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Eudocia, d. 460, Roman empress of the East; daughter of an Athenian Sophist. She was selected by Pulcheria as the wife of Theodosius II, whom she married (421) after being baptized and changing her name from Athenaïs to Eudocia. She became powerful at court, but the victim of intrigues, she retired to Jerusalem, where she devoted herself to literary and charitable work. She embraced Eutychianism (see Eutyches) but finally returned to orthodoxy.

See C. Diehl, Byzantine Portraits (1906, tr. 1927).

(born 1021, Constantinople, Byzantine Empire—died 1096, Constantinople) Byzantine empress and regent, called the wisest woman of her time. As the wife of Constantine X Ducas, she became regent for her three sons after his death (1067). To fend off the Seljuq Turks, she married a Cappadocian general, Romanus Diogenes (later Romanus IV Diogenes). After his capture at the Battle of Manzikert (1071), Eudocia and her son Michael ruled jointly and deposed Romanus. After Michael succeeded to the throne, Eudocia entered a convent.

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