There is no information about his birth place. Aban spent most of his life in the company of Ahl al-Bayt and studied under them.
He was also a close companion of Imam Ali Zayn al-Abidin ibn Husayn, Imam Muhammad al-Baqir and Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq and studied various branches of science particularly hadith from them and attained a prominent position in the school of Imam al-Sadiq. Aban is famous to have quoted extensively from Imam Sadiq and it is reported that he narrated thirty thousand hadiths from him. He is also considered as the most outstanding Quranic reciter and his style of Quranic recitation is very famous among the reciters.
He was considered master in the Quran, traditions, jurisprudence, literature, syntax and philology. Shaykh Tusi has reported that once Imam al-Sadiq appointed him to conduct scholarly discourse against one of the pretenders. Imam Sadiq said to him "Sit in the Masjid of the Prophet and in the religious issues give verdict to the people. I love to have my Shia like Aban ibn Taghlib."
Shi'ite scholars consider him reliable and the Sunni scholars such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Yahya ibn Mu'in, Abu Hatam and al-Nasa'i also has confirmed him. The books compiled by Aban are now missing but the books ascribed to him in the catalogues are as follows:
1 - Ma'ani al-Quran
2 - Kitab al-Qira'at
3 - Al-Garib fil-Quran
4 - Al-Fadail
5 - Kitab Siffin