Definitions

eudemon'istic

Latin declension

Latin is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. A set of declined forms of the same word pattern is called a declension. There are five declensions, which are numbered and grouped by ending and grammatical gender. For simple declension paradigms, visit the Wiktionary appendices: Appendix:Latin first declension, Appendix:Latin second declension, Appendix:Latin third declension, Appendix:Latin fourth declension, Appendix:Latin fifth declension.

Grammatical cases

A complete Latin noun declension consists of seven grammatical cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, and locative.

This sequence (NOM-VOC-ACC-GEN-DAT-ABL-LOC) has been the usual order taught in Britain and many Commonwealth countries since the publication of Hall Kennedy's Latin Primer (1866). It reflects the tendencies of different cases to share similar endings (see Syncretic trends below). For a discussion of other sequences taught elsewhere, see Instruction in Latin#Order of cases.

Comparisons to English usage

  • The nominative case marks the subject of a statement and is also used with a copula: "Mary is going to the store" or "Mary is my sister".
  • The genitive case expresses possession, measurement, or source. In English, the genitive case is represented analytically by the preposition of or by the enclitic "–'s", which itself developed from the genitive case. This "–'s" closely resembles the Latin third declension's genitive suffix "–is".
  • The dative case marks the recipient of an action, the indirect object of a verb. In English, the prepositions to, from and for tend to denote this case analytically.
  • The accusative case marks the direct object of a verb. In English, except for a small number of words which display a distinct accusative case (e.g., who/whom, I/me, he/him), the accusative and nominative cases are identical.
  • The ablative case expresses separation, indirection, or the means by which an action is performed. In English, the prepositions by, with, from, in and on are most commonly used to indicate this case.
  • The vocative case is used to address someone or something in direct speech. In English, this function is expressed by intonation or punctuation: "Mary, are you going to the store?" or "Mary!" ("Mary" is vocative). Historically, English-language noun paradigms translated this case with a prefaced interjection such as "O Mary!"
  • The locative case expresses the place where or time when an action is performed. The Latin locative case is extremely marginal, applying only to the names of cities and small islands and to a few other isolated words. The Romans considered all islands to be "small" except for Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Crete, and Cyprus. Much of the case's function had been absorbed into the ablative. For singular first and second declension, the locative is identical to the genitive singular form, and for the singular third declension the locative is identical to the ablative singular form. For plural nouns of all declensions, the locative is also identical to the ablative form. The few fourth and fifth declension place-name words would also use the ablative form for locative case. However, there are a few rare nouns that use the locative instead of a preposition: Domus-->Domī (at home), Rūs-->Rūrī (in the country), Humus-->Humī (on the ground), Militia-->Militiae (in military service, in the field), Focus--> Focī (at the hearth; at the center of the community). In archaic times, the locative singular of third declension nouns was actually interchangeable between ablative and dative forms, but in the Augustan Period the use of the ablative form became fixed.

Syncretic trends

Syncretism, where one form in a paradigm shares the ending of another form in the paradigm, is common in Latin. The following are the most notable patterns of syncretism:

  • The vocative is always identical to the nominative in the plural, and also in the singular except in the second declension and a few Greek nouns. For example, the vocative of Aeneās is Aenea, although Aeneās is first declension.
  • The dative is always the same as the ablative in the plural, and in the singular in the second declension, the third-declension full i-stems i.e. neuter i-stems, adjectives), and fourth-declension neuters.
  • The genitive singular is the same as the nominative plural in first-, second-declension, and fourth declension nouns that are not neuter.
  • The dative singular is the same as the genitive singular in first- and fifth-declension nouns.
  • Plural neuter nominative/accusative always ends in -a (with a few exceptions: demonstrative hic and related istic and illic, relative/interrogative quī and friends; in all of them, the neuter plural takes the same form as feminine singular nominative).
  • The accusative singular ends in short vowel plus -m, except for a few neuters with unusual base forms.
  • The accusative plural (assuming not neuter) ends in a long vowel plus -s; so does the nominative plural of the third, fourth and fifth declensions (again assuming not neuter).
  • The locative is identical to the ablative in the fourth and fifth declension.
  • The locative, ablative, and dative are identical in the plural.

History of cases

Old Latin had only two patterns of endings. One pattern was shared by the first and second declensions, with a clear similarity to the first and second declensions of Ancient Greek. The other pattern was used by the third declension and was very different from Greek, even for direct cognates. When new words were absorbed into Latin, they were generally placed in the third declension.

Nouns

First declension (a)

Nouns of this declension usually end in –a and are typically feminine, e.g. 'road' (via, viae fem.) and 'water' (aqua, aquae fem.). There is a small class of masculine exceptions generally referring to occupations, e.g. 'farmer' (agricola, agricolae masc.) and 'sailor' (nauta, nautae masc.).

The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is a. The nominative singular form consists of the stem and the affix -a, and the genitive singular form is the stem plus -ae.

First declension Greek nouns

The first declension also holds three types of Greek nouns, derived from Ancient Greek's Alpha Declension. They are declined irregularly in the singular, but are sometimes treated as if they were native Latin nouns, e.g. nominative athlēta instead of the original athlētēs.

For full paradigm tables and more detailed information, see the Wiktionary appendix Appendix:Latin first declension.

  • (First Declension Latin Nouns)

'aqua, -ae
water f.
'agricola, -ae
farmer m.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative aqua –a aquae –ae agricola –a agricolae –ae
Genitive aquae –ae aquārum –ārum agricolae –ae agricolārum –ārum
Dative aquae –ae aquīs –īs agricolae –ae agricolīs –īs
Accusative aquam –am aquas –ās agricolam –am agricolas –ās
Vocative aqua –a aquae –ae agricola –a agricolae –ae
Ablative aquā –ā aquīs –īs agricolā –ā agricolīs –īs

Second declension (o)

The second declension is a large group of nouns consisting of mostly masculine nouns like equus, equī ("horse") and puer, puerī ("boy') and neuter nouns like castellum, castellī ("fort"). There are several small groups of feminine exceptions, including names of gemstones, trees, and some cities.

In the nominative singular, most masculine nouns consist of the stem and the affix -us, although some end in -er, which is not necessarily attached to the complete stem. Neuter nouns generally have a nominative singular consisting of the stem and the ending -um. However, every second-declension noun has the affix attached as a suffix to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is o.

Second declension R nouns

Some masculine nouns of the second declension end in an –er or an –ir in the nominative singular. For such nouns, the genitive singular must be learned to see if the E is dropped. For example, socer, –erī keeps its E. However, the noun magister, –trī ("teacher") drops its E in the genitive singular. Nouns with –ir in the nominative singular never drop the I.

The declension of second declension R nouns is identical to that of the regular second declension, with the exception of the vocative singular, which is identical to the nominative rather than ending in an -e.

For declension tables of second declension nouns, see the Appendix:Latin second declension.

Second declension Greek nouns

The second declension contains two types of masculine Greek nouns and one form of neuter Greek noun. These nouns are irregular only in the singular, as are their first declension counterparts. Greek nouns in the second declension are derived from Omicron Declension.

Some Greek nouns may be declined as normal, Latin nouns. For example, theātron can appear as theātrum.

Peculiarities

  • Nouns ending with –vus, –quus and –vum may be declined in two ways. Their alternate inflections resemble Old Latin.

'servos, –ī
slave m.
'equos, –ī
horse m.
'aevom, –ī
eternity, age n.
Singular Singular Singular
Nominative servos –os equos –os aevom –om
Genitive servī –ī equī –ī aevī –ī
Dative servō –ō equō –ō aevō –ō
Accusative servom –om equom –om aevom –om
Vocative serve –e eque –e aevom –om
Ablative servō –ō equō –ō aevō –ō

  • This is an example of a noun of the second declension in Classical Latin. Note the differences in both the Nominative and Accusative cases.

'servus, –ī
slave m.
'auxilium, –ī
aid, help n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative servus –us servī –ī auxilium –um auxilia –a
Genitive servī –ī servōrum –ōrum auxiliī –ī auxiliōrum –ōrum
Dative servō –ō servīs –īs auxiliō –ō auxiliīs –īs
Accusative servum –um servōs –ōs auxilium –um auxilia –a
Vocative serve –e servī –ī auxilium –um auxilia –a
Ablative servō –ō servīs –īs auxiliō –ō auxiliīs –īs

  • The plural of deus (god, deity) is also irregular.

Nom. / di
Gen. deōrum / deum
Dat. dīs / diis / deis
Acc. deōs
Voc.
Abl. dīs

  • The Vocative Singular of Deus is also "Deus", instead of substituting an -e for the -us (i.e. "dee") as would normally be expected for a 2nd declension -us noun.

Third declension (i)

The third declension is the largest group of nouns. These nouns may end in –a,–e, –ī, –ō, –y, –c, –l, –n, –r, –s, –t, or –x . It consists of masculine, neuter, and feminine nouns of variable nominative cases and roots. The third declension includes flumen, fluminis neut. ("river"), flos, floris masc. ("flower"), and pax, pacis fem. ("peace"). Each noun has the affix -is as a suffix attached to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form. Masculine, feminine and neuter nouns each have their own special nominative singular endings. For instance, only masculine nouns end in an –or (amor). Only feminine nouns end in an –īx (phoenīx), and only neuter nouns end in an –us (onus). As in all declensions, some nouns defy these rules.
'prīnceps, principis
leader, chief, prince m.
'phoenīx, phoenīcis
phoenix, fire-bird f.
'cōnāmen, conaminis
effort, struggle n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative prīnceps (1) prīncipēs –ēs phoenīx (1) phoenīcēs –ēs cōnāmen (1) cōnāmina –a
Genitive prīncipis –is prīncipum –um phoenīcis –is —— cōnāminis –is ——
Dative prīncipī –ī prīncipibus –ibus phoenīcī –ī —— cōnāminī –ī ——
Accusative prīncipem –em prīncipēs –ēs phoenīca –em —— cōnāmen (1,2) cōnāmina –a
Vocative prīnceps (1) prīncipēs –ēs phoenīx (1) —— cōnāmen (1) cōnāmina –a
Ablative prīncipe –e prīncipibus –ibus phoenīce –e —— cōnāmine –e ——

1 The nominative singular isn't regularly the root with a suffix appended. It may be the root; it may be identical to the genitive singular; or it may take a distinct form. The same is true of other forms that are the same as the nominative singular: the vocative singular and the neuter accusative singular.

2 The nominative and accusative of neuter nouns are always identical. It should not be assumed that –en is always the appropriate ending, as it might appear above.

Third declension i-stem nouns

The third declension also has a set of nouns which are declined differently. They are called i-stems. I-stems are broken into two subcategories: pure and mixed. Pure I-stems are indicated by the parisyllabic rule or special neuter endings. Mixed I-stems are indicated by the double consonant rule.

  • Masculine & Feminine
    • Parisyllabic Rule: Some masculine and feminine third declension i-stem nouns have the same number of syllables in the genitive as they do in the nominative. For example: amnis, –is. The nominative ends in -is.
    • Double-Consonant Rule: The rest of the masculine and feminine third declension i-stem nouns have two consonants before the –is in the genitive singular. For example: pars, partis
  • Neuter
    • Special Neuter Ending: Neuter third declension i-stems have no rule. However, all of them end in –al, –ar or –e. For example: animal, –ālis

Pure I-stems may exhibit peculiar endings in both singular and plural. Mixed I-stems employ normal (consonant) 3rd declension endings in the singular but I-Stem endings in the plural. Note the alternative I-stem endings indicated in parentheses.

amnis, amnis
stream, torrent m. (Pure)
pars, partis
part, piece f. (Mixed)
animal, animālis
animal, living being n. (Pure)
Parisyllabic Rule Double Consonant Rule Special Neuter Ending
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative amnis (1) amnēs –ēs pars (1) partēs –ēs animal (1) animālia –ia
Genitive amnis –is amnium –ium partis –is partium –ium animālis –is animālium –ium
Dative amnī –ī amnibus –ibus partī –ī partibus –ibus animālī –ī animālibus –ibus
Accusative amnem –em (-im) amnēs –ēs (-īs) partem / partim –em / -im partēs –ēs (-īs) animal (1) animālia –ia
Vocative amnis (1) amnēs –ēs pars (1) partēs –ēs animal (1) animālia –ia
Ablative amne / amni –e(-i) amnibus –ibus parte –e partibus –ibus animālī –ī animālibus –ibus

1 The nominative singular isn't regularly the root with a suffix appended. It may be the root; it may be identical to the genitive singular; or it may take a distinct form. The same is true of other forms that are the same as the nominative singular: the vocative singular and the neuter accusative singular.

The rules for determining I-stems from non-I-stems and "mixed" I-stems should be thought of more as "guidelines" than "rules": even among the Romans themselves, the categorization of a 3rd declension word as an I-stem or non-I-stem was quite fluid. The result is that many words that should be I-stems according to the parasyllabic and consonant stem rules, actually aren't, such as canis or iuvenis. By the parasyllabic rule, "canis" should be a masculine I-stem and thus differ from the non-I-stems by having an extra -i- in the plural Genitive form: "canium". In reality, the plural Genitive of "canis" is "canum", the form of a non-I-stem. This fluidity even in Roman times results in much more uncertainty in medieval Latin, as scholars were trying to imitate what was fluid to begin with. The result is that some medieval Latin scribes may go so far as to "overcompensate", taking obviously non-I-stem 3rd declension words like "ars, artis" and adding extra i's i.e. "artim, arti".

Peculiarities

In the third declension, there are four irregular nouns.
Case
vīs
force, power f.
sūs, suis
swine, pig, hog c.
bōs, bovis
ox, bullock c.
Iuppiter, Iovis
Jupiter m.
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular
Nominative vīs vīrēs sūs suēs bōs bovēs Iuppiter
Genitive —— vīrium suis suum bovis boum Iovis
Dative —— vīribus suī subus bovī bōbus / bubus Iovī
Accusative vim vīrēs suem suēs bovem bovēs Iovem
Vocative vīs vīrēs sūs suēs bōs bovēs Iuppiter
Ablative vīribus sue subus bove bōbus Iove

Fourth declension (u)

The fourth declension is a group of nouns consisting of mostly masculine words like 'wave' (fluctus, fluctūs masc.) and 'port' (portus, portūs masc.) with a few feminine exceptions, including 'hand' (manus, manūs fem.). The fourth declension also includes several neuter nouns like 'knee' (genu, genūs neut.). Each noun has the affix -ūs as a suffix attached to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form. The predominant letter in the ending forms of this declension is u.

'portus, –ūs
port, haven, harbor m.
'cornū, –ūs
horn, strength n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative portus –us portūs –ūs cornū –ū cornua –ua
Genitive portūs –ūs portuum –uum cornūs –ūs cornuum –uum
Dative portuī –uī portibus –ibus —— cornibus –ibus
Accusative portum –um portūs –ūs cornū –ū cornua –ua
Vocative portus –us portūs –ūs cornū –ū cornua –ua
Ablative portū –ū portibus –ibus cornū –ū cornibus –ibus
In the dative and ablative plural, –ibus is sometimes replaced with –ubus. This is so for only a few nouns, such as artus, "the limbs".

The declension of domus is irregular:

'domus, –ūs
house, home f.
Singular Plural
Nominative domus –us domūs –ūs
Genitive domūs –ūs domōrum / domuum –ōrum / uum
Dative domuī –uī domibus –ibus
Accusative domum –um domos –os
Vocative domus –us ——
Ablative domō –ō domibus –ibus

Fifth declension (e)

The fifth declension is a small group of nouns consisting of mostly feminine words like 'affair, matter, thing' (rēs, reī fem.) and 'day' (diēs, diēī usually feminine, except on notable days when it is masculine). Each noun has either the affix -ēī or –eī as a suffix attached to the root of the noun in the genitive singular form.

'effigiēs, –ēī
effigy, ideal f.
'spēs, –eī
hope, anticipation f.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative effigiēs –ēs effigiēs –ēs spēs –ēs
Genitive effigiēī –ēī —— speī –eī
Dative effigiēī –ēī —— speī –eī
Accusative effigiem –em effigiēs –ēs spem –em
Vocative effigiēs –ēs —— spēs –ēs
Ablative effigiē –ē —— spē –ē
Note that nouns ending in iēs have long ēī in the dative and genitive, while nouns ending in a consonant + ēs have short in these cases.

This declension class is the last to develop in Latin.

Pronouns

Relative and demonstrative pronouns are generally declined like first and second declension adjectives, with the following differences:

  • the nominatives are often irregular
  • the dative singular ends in -ī: rather than -ae or -ō.
  • the genitive singular ends in -īus rather than -ae or -ī.

These differences identify the "pronominal" declension, and a few adjectives also follow this pattern.

Personal pronouns

The first and second persons are irregular. They may be only masculine or feminine.

First Person Second Person
ego, meī
I m. and f.
nōs, nostrum
we m. and f.
tū, tuī
thou m. and f.
vōs, vestrum
ye m. and f.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative ego nōs vōs
Genitive meī nostrum1 tuī vestrum1
Dative mihi nōbīs tibi vōbīs
Accusative nōs vōs
Vocative —— —— vōs
Ablative nōbīs vōbīs
1—may be nostrī or vestrī

Usually, to show the ablative of accompaniment, cum would be added to the ablative form. Though, with personal pronouns and the interrogative (not with 3rd person), cum is added on to the end of the ablative form. For example: mēcum, nōbīscum, tēcum, vōbīscum and quōcum (sometimes quīcum).

'is, eī
he, they m.
'ea, eae
she, they f.
'id, ea
it, they n.
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative is eī, iī ea eae id ea
Genitive eius eōrum eius eārum eius eōrum
Dative eīs, iīs eīs, iīs eīs, iīs
Accusative eum eōs eam eās id ea
Vocative - - - - - -
Ablative eīs, iīs eīs, iīs eīs, iīs
The third person reflexive pronouns always refer back to the subject whether it be singular or plural.

—, suī
himself, herself
itself, oneself, themselves
Nominative
Genitive suī
Dative sibi
Accusative sē, sēsē
Vocative -
Ablative sē, sēsē

Interrogative pronouns

The interrogative pronouns are used strictly for asking questions. It is best not to confuse them with the relative pronoun and the interrogative adjective (which is declined like the relative pronoun). Interrogative pronouns rarely occur in the plural, though they may. The plural interrogative pronouns are the same as the plural relative pronouns.
'quis
who? m. and f.
'quid
what? n. only
Singular
Nominative quis quid
Genitive cuius cuius
Dative cui cui
Accusative quem quid
Vocative - -
Ablative quō quō

Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives

'hic, haec, hoc
this, this one
'ille, illa, illud
that, that one
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative hic haec hae hoc haec ille illī illa illae illud illa
Genitive huius hōrum huius hārum huius hōrum illīus illōrum illīus illārum illīus illōrum
Dative huic hīs huic hīs huic hīs illī illīs illī illīs illī illīs
Accusative hunc hōs hanc hās hoc haec illum illōs illam illās illud illa
Vocative - - - - - - - - - - - -
Ablative hōc hīs hāc hīs hōc hīs illō illīs illā illīs illō illīs

  • Another demonstrative pronoun iste, ista, istud, which means 'that of yours', and the intensive pronoun ipse, ipsa, ipsum follow the declension of ille, illa, illud.

Relative pronouns

'quī, quae, quod
who, which, that
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative quī quī quae quae quod quae
Genitive cūius quōrum cūius quārum cūius quōrum
Dative cui quibus cui quibus cui quibus
Accusative quem quōs quam quās quod quae
Vocative - - - - - -
Ablative quō quibus quā quibus quō quibus

Adjectives

First and second declension adjectives

First and second declension are inflected in the masculine, the feminine and the neuter; the masculine form typically ends in –us (although some end in -er, see below), the feminine form ends in –a, and the neuter form ends in –um. Therefore, adjectives are given like altus, alta, altum.
'altus, –a, –um
high, long, tall
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative altus –us altī –ī alta –a altae –ae altum –um alta –a
Accusative altum –um altōs –ōs altam –am altās –ās altum –um alta –a
Genitive altī –ī altōrum –ōrum altae –ae altārum –ārum altī –ī altōrum –ōrum
Dative altō –ō altīs –īs altae –ae altīs –īs altō –ō altīs –īs
Vocative alte –e altī –ī alta –a altae –ae altum –um alta –a
Ablative altō –ō altīs –īs altā –ā altīs –īs altō –ō altīs –īs

First and second declension –r adjectives

Some first and second declension adjectives' masculine form end in an –er. As with second declension nouns –r nouns, some adjectives retain the e throughout inflection, and some omit it. Sacer, sacra, sacrum omits its e while miser, misera, miserum keeps it.
'miser, –era, –erum
sad, poor, unhappy
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative miser –er miserī –ī misera –a miserae –ae miserum –um misera –a
Genitive miserī –ī miserōrum –ōrum miserae –ae miserārum –ārum miserī –ī miserōrum –ōrum
Dative miserō –ō miserīs –īs miserae –ae miserīs –īs miserō –ō miserīs –īs
Accusative miserum –um miserōs –ōs miseram –am miserās –ās miserum –um misera –a
Vocative miser –er miserī –ī misera –a miserae –ae miserum –um misera –a
Ablative miserō –ō miserīs –īs miserā –ā miserīs –īs miserō –ō miserīs –īs
'sacer, –cra, –crum
sacred, holy
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative sacer –er sacrī –ī sacra –a sacrae –ae sacrum –um sacra –a
Genitive sacrī –ī sacrōrum –ōrum sacrae –ae sacrārum –ārum sacrī –ī sacrōrum –ōrum
Dative sacrō –ō sacrīs –īs sacrae –ae sacrīs –īs sacrō –ō sacrīs –īs
Accusative sacrum –um sacrōs –ōs sacram –am sacrās –ās sacrum –um sacra –a
Vocative sacer –er sacrī –ī sacra –a sacrae –ae sacrum –um sacra –a
Ablative sacrō –ō sacrīs –īs sacrā –ā sacrīs –īs sacrō –ō sacrīs –īs

First and second –īus genitive adjectives

There are nine first and second declension adjectives that are irregular in the genitive and the dative in all genders. They are easily remembered by using the acronym UNUS NAUTA. They are:

alius, –a, –ud; (gen. sing. alterīus to avoid aliīus); another
ūllus, –a, –um; any
uter, –tra, –trum; which (of two)
sōlus, –a, –um; sole, alone
alter, –era, –erum; the other (of two)
nūllus, –a, –um; no, none (of any)
neuter, –tra, –trum; neither (of two)
tōtus, –a, –um; whole
ūnus, –a, –um; one

'ūllus, –a, –um
any
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative ūllus –us ūllī –ī ūlla –a ūllae –ae ūllum –um ūlla –a
Genitive ūllīus –īus ūllōrum –ōrum ūllīus –īus ūllārum –ārum ūllīus –īus ūllōrum –ōrum
Dative ūllī –ī ūllīs –īs ūllī –ī ūllīs –īs ūllī –ī ūllīs –īs
Accusative ūllum –um ūllōs –ōs ūllam –am ūllās –ās ūllum –um ūlla –a
Vocative ūlle –e ūllī –ī ūlla –a ūllae –ae ūllum –um ūlla –a
Ablative ūllō –ō ūllīs –īs ūllā –ā ūllīs –īs ūllō –ō ūllīs –īs

Third declension adjectives

Third declension adjectives are normally declined like third declension i-stem nouns, except for the fact they always have a –ī rather than a -e in the ablative singular (unlike i-stem nouns, in which only neuters have –ī). Some adjectives, however, like the one-ending vetus, veteris (old, aged), have an -e in the ablative singular (all genders), a -um in the genitive plural (all genders), and a -a in the nominative and accusative plural (neuter only).

Third declension adjectives with one ending

Third declension adjectives with one ending have single nominative ending for all genders. Like nouns, a genitive is given for the purpose of inflection.

'atrōx, –ōcis
terrible, mean, cruel
Masculine & Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative atrōx –ōx atrōcēs –ēs atrōx –ōx atrōcia –ia
Genitive atrōcis –is atrōcium –ium atrōcis –is atrōcium –ium
Dative atrōcī –ī atrōcibus –ibus atrōcī –ī atrōcibus –ibus
Accusative atrōcem –em atrōcēs –ēs1 atrōx –ōx atrōcia –ia
Vocative atrōx –ōx atrōcēs –ēs atrōx –ōx atrōcia –ia
Ablative atrōcī –ī² atrōcibus –ibus atrōcī –ī² atrōcibus –ibus
1—may end in –īs
²—may end in –e

Third declension adjectives with 2 endings

Third declension adjectives that have 2 endings have one form for the masculine and feminine, and a separate form for the neuter. The ending for the masculine and feminine is –is, and the ending for the neuter is –e. Because the sexed form ends in an –is, we find the adjective genitive singular.
'agilis, –e
nimble, swift
Masculine & Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative agilis –is agilēs –ēs agile –e agilia –ia
Genitive agilis –is agilium –ium agilis –is agilium –ium
Dative agilī –ī agilibus –ibus agilī –ī agilibus –ibus
Accusative agilem –em agilēs –ēs1 agile –e agilia –ia
Vocative agilis –is agilēs –ēs agile –e agilia –ia
Ablative agilī –ī agilibus –ibus agilī –ī agilibus –ibus
1—may end in –īs

Third declension adjectives with three endings

Third declension adjectives with three endings have three separate nominative forms for all three genders. Like third and second declension –r nouns, the masculine ends in an –er. The feminine ends in an –ris, and the neuter ends in an –re. With that information, we come upon the genitive singular needed for inflection, the feminine form.
'celer, –eris, –ere
swift, rapid, brash
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative celer –er celerēs –ēs celeris –is celerēs –ēs celere –e celeria –ia
Genitive celeris –is celerium –ium celeris –is celerium –ium celeris –is celerium –ium
Dative celerī –ī celeribus –ibus celerī –ī celeribus –ibus celerī –ī celeribus –ibus
Accusative celerem –em celerēs –ēs1 celerem –em celerēs –ēs1 celere –e celeria –ia
Vocative celer –er celerēs –ēs celeris –is celerēs –ēs celere –e celeria –ia
Ablative celerī –ī celeribus –ibus celerī –ī celeribus –ibus celerī –ī celeribus –ibus
'alacer, –cris, –cre
lively, jovial, animated
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative alacer –er alacrēs –ēs alacris –is alacrēs –ēs alacre –e alacria –ia
Genitive alacris –is alacrium –ium alacris –is alacrium –ium alacris –is alacrium –ium
Dative alacrī –ī alacribus –ibus alacrī –ī alacribus –ibus alacrī –ī alacribus –ibus
Accusative alacrem –em alacrēs –ēs1 alacrem –em alacrēs –ēs1 alacre –e alacria –ia
Vocative alacer –er alacrēs –ēs alacris –is alacrēs –ēs alacre –e alacria –ia
Ablative alacrī –ī alacribus –ibus alacrī –ī alacribus –ibus alacrī –ī alacribus –ibus
1—may end in –īs

Comparison and superlative forms of adjectives

As in English, adjectives have superlative and comparative forms. For regular first and second declension and third declension nouns with one or two endings, the comparison is formed by adding an –ior for the masculine and feminine, and an –ius for the neuter to the base. The genitive for both are formed by adding an –iōris. Therefore, they are declined like the third declension. However, they are not declined as i-stems are. Superlatives formed by adding an –issimus, –a, –um to the base. Now, we find that superlatives are declined like first and second declension adjectives.

Adjective Positive Comparative Superlative
benignus, –a, –um (kind, nice) benignior, –ius benignissimus, –a, –um
frīgidus, –a, –um (cold, chilly) frīgidior, –ius frīgidissimus, –a, –um
calidus, –a, –um (hot, fiery) calidior, –ius calidissimus, –a, –um
pugnāx, –ācis (pugnacious) pugnācior, –ius pugnācissimus, –a, –um
fortis, –e (strong, robust) fortior, –ius fortissimus, –a, –um
aequālis, –e (equal, even) aequālior, –ius aequālissimus, –a, –um

Comparisons and superlatives of –er adjectives

Adjectives (in the third and first and second declensions) that have masculine nominative singular forms ending in –er have different forms. If the feminine and neuter forms drop the E, use that for the comparative form. The superlative is formed by adding an –rimus onto the masculine form.

Adjective Positive Comparative Superlative
pulcher, –cra, –crum (pretty, beautiful) pulchrior, –ius pulcherrimus, –a, –um
sacer, –cra, –crum (sacred, holy) sacrior, –ius sacerrimus, –a, –um
tener, –era, –erum (delicate, tender) tenerior, –ius tenerrimus, –a, –um
ācer, –cris, –cre (sharp) ācrior, –ius ācerrimus, –a, –um
celēber, –bris, –bre (celebrated, famous) celēbrior, –ius celēberrimus, –a, –um
celer, –eris, –ere (quick, fast) celerior, –ius celerrimus, –a, –um

Comparisons and superlatives of –lis adjectives

Some third declension adjectives with two endings in –lis in the sexed nominative singular have irregular superlative forms. It should be noted that the following are the only adjectives that have this unique form.

Adjective Positive Comparative Superlative
facilis, –e (easy) facilior, –ius facillimus, –a, –um
difficilis, –e (hard, difficult) difficilior, –ius difficillimus, –a, –um
similis, –e (similar, like) similior, –ius simillimus, –a, –um
dissimilis, –e (unlike, dissimilar) dissimilior, –ius dissimillimus, –a, –um
gracilis, –e (slender, slim) gracilior, –ius gracillimus, –a, –um
humilis, –e (low, humble) humilior, –ius humillimus, –a, –um

Irregular comparisons and superlatives

As in most languages, Latin has adjectives that have irregular comparisons and superlatives.

Adjective Positive Comparative Superlative
bonus, –a, –um (good) melior, –ius optimus, –a, –um
malus, –a, –um (bad, evil) peior, –ius pessimus, –a, –um
magnus, –a, –um (great, large) maior, –ius maximus, –a, –um
parvus, –a, –um (small, slight) minor, –us minimus, –a, –um
multus, –a, –um (much, many) plūs1 plurimus, –a, –um
maturus, –a, –um (ripe, mature) maturior, –ius maturrimus, –a, –um2
nēquam3 (worthless) nēquior, –ius nēquissimus, –a, –um
posterus, –a, –um (next, future) posterior, –ius postremus, –a, –um
superus, –a, –um (above, upper) superior, –ius supremus, –a, –um
exterus, –a, –um (outer, outward) exterior, –ius extremus, –a, –um
novus, –a, –um (new, strange) recentior, –ius novissimus, –a, –um
senex, senis (old, aged) senior, –ius ——
iuvenis, –is (young, youthful) iunior, –ius ——

  • 1: noun used with genitive to express more of something
  • 2: often replaced by the regular form 'maturissimus, –a, –um'
  • 3: indeclinable

Declension of īdem

The adjective īdem, eadem, idem means 'same.' It is a variant of the third person pronouns which were declined earlier. Generally, they are formed by adding –dem to a declined third person pronouns. However, some forms have been changed to ease pronunciation.

'īdem, eadem, idem
the same, same as
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative īdem eīdem,
iīdem
eadem eaedem idem eadem
Genitive eiusdem eōrundem eiusdem eārundem eiusdem eōrundem
Dative eīdem eīsdem,
iīsdem
eīdem eīsdem,
iīsdem
eīdem eīsdem,
iīsdem
Accusative eundem eōsdem eandem eāsdem idem eadem
Vocative īdem eīdem,
iīdem
eadem eaedem idem eadem
Ablative eōdem eīsdem,
iīsdem
eādem eīsdem,
iīsdem
eōdem eīsdem,
iīsdem

Declension of numerals

See also: Roman numerals for symbology.

There are several different kinds of numeral words in Latin: the two most common are Cardinal numerals, and Ordinal numerals. There are also several more rare numerals such as Distributive numerals and Adverbial numerals

Cardinal numerals

All numerals, except ūnum (one), duo (two), tria (three), mīlia (thousand, sing. mīlle) and ducentī (two-hundred) are indeclinable adjectives. Ūnus, ūna, ūnum is declined like a first and second declension adjective with an –īus in the genitive, and –ī in the dative. Duo is declined irregularly and tria is declined like a third declension adjective.

duo, duae, duo
two
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Plural
Nominative duo duae duo
Genitive duōrum / duum duārum duōrum
Dative duōbus duābus duōbus
Accusative duōs / duo duās duo
Vocative duo duae duo
Ablative duōbus duābus duōbus

It should be noted that ambō, "both", is declined as duo is, though its o is long.

trēs, tria
Masculine & Feminine Neuter'''
Plural
Nominative trēs tria
Genitive trium trium
Dative tribus tribus
Accusative trēs, trīs tria
Vocative trēs tria
Ablative tribus tribus

The word mīlle, is singular, an adjective and indeclinable. However, its irregular plural, mīlia, is a plural noun and is used in the same way plūs is.

mīlia, mīlium
(a) thousand n.
Plural
Nominative mīlia
Genitive mīlium
Dative mīlibus
Accusative mīlia
Vocative mīlia
Ablative mīlibus

  • Note that to write the phrase "four thousand horses" in Latin, the genitive is used: "quattuor milia equōrum", literally, "four thousands of horses".

As stated before, the rest of the numbers are indeclinable adjectives. They are also indeclinable as substantives.

1 I ūnus, –a, –um 11 XI ūndecim 21 XXI ūnus et vigintī 101 CI centum et ūnus
2 II duo, –ae, –o 12 XII duodecim 22 XXII duō et vigintī 200 CC ducentī, –ae, –a
3 III trēs, –ia 13 XIII trēdecim 30 XXX trīgintā 300 CCC trecentī
4 IV quattuor 14 XIV quattuordecim 40 XL quadrāgintā 400 CD quadrigentī
5 V quīnque 15 XV quīndecim 50 L quīnquāgintā 500 D quīngentī
6 VI sex 16 XVI sēdecim 60 LX sexāgintā 600 DC sescentī
7 VII septem 17 XVII septendecim 70 LXX septuāgintā 700 DCC septingentī
8 VIII octō 18 XVIII duodēvigintī 80 LXXX octōgintā 800 DCCC octingentī
9 IX novem 19 XIX ūndēvigintī 90 XC nōnāgintā 900 CM nōngentī
10 X decem 20 XX vigintī 100 C centum 1000 M mīlle

Ordinal numerals

Ordinal numerals all decline like normal 1st and 2nd declension adjectives.

  • Primus = first
  • Secundus = second
  • Tertius = third
  • Vicensimus = twentieth

Note: "Secundus" only means "second" in the sense of "following". The adjective Alter, -ra, -rum meaning "the other (of two)" was more frequently used in many instances that English would use "second".

Ordinal numbers, not Cardinal numbers, are commonly used to represent dates, because they are in the format of "in the tenth year of Caesar", etc. which also carried over into the Anno Domini system and Christian dating, i.e. "anno post Christum nato centensimo" = AD 100.

Distributive numerals

A rare numeral construction denoting an equal number distributed among several objects, i.e. "how many each?" "two by two". They decline like normal 1st and 2nd declension adjectives, and are logically always plural. Bis, Bina = "twice two". A classical example would be "Uxores habent deni duo deniqui inter se communes" = "groups of ten or twelve men had wives in common" --Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar

Adverbial numerals

Adverbial numerals are (as the name states) indeclinable adverbs, but because all of the other numeral constructions are adjectives they are listed here with them. Adverbial numerals give how many times a thing happened. Semel = once, Bis = twice, Ter = thrice (three times), Quater = four times, etc

Adverbs and their comparisons and superlatives

Adverbs are not declined. However, adverbs must be formed if one wants to make an adjective into an adverb.

First and second declension adjectives' adverbs

First and second declension adjectives' adverbs are formed by adding an –ē onto their bases.
Adjective Adverb
clārus, –a, –um (clear, famous) clārē (clearly, famously)
validus, –a, –um (strong, robust) validē (strongly, robustly)
īnfīrmus, –a, –um (weak) īnfīrmē (weakly)
solidus, –a, –um (complete, firm) solidē (completely, firmly)
integer, –gra, –grum (whole, fresh) integrē (wholly, freshly)
līber, –era, –erum (free) līberē (freely)

Third declension adjectives' adverbs

Typically, third declension adjectives' adverbs are formed by adding an –iter onto their bases. However, most third declension adjectives with one ending simply add an –er to their bases.

Adjective Adverb
prūdēns, –entis (prudent) prūdenter (prudently)
audāx, –ācis (bold) audācter (boldly)
virilis, –e (courageous, spirited) viriliter (courageously, spiritedly)
salūbris, -e (wholesome) salūbriter (wholesomely)

Adverbs' comparative and superlative forms

Adverbs' comparative forms are their neuter adjectives' comparative forms. Adverbs' superlative forms are made in the same way in which first and second declension adjectives' adverbs are made.

First and second declension adjectives' adverbs are formed by adding an –ē onto their bases.

Positive Comparative Superlative
clārē (clearly, famously) clārius clārissimē
solidē (completely, firmly) solidius ——
līberē (freely) līberius ——
prudenter (prudently) prudentius prudentissimē
salūbriter (wholesomely) salūberius salūberissimē

Irregular adverbs and their comparative and superlative forms

As so with adjectives, there are irregular adverbs with peculiar comparative and superlative forms.

Positive Comparative Superlative
bene (well) melius optimē
male (ill, badly) peius pessimē
māgnoperē (greatly) magis maximē
multum (much, a lot) plūs plūrimum
parvum (little) minus minimē
nēquiter (worthlessly) nēquius nēquissimē
saepe (often) saepius saepissimē
mātūrē (seasonably, betimes) mātūrius māturrimē
prope (near) propius proximē
nūper (recently) —— nūperrimē
potis (possible) potius (rather) potissimē (especially)
—— prius (before, previously) prīmum /primo (first)
secus (otherwise) sētius / sequius (less) ——

Peculiarities within declension

Irregularity in number

Some nouns are declined in the singular only. This is the case with:

  • Materials such as aurum (gold) and aes (copper)
  • Abstract nouns such as celeritās (speed) and scientia (knowledge)
  • Proper names such as Iulius (Julius) and Clāra (Clara)

There are nouns that are declined only in the plural as well (plurale tantum):

  • Many festivals, such as Saturnalia
  • Words like castra (camp) and arma (arms)
  • A few geographical names are plural such as Thēbae (Thebes).

Indeclinable nouns

Indeclinable nouns are neuter nouns which occur only in the nominative and the accusative singular. There are only six such nouns:

  • fās — fate, divine law
  • īnstar — likeness
  • māne — morning
  • nefās — sin, abomination
  • nihil / nil — nothing, none
  • secus — sex, coitus

Heterogeneous nouns

Heterogeneous nouns are nouns which vary in respect to gender.

  • A few nouns in the second declension occur in both the neuter and masculine. However, their meanings remain the same.
  • Some nouns are one gender in the singular, but become another gender in the plural. They may also change in meaning.

Singular Plural
balneum n. bath balneae f. or balnea n. bath-house
epulum n. feast, banquet epulae f. feasts, banquets
frēnum n. bridle, curb frēnī m. bridle, curb
iocus m. joke, jest ioca n. or ioci m. jokes, jests
locus m. place, location loca n. places, locations; locī region
rāstrum n. hoe, rake rāstrī m. hoes, rakes

Plurals with alternative meanings

The nouns below have a specific singular meaning, yet have a different plural meaning.
Singular Plural
aedēs, –is f. building, temple aedēs, –ium rooms, house
auxilium, –ī n. help, aid auxilia, –ōrum auxiliary troops
carcer, –eris m. prison, cell carcerēs, –um starting-place of a chariot race
castrum, –ī n. fort, castle, fortress castra, –ōrum milit. camp, encampment
cōpia, –ae f. plenty, much, abundance cōpiae, –ārum troops
fīnis, –is m. end, boundary fīnēs, –ium territory
fortūna, –ae f. luck, chance fortūnae –ārum wealth
grātia, –ae f. charm, favor grātiae, –ārum thanks
impedīmentum, –ī m. impediment, hindrance impedīmenta, –ōrum baggage
littera, –ae f. letter (as in A, B, C, etc.) litterae, –ārum epistle, scholarship, literature
mōs, mōris m. habit, inclination mōrēs, –um m. morals, character
opera, –ae f. trouble, pains operae, –ārum workmen
opis (gen.; nom. and dat. do not occur) f. the goddess Ops (pers.), help opēs, –ium resources, wealth
pars, partis f. part, piece partēs, –ium office, function
sāl, salis m. salt, sea water salēs, –um wit, smarts

Notes

  1. The archaism aquai occurs frequently in Virgil, Cicero, Lucretius and others, to evoke the style of older writers.
  2. Being a Greek word, the accusative form is phoenica (Ovid, Metamorphoses 15.393 ).

References

See also

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