refers to the very special case of single-subject scientific
experimentation in which the experimenter conducts the experiment
on her- or himself. Usually this means that the designer, operator, subject, analyst, and user or reporter of the experiment are all the same. It is a special case of single-subject research
Human scientific self-experimentation principally (though not necessarily) falls into the fields of medicine and psychology, broadly conceived. Self-experimentation has a long and well-documented history in medicine which continues to the present. In psychology, the best known self-experiments are the memory studies of Hermann Ebbinghaus
, establishing many basic characteristics of human memory through tedious experiments involving nonsense syllables.
Recently, Dr. Seth Roberts and Dr. Allen Neuringer have advocated the broader use of self-experimentation, arguing that its low-cost and ease (compared to traditional large-sample experiments with human subjects) facilitate conducting a very large number of experiments, testing many treatments and measuring many things at once. This allows considerable trial and error and can lead to the generation and testing of many ideas. Self-experimentation provides superior evidence to mere anecdotal evidence, because the entire experimental is explicitly designed to test a hypothesis, but is subject to observer bias. Self-experimentation could be considered a useful adjunct to large-sample experiments in scientific research.
The self-experimental approach has long and often been applied to practical psychological problems. Benjamin Franklin
recorded his self-experiment of successively devoting his attention for a week to one of thirteen "Virtues", "leaving the other Virtues to their ordinary Chance, only marking every Evening the Faults of the Day." In Self-change: Strategies for solving personal problems
, M. J. Mahoney suggested that self-experimentation be used as a method of psychological treatment. He recommended that clients be taught basic scientific methods, in order that the client become a "personal scientist." And with achieving an experiment, he/she may continue to do so with pride.
Until recently, it was common practice among synthetic chemists
newly prepared compounds. The purpose was to provide an additional characteristic for identification
, taking advantage of the selective chemical receptors
that form this sense. However, as one might guess, this practice also led to numerous fatalities and near-fatalities. Surprisingly, it was not recognition of the risk of this self-experimentation that led to its extinction, but rather the advent of instrumentation capable of exacting physical characterization of compounds (particularly spectrometers
selectivity). The routine tasting of new compounds by chemists of bygone times is, in fact, the main source of knowledge of the human toxicity
for certain chemicals.
This practice had positive and negative aspects. It probably contributed to the death of Carl Wilhelm Scheele from apparent mercury poisoning. Joseph Priestley discovered soda water while experimenting with carbon dioxide and tasting the results. Dr. Albert Hofmann discovered the psychedelic properties of LSD by accidentally absorbing it—and later intentionally ingesting it—in a self-experiment.
In 1998 a British scientist, Kevin Warwick
, became the first human to test an RFID
as an implant to control surrounding technology. In 2002 he went on to have an array of 100 electrodes fired into the median nerve
of his left arm during a 2-hour neurosurgical operation. With this implant in place, over a 3-month period, he conducted a number of experiments including the first direct electronic communication between the nervous systems of two humans.
Self-experimentation is a common trait amongst mad scientists
and evil geniuses
, and is part of the creation story of many comic book supervillains
, and some superheroes
. For example, the Spider-Man
villain, The Lizard
, was Dr. Curt Connors, who lost his arm in a war (other versions vary), and experimented with reptilian DNA to try and grow it back; but the therapy caused him to mutate into a half-human-half-reptile creature. On the hero side, the Fantastic Four
were created when they were testing Reed Richards new prototype rocket and were exposed to cosmic rays, giving them super powers. Other cases include the Man-Bat
, the Ultra-Humanite
, the Green Goblin
, and the animated Justice League
version of Cheetah
Examples in older fiction include the tales of The Invisible Man and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In each case the scientist's unorthodox theories lead to permanent change and ultimately to self-destruction.
- Principal source: Self-Experimentation, by Seth Roberts and Allen Neuringer, in Handbook of Research Methods in Human Operant Behavior
- Other sources: Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, Part 2