Definitions

Evans

Evans

[ev-uhnz]
Evans, Sir Arthur John, 1851-1941, English archaeologist. He was (1884-1908) keeper of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. From 1900 to 1935 he conducted excavations on the Greek island of Crete, principally at Knossos, and there uncovered the remains of a previously unknown ancient culture, which he named the Minoan civilization. He devised a Minoan chronology spanning several thousand years that is still considered essentially accurate. Evans devoted considerable time and expense to the reconstruction of the most impressive feature of the civilization, the palace. The Palace of Minos at Knossos as restored by Evans is based on fragmentary evidence and has proven quite controversial, as have his interpretations of Minoan religion. His writings include Cretan Pictographs and Prae-Phoenician Script (1895), The Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult (1901), and The Palace of Minos (4 vol., 1921-35).

See biography by J. Evans (1943); J. A. MacGillivary, Minotaur: Sir Arthur Evans and the Archaeology of the Minoan Myth (2000).

Evans, Augusta Jane, 1835-1909, American novelist, b. Columbus, Ga. Of her sentimental, moralistic novels, St. Elmo (1866) achieved greatest popularity.
Evans, Caradoc, 1883-1945, Anglo-Welsh novelist and short-story writer. His chief works are his short-story collections, My People (1915), Capel Sion (1916), and My Neighbors (1919), and his novel Nothing to Pay (1930). His writings express a harsh and bitter criticism of his people.

See biographies by his wife, and also by O. Sandys (1946), and T. L. Williams (1970).

Evans, Charles, 1850-1935, American librarian and bibliographer, b. Boston. He organized many major American libraries including the Indianapolis public library, the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, and the Omaha public library. He also classified the Newberry Library in Chicago. An authority on American literature, Evans published American Bibliography (1903-55), a chronological directory of all material published in the United States from 1639 to 1820.
Evans, Dame Edith, 1888-1976, English actress. After her stage debut in 1912, Evans toured with Ellen Terry. Known for her resonant voice, she worked with the Old Vic (1925-26) and had a distinguished career on the stage and in films. She was celebrated for her performances in Elizabethan, Restoration, and 18th-century drama, as well as in modern works. Evans was made Dame of the British Empire in 1946. Her notable films include The Importance of Being Earnest (1953), Tom Jones (1963), The Whisperers (1967), and A Doll's House (1973).

See study by J. C. Trewin (1954).

Evans, Frederick H., 1853-1943, English photographer. Evans retired from bookselling in 1898 when he began his photographic career. He became internationally famous for his exquisite platinotype images of architectural subjects, principally English cathedrals, manors, and cloisters. Refusing to manipulate his prints in any way, Evans rendered the cool, massive stone buildings with an unsurpassed grandeur in straightforward contact prints from his plates. He exhibited and wrote extensively and was widely, if unsuccessfully, imitated. He ceased making prints in 1915 when platinum was no longer commercially available.
Evans, George Henry, 1805-56, American labor and agrarian reformer, b. England. After emigrating (1820) to New York City, he edited several newspapers, among them the Workingman's Advocate. He also led a number of workingman's parties from 1827 to 1837. His agrarian reform programs included the right of free homesteads for all.
Evans, John, 1814-97, American founder of educational institutions, b. Waynesville, Ohio, grad. Lynn Medical College, Cincinnati, 1838. He practiced medicine in Indiana and was the first superintendent (1845) of the state hospital for the insane, which he had helped establish. In 1848 he went to Chicago as professor of obstetrics at Rush Medical School. He invested in real estate and helped found Northwestern Univ. in Evanston, Ill., a city named for him. Evans served (1862-65) as governor of Colorado Territory and later worked for the promotion of what is now the Univ. of Denver.

See biography by H. E. Kelsey, Jr. (1969).

Evans, Sir John, 1823-1908, English archaeologist, geologist, and numismatist. A president of the Royal Numismatic Society and of the Society of Antiquaries, he was active also in public welfare and was an authority on water supply. Part of his coin collection is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
Evans, Lewis, c.1700-1756, colonial surveyor and geographer, b. Wales. Evans carried out several assignments for Benjamin Franklin. His travels and studies of the colonies nearest him bore fruit in two maps, A Map of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and the Three Delaware Counties (1749, rev. ed. 1752) and A General Map of the Middle British Colonies in America published together with an Analysis (1755). The first of these was used by migrating colonists for the excellent detail of the roads. The second was used by General Braddock during the French and Indian War, and was published many times over by London firms. In the Analysis he drew particular attention to the Ohio River and suggested ways and means of acquiring it by force from the French. His Brief Account of Pennsylvania (1753) was reprinted in the biography by L. H. Gipson (1939).
Evans, Luther Harris, 1902-81, American librarian and political scientist, b. Bastrop co., Tex. After teaching political science at several universities, he became director of the Historical Records Survey under the Work Projects Administration (1935). In 1939 he was appointed director of the legislative reference service of the Library of Congress. Evans was chief assistant librarian of Congress from 1940 to 1945, when he was appointed Librarian. From 1953 to 1958 he was director-general of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Evans was Director of International and Legal Collections, Columbia Univ. Libraries, from 1962 to 1967.
Evans, Sir Martin John, British geneticist, Ph.D., University College London, 1969. After serving on the faculty at University College London (1966-78) and Cambridge (1978-99), he became a professor at Cardiff Univ. in 1999. With Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies, Evans received the 2007 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for developing gene targeting, a powerful technology that enables virtually unlimited modification of mouse DNA and has thereby laid the foundation for scientists to ascertain the roles played by individual genes in disease. Evans's critical contribution to the work was his discovery that early mouse embryos, now known as embryonic stem cells, could be used to establish the chromosomally normal cell cultures needed to carry out gene targeting.
Evans, Mary Ann or Marian: see Eliot, George.
Evans, Maurice, 1901-89, Welsh-American actor. Evans came into prominence in 1928 and in 1934 was a leading man with the Old Vic. He first appeared on Broadway in 1936 in Romeo and Juliet with Katharine Cornell. Evans gained acclaim as a Shakespearean actor in such roles as King Richard II (1937), Hamlet (1938), and Macbeth (1941). He was also noted for his productions of Shaw's works. Evans's films include Androcles and the Lion (1952), Macbeth (1959), and Planet of the Apes (1967). He performed in many classic dramas on television.
Evans, Oliver, 1755-1819, American inventor, b. near Newport, Del. He joined his brothers in a flour-milling business in Wilmington, and after studying similar earlier devices, he developed, installed, and patented a number of grain-handling machines. These inventions included an elevator, a conveyor, a descender, and a hopper boy; a generation later they were standard equipment in U.S. mills. The flour mill he built in the 1780s was completely automatic, constituting the first continuous-flow production line in history. His Young Mill-Wright & Miller's Guide (1795) went through many editions. After experimenting with a steam carriage to run on ordinary roads, Evans turned his attention to stationary steam engines. He was a pioneer in the building of high-pressure engines, and after establishing the Mars Iron Works in 1807 built about 50 engines, most of them used in pumping. He built the first steam river dredge to be used in the United States, bringing it to the river under its own power.
Evans, Walker, 1903-75, American photographer, b. St. Louis. Evans began his photographic career in 1928. His studies of Victorian architecture and his photographs of the rural South during the Great Depression, made for the Farm Security Administration, are among his best-known works. Many of Evans's photographs of tenant farmers appeared in the book Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941, with text by James Agee). Evans's other books include American Photographs (1938) and Message from the Interior (1966). His work is characterized by a spare precision that emphasizes the dignity of his subjects.

See biographies by B. Rathbone (1995) and J. R. Mellow (1999); Walker Evans (Mus. of Modern Art, 1971); Walker Evans and Unclassified: A Walker Evans Anthology (both: Metropolitan Mus. of Art, 2000).

Evans, Mount, peak, 14,260 ft (4,346 m) high, N central Colo., in the Front Range of the Rocky Mts. At its summit is the Inter-University High Altitude Laboratory.

(born Nov. 3, 1903, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.—died April 10, 1975, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. photographer. He was influenced early by the photographs of Eugène Atget. In 1934 his images of New England architecture were exhibited in the first one-man photographic show at the Museum of Modern Art. From 1935 he photographed rural victims of the Great Depression for the Farm Security Administration; these images were published in American Photographs (1938). He collaborated with James Agee to document the life of Alabama sharecroppers in Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941). Evans's photographs appeared without h1s or comment, in a section separate from Agee's text, yet the whole constitutes one of the finest collaborations between a photographer and a writer. He was later an editor of Fortune magazine (1945–65) and a professor at Yale University (1965–74).

Learn more about Evans, Walker with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 8, 1851, Nash Mills, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died July 11, 1941, Youlbury, near Oxford, Oxfordshire) British archaeologist. Son of the archaeologist Sir John Evans, he served as a curator (1884–1908) at Oxford's Ashmolean Museum. Beginning in 1899 he devoted several decades to excavating the ruins of the ancient city of Knossos in Crete, uncovering evidence of a sophisticated Bronze Age civilization that he named Minoan. His work, one of archaeology's major achievements, greatly advanced the study of European and eastern Mediterranean prehistory. He published his definitive account in The Palace of Minos, 4 vol. (1921–36).

Learn more about Evans, Sir Arthur (John) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 13, 1755, near Newport, Del.—died April 15, 1819, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. inventor. Evans began early to apply himself to industrial problems. He invented an improved carding device for use in the newly mechanized production of textiles. In 1784 he built a flour mill, for which he created the first continuous production line in any industry: all movement was automatic, power being supplied by waterwheels, and grain was passed by conveyors and chutes through the stages of milling and refining to emerge as finished flour. His high-pressure steam engine (patented 1790) deserves to share the credit for the invention often given solely to Richard Trevithick. His Amphibious Digger (1805), a steam-engine scow that could run on both land and water, was the first powered road vehicle to operate in the U.S. His Mars Iron Works (founded 1806) made more than 100 steam engines for use with screw presses for processing cotton, tobacco, and paper.

Learn more about Evans, Oliver with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 3, 1901, Dorchester, Dorset, Eng.—died March 12, 1989, Rottingdean, East Sussex) British-born U.S. actor. He made his professional stage debut in 1926 and achieved his first success in Journey's End (1929). He moved to the U.S. in 1935 and triumphed in Shakespearean roles on Broadway. During World War II he entertained U.S. troops with a short version of Hamlet. He later starred in Broadway revivals of four George Bernard Shaw comedies, notably Man and Superman (1947). His greatest Broadway hit was Dial M for Murder (1952). He starred in a television production of Macbeth (1961, Emmy Award) and appeared in 17 films, including Rosemary's Baby (1968).

Learn more about Evans, Maurice (Herbert) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 3, 1901, Dorchester, Dorset, Eng.—died March 12, 1989, Rottingdean, East Sussex) British-born U.S. actor. He made his professional stage debut in 1926 and achieved his first success in Journey's End (1929). He moved to the U.S. in 1935 and triumphed in Shakespearean roles on Broadway. During World War II he entertained U.S. troops with a short version of Hamlet. He later starred in Broadway revivals of four George Bernard Shaw comedies, notably Man and Superman (1947). His greatest Broadway hit was Dial M for Murder (1952). He starred in a television production of Macbeth (1961, Emmy Award) and appeared in 17 films, including Rosemary's Baby (1968).

Learn more about Evans, Maurice (Herbert) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Mary Ann Evans later Marian Evans

George Eliot, chalk drawing by F.W. Burton, 1865; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Nov. 22, 1819, Chilvers Coton, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Dec. 22, 1880, London) British novelist. Eliot was raised with a strong evangelical piety but broke with religious orthodoxy in her 20s. She worked as a translator, a critic, and a subeditor of the Westminster Review (1851–54). Later she turned to fiction. Adopting a masculine pseudonym to evade prejudice against women novelists, she first brought out Scenes of Clerical Life (1858). This was followed by such classic works as Adam Bede (1859), The Mill on the Floss (1860), Silas Marner (1861), Romola (1862–63), Felix Holt, the Radical (1866), and Daniel Deronda (1876). Her masterpiece, Middlemarch (1871–72), provides a thorough study of every class of provincial society. The method of psychological analysis she developed would become characteristic of modern fiction. With the journalist, philosopher, and critic George Henry Lewes (1817–78), a married man, she enjoyed a long and happy, though scandalous, liaison; their Sunday-afternoon salons were a brilliant feature of Victorian life.

Learn more about Eliot, George with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 11, 1862, Glens Falls, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 27, 1948, Osterville, Mass.) U.S. jurist and statesman. He became prominent in 1905 as counsel to New York legislative committees investigating abuses in the life insurance and utilities industries. His two terms as governor of New York (1906–10) were marked by extensive reform. He was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1910 but resigned in 1916 to run as the Republican presidential candidate. After losing the election to Woodrow Wilson in a close race, he returned to his law practice. As secretary of state (1921–25), he planned and chaired the Washington Conference (1921–22). He served as a member of the Hague Tribunal (1926–30) and the Permanent Court of International Justice (1928–30) before being appointed chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1930 by Pres. Herbert Hoover. He led the court through the great controversies arising out the New Deal legislation of Pres. Franklin Roosevelt. Although generally favouring the exercise of government power, he spoke for the court in invalidating (in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. U.S.) a principal New Deal statute, and he attacked Roosevelt's court-packing plan (1937). He wrote the opinion sustaining collective bargaining under the Wagner Act. He served until 1941.

Learn more about Hughes, Charles Evans with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 26, 1853, London, Eng.—died June 24, 1943, London) British photographer. He first attracted attention as a popular London bookseller and champion of the work of George Bernard Shaw and Aubrey Beardsley. Around 1890 he began to photograph English and French cathedrals, and from 1898 he devoted himself exclusively to photography. His belief that only static views of idealized beauty were worth photographing clashed with the early 20th-century tendency to photograph fleeting images, but his architectural photographs are considered among the world's finest.

Learn more about Evans, Frederick H(enry) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 26, 1853, London, Eng.—died June 24, 1943, London) British photographer. He first attracted attention as a popular London bookseller and champion of the work of George Bernard Shaw and Aubrey Beardsley. Around 1890 he began to photograph English and French cathedrals, and from 1898 he devoted himself exclusively to photography. His belief that only static views of idealized beauty were worth photographing clashed with the early 20th-century tendency to photograph fleeting images, but his architectural photographs are considered among the world's finest.

Learn more about Evans, Frederick H(enry) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 3, 1903, St. Louis, Mo., U.S.—died April 10, 1975, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. photographer. He was influenced early by the photographs of Eugène Atget. In 1934 his images of New England architecture were exhibited in the first one-man photographic show at the Museum of Modern Art. From 1935 he photographed rural victims of the Great Depression for the Farm Security Administration; these images were published in American Photographs (1938). He collaborated with James Agee to document the life of Alabama sharecroppers in Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (1941). Evans's photographs appeared without h1s or comment, in a section separate from Agee's text, yet the whole constitutes one of the finest collaborations between a photographer and a writer. He was later an editor of Fortune magazine (1945–65) and a professor at Yale University (1965–74).

Learn more about Evans, Walker with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 8, 1851, Nash Mills, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died July 11, 1941, Youlbury, near Oxford, Oxfordshire) British archaeologist. Son of the archaeologist Sir John Evans, he served as a curator (1884–1908) at Oxford's Ashmolean Museum. Beginning in 1899 he devoted several decades to excavating the ruins of the ancient city of Knossos in Crete, uncovering evidence of a sophisticated Bronze Age civilization that he named Minoan. His work, one of archaeology's major achievements, greatly advanced the study of European and eastern Mediterranean prehistory. He published his definitive account in The Palace of Minos, 4 vol. (1921–36).

Learn more about Evans, Sir Arthur (John) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 13, 1755, near Newport, Del.—died April 15, 1819, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. inventor. Evans began early to apply himself to industrial problems. He invented an improved carding device for use in the newly mechanized production of textiles. In 1784 he built a flour mill, for which he created the first continuous production line in any industry: all movement was automatic, power being supplied by waterwheels, and grain was passed by conveyors and chutes through the stages of milling and refining to emerge as finished flour. His high-pressure steam engine (patented 1790) deserves to share the credit for the invention often given solely to Richard Trevithick. His Amphibious Digger (1805), a steam-engine scow that could run on both land and water, was the first powered road vehicle to operate in the U.S. His Mars Iron Works (founded 1806) made more than 100 steam engines for use with screw presses for processing cotton, tobacco, and paper.

Learn more about Evans, Oliver with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Dame Edith Evans as Mrs. Ross in The Whisperers, 1967.

(born Feb. 8, 1888, London, Eng.—died Oct. 14, 1976, Cranbrook, Kent) British actress. She made her stage debut as Cressida in William Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida (1912) and joined the Old Vic company in 1925. One of the finest actresses of the 20th century, she appeared in London and on Broadway in plays by Shakespeare, George Bernard Shaw, and Noël Coward. She played Lady Bracknell in Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest on stage and screen (1952). Her other films include Look Back in Anger (1959), Tom Jones (1963), The Chalk Garden (1964), and The Whisperers (1967).

Learn more about Evans, Dame Edith (Mary) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Dame Edith Evans as Mrs. Ross in The Whisperers, 1967.

(born Feb. 8, 1888, London, Eng.—died Oct. 14, 1976, Cranbrook, Kent) British actress. She made her stage debut as Cressida in William Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida (1912) and joined the Old Vic company in 1925. One of the finest actresses of the 20th century, she appeared in London and on Broadway in plays by Shakespeare, George Bernard Shaw, and Noël Coward. She played Lady Bracknell in Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest on stage and screen (1952). Her other films include Look Back in Anger (1959), Tom Jones (1963), The Chalk Garden (1964), and The Whisperers (1967).

Learn more about Evans, Dame Edith (Mary) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 11, 1862, Glens Falls, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 27, 1948, Osterville, Mass.) U.S. jurist and statesman. He became prominent in 1905 as counsel to New York legislative committees investigating abuses in the life insurance and utilities industries. His two terms as governor of New York (1906–10) were marked by extensive reform. He was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1910 but resigned in 1916 to run as the Republican presidential candidate. After losing the election to Woodrow Wilson in a close race, he returned to his law practice. As secretary of state (1921–25), he planned and chaired the Washington Conference (1921–22). He served as a member of the Hague Tribunal (1926–30) and the Permanent Court of International Justice (1928–30) before being appointed chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1930 by Pres. Herbert Hoover. He led the court through the great controversies arising out the New Deal legislation of Pres. Franklin Roosevelt. Although generally favouring the exercise of government power, he spoke for the court in invalidating (in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. U.S.) a principal New Deal statute, and he attacked Roosevelt's court-packing plan (1937). He wrote the opinion sustaining collective bargaining under the Wagner Act. He served until 1941.

Learn more about Hughes, Charles Evans with a free trial on Britannica.com.

The City of Evans is a Home Rule Municipality located in Weld County, Colorado, United States. The population was 9,514 at the 2000 census, and estimated at 17,912 as of July 1, 2007, by the Census Bureau. Long considered the "second" city of Weld County and a vigorous competitor with its neighbor, Greeley, for the Weld County seat, today Evans has accepted its status as a bedroom community of workers for Greeley and other cities. Named for Territorial Governor John Evans, Evans was established in 1867 and was Weld County's seat of government twice before Greeley finally captured the honor. Legend in Evans is that the county records were stolen by night-riders from Greeley, who also supposedly burned the courthouse. Today, Evans, like other towns along the South Platte River, is home to a rapidly-growing Hispanic population. Its primary commercial area is located on US-85 just south of its junction with US-34, but new commercial areas are developing as the city expands to the west.

Geography

Evans is located at (40.379310, -104.710450).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.8 square miles (9.9 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 9,514 people, 3,277 households, and 2,359 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,489.9 people per square mile (961.6/km²). There were 3,404 housing units at an average density of 890.9/sq mi (344.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 71.08% White, 0.79% African American, 1.28% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 22.45% from other races, and 3.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 40.08% of the population.

There were 3,277 households out of which 43.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.0% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.33.

In the city the population was spread out with 32.1% under the age of 18, 14.2% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 15.2% from 45 to 64, and 6.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,158, and the median income for a family was $42,983. Males had a median income of $30,938 versus $22,946 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,329. About 9.8% of families and 14.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.6% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.

Estimated population in 2006 was 17,264, making Evans one of the fastest growing cities in the state.

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