine guns. The Air Ministry initially suspected that this variant would not work, but mock tests proved otherwise. Although the gun provided the Mosquito with yet more anti-shipping firepower to pit against U-boats, it required a steady and vulnerable approach-run to aim and fire the gun, thus making rockets more effective, especially because Mosquitos without the 6 pounder didn't suffer the weight penalty of the gun. Despite the preference for rockets, a further development of the idea was carried out using the even larger 32-pounder, a gun based on the QF 3.7 inch AA gun, the airborne version using a novel form of muzzle brake. Developed to prove the feasibility of using such a large weapon in the Mosquito, this installation was not completed until after the war when it was flown and fired in a single aircraft without problems before being scrapped. The FB Mk 26 and FB Mk 40, based on the Mk VI, were built in Canada and Australia and were powered by Packard-built Merlin engines.
All the fighter variants shared a number of common features. They had a flat, single-piece armoured windscreen and the pilot was provided with a fighter-style control stick rather than a wheel. The guns in the nose also meant that the bomber variants' entry hatch in the nose had to be relocated to a door on the starboard side, forward of the leading edge.
There are believed to be around 30 preserved examples at various collections including the Royal Air Force Museum at Hendon and another (KB336) at the Canadian Aviation Museum in Ottawa. The wooden construction makes restoration difficult.
As of 2004, the original prototype, serial number W4050, was undergoing complete restoration in the de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre in Hertfordshire, UK. A restored example is currently on display in the World War II gallery at the National Museum of the United States Air Force. This Mosquito is a British-built B Mk 35 manufactured in 1946, later converted for target-towing, and is similar to the PR Mk XVIs used by the AAF. Having been flown to the Museum in February 1985, suffering several breakdowns along the way and taking many months to arrive, this aircraft has now been restored to a Mk XVI configuration and painted to represent a weather reconnaissance aircraft of the 653rd Bomb Squadron, 25th Bomb Group, based in England in 1944-1945.
Another Mosquito is currently under restoration, involving the fabrication of new fuselage sections by volunteers at the Royal Australian Air Force Museum in Point Cook, Victoria, Australia. Given the poor state of the aircraft (PR XVI A52-600) when obtained and the nature of the aircraft's fabrication, along with money and labour issues at the museum, it is estimated that it will be in excess of 10 years before this Mosquito is complete.
The last Mosquito known to be airworthy (serial number RR299), a T Mk III built sometime between October 1944 and July 1945, crashed on 21 July 1996 with the loss of both crew after stalling during a banked turn at an airshow at the Barton Aerodrome near Barton, Greater Manchester.
Several potential and current restorations to airworthiness exist. Glyn Powell located in Papakura, New Zealand has built a mould for the wooden fuselage, and CHAA bought the very first fuselage ever sold. Glynn has also supplied a fuselage to Avspecs as well as the main wing which was delivered in October 2007. A flying replica using new wood but otherwise original parts (from T.43 NZ2305) is under construction by Glyn for his own use. Another in New Zealand, KA114, is being restored for American collector Jerry Yagen by Avspecs, and it is highly likely that this will become the first airworthy Mosquito since 1996. The Mosquito B 35 held in the Experimental Aircraft Association, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA was airworthy when owner Kermit Weeks loaned it to the museum. However it has not flown since 1996.
During 1963 Lynn Garrison purchased a B 35 Mosquito RS-700/CF-HMS from Spartan Air Services as part of his collection of historic aircraft. It was disassembled by volunteers at DeHavilland of Canada and transported to Calgary, Alberta, by the Canadian Pacific Railway where it was stored in the Shell Oil pipe yard for some time. It is now on loan to the aviation museum in Calgary. Lynn Garrison still holds the Title.
The Canadian Historical Aircraft Association (CHAA) based in Windsor, Ontario is building a Mosquito from scratch. They have two unused engines still in the crates and some parts retrieved from a crash in the Arctic.
In Vancouver B.C., Mosquito VR796 (CF-HML) is currently under restoration at the Vancouver South Airport area. This is an ex-Spartan Air Services Aircraft and is a postwar B Mk35. It is in excellent condition and not far from becoming airworthy.
Mosquitoes also play the title role of the 1969 film Mosquito Squadron, starring David McCallum and Charles Gray.