For ordinary communication, to spare a tedious description, the official IUPAC naming recommendations are not always followed in practice except when it is necessary to give a concise definition to a compound, or when the IUPAC name is simpler (viz. ethanol against ethyl alcohol). Otherwise the common or trivial name may be used, often derived from the source of the compound (See Sec 14. below)
The steps to naming an organic compound are:
The finalized name should look like this:
#,#-di<side chain>-#-<side chain>-#-<secondary functional group><parent chain suffix><If all bonds are single bonds, use "ane">-#-<double bonds>-#-<triple bonds>-#-<primary functional group>
NOTE: # is used for a number, and all fields other than the parent chain and bonds are optional. The side chains and secondary functional groups are arranged alphabetically.
Here is a sample molecule with the parent carbons numbered:
For simplicity, here is an image of the same molecule, where the carbons in the parent chain are removed:
Now, we go by the steps:
would render the name as 2-aminoethanol, which is preferred. However, the name 2-hydroxyethanamine unambiguously refers to the same compound. How the name was constructed:
would render the name as 2-aminoethanol, which is preferred. However, the name 2-hydroxyethanamine unambiguously refers to the same compound.
How the name was constructed:
|Number of carbons||1||2||3||4||5||6||7||8||9||10||11||12||13||14||15||20||30|
For example, the simplest alkane is CH4 methane, and the nine-carbon alkane CH3(CH2)7CH3 is named nonane.
Cyclic alkanes are simply prefixed with "cyclo-", for example C4H8 is cyclobutane and C6H12 is cyclohexane.Branched alkanes are named as a straight-chain alkane with attached alkyl groups. They are prefixed with a number indicating the carbon the group is attached to, counting from the end of the alkane chain. . For example, (CH3)2CHCH3, commonly known as isobutane, is treated as a propane chain with a methyl group bonded to the middle (2) carbon, and given the systematic name 2-methylpropane. However, although the name 2-methylpropane COULD be used, it is easier and more logical to call it simply methylpropane - the methyl group could not possible occur on any of the other cabon atoms (that would lengthen the chain and result in butane, not propane) and therefore the use of the number "2" is not necessary.
If there is ambiguity in the position of the substituent, depending on which end of the alkane chain is counted as "1", then numbering is chosen so that the smallest number is used. For example, (CH3)2CHCH2CH3 (isopentane) is named 2-methylbutane, not 3-methylbutane.
If there are multiple side-branches of the same size alkyl group, their positions are separated by commas and the group prefixed with di-, tri-, tetra-, etc., depending on the number of branches (e.g. C(CH3)4 2,2-dimethylpropane). If there are different groups, they are added in alphabetical order, separated by commas or hyphens: 3-ethyl-4-methylhexane. The longest possible main alkane chain is used; therefore 3-ethyl-4-methylhexane instead of 2,3-diethylpentane, even though these describe equivalent structures. The di-, tri- etc. prefixes are ignored for the purpose of alphabetical ordering of side chains (e.g. 3-ethyl-2,4-dimethylpentane, not 2,4-dimethyl-3-ethylpentane).
Alkenes are named for their parent alkane chain with the suffix "-ene" and an infixed number indicating the position of the double-bonded carbon in the chain: CH2=CHCH2CH3 is but-1-ene. Multiple double bonds take the form -diene, -triene, etc., with the size prefix of the chain taking an extra "a": CH2=CHCH=CH2 is buta-1,3-diene. Simple cis and trans isomers are indicated with a prefixed cis- or trans-: cis-but-2-ene, trans-but-2-ene. More complex geometric isomerisations are described using the Cahn Ingold Prelog priority rules.
Alk is the prefix of the group (Meth, Eth, Prop, etc.)
|Family||Structure||IUPAC nomenclature||IUPAC nomenclature for cyclic parent chains (if different from straight chains)||Common nomenclature|
|Carboxylic acids||(Alk + 1)anoic acid||Cycloalkanecarboxylic acid||-|
|Ketones||Alkanone||-||Alk(1)yl Alk(2)yl ketone|
|Amides||(Alk + 1)anamide||Cycloalkanecarboxamide||-|
|Ethers||R1—O—R2||alkoxyalkane||-||Alk(1)yl Alk(2)yl ether|
|Esters||Alk(1)yl Alk(2)aneoate||Alk(1)yl Cycloalk(2)anecarboxylate||Alk(1)yl (Alk + 1)(2)anoate|
Alcohols (R-OH) take the suffix "-ol" with an infix numerical bonding position: CH3CH2CH2OH is propan-1-ol. The suffixes -diol, -triol, -tetraol, etc., are used for multiple -OH groups: Ethylene glycol CH2OHCH2OH is ethane-1,2-diol.
If higher precedence functional groups are present (see order of precedence, below), the prefix "hydroxy" is used with the bonding position: CH3CHOHCOOH is 2-hydroxypropanoic acid.
Halogen functional groups are prefixed with the bonding position and take the form fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, iodo-, etc., depending on the halogen. Multiple groups are dichloro-, trichloro-, etc, and dissimilar groups are ordered alphabetically as before. For example, CHCl3 (chloroform) is trichloromethane. The anesthetic Halothane (CF3CHBrCl) is 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane.
In general ketones (R-CO-R) take the suffix "-one" (pronounced own, not won) with an infix position number: CH3CH2CH2COCH3 is pentan-2-one. if a higher precedence suffix is in use, the prefix "oxo-" is used: CH3CH2CH2COCH2CHO is 3-oxohexanal.
Aldehydes (R-CHO) take the suffix "-al".If other functional groups are present, the chain is numbered such that the aldehyde carbon is in the "1" position.
If a prefix form is required, "oxo-" is used (as for ketones), with the position number indicating the end of a chain: CHOCH2COOH is 3-oxopropanoic acid. If the carbon in the carbonyl group cannot be included in the attached chain (for instance in the case of cyclic aldehydes), the prefix "formyl-" or the suffix "-carbaldehyde" is used: C6H11CHO is cyclohexanecarbaldehyde.
In general carboxylic acids are named with the suffix -oic acid (etymologically a back-formation from benzoic acid). As for aldehydes, they take the "1" position on the parent chain, but do not have their position number indicated. For example, CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH (valeric acid) is named pentanoic acid. For common carboxylic acids some traditional names such as acetic acid are in such widespread use they are considered retained IUPAC names, although "systematic" names such as ethanoic acid are also acceptable. For carboxylic acids attached to a benzene ring such as Ph-COOH, these are named as benzoic acid or its derivatives.
If there are multiple carboxyl groups on the same parent chain, the suffix "-carboxylic acid" can be used (as -dicarboxylic acid, -tricarboxylic acid, etc.). In these cases, the carbon in the carboxyl group does not count as being part of the main alkane chain. The same is true for the prefix form, "carboxyl-". Citric acid is one example; it is named 2-hydroxypropane- 1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, rather than 2-carboxy, 2-hydroxypentanedioic acid.
Ethers (R-O-R) consist of an oxygen atom between the two attached carbon chains. The shorter of the two chains becomes the first part of the name with the -ane suffix changed to -oxy, and the longer alkane chain become the suffix of the name of the ether. Thus CH3OCH3 is methoxymethane, and CH3OCH2CH3 is methoxyethane (not ethoxymethane). If the oxygen is not attached to the end of the main alkane chain, then the whole shorter alkyl-plus-ether group is treated as a side-chain and prefixed with its bonding position on the main chain. Thus CH3OCH(CH3)2 is 2-methoxypropane.
Esters (R-CO-O-R') are named as alkyl derivatives of carboxylic acids. The alkyl (R') group is named first. The R-CO-O part is then named as a separate word based on the carboxylic acid name, with the ending changed from -oic acid to -oate. For example, CH3CH2CH2CH2COOCH3 is methyl pentanoate, and (CH3)2CHCH2CH2COOCH2CH3 is ethyl 4-methylpentanoate. For esters such as ethyl acetate (CH3COOCH2CH3), ethyl formate (HCOOCH2CH3) or dimethyl phthalate that are based on common acids, IUPAC recommends use of these established names, called retained names The -oate changes to -ate. Some simple examples, named both ways, are shown in the figure above.
If the alkyl group is not attached at the end of the chain, the bond position to the ester group is infixed before "-yl": CH3CH2CH(CH3)OOCCH2CH3 may be called but-2-yl propanoate or but-2-yl propionate.
Amines (R-NH2) are named for the attached alkane chain with the suffix "-amine" (e.g. CH3NH2 methanamine). If necessary, the bonding position is infixed: CH3CH2CH2NH2 propan-1-amine, CH3CHNH2CH3 propan-2-amine. The prefix form is "amino-".
For secondary amines (of the form R-NH-R), the longest carbon chain attached to the nitrogen atom becomes the primary name of the amine; the other chain is prefixed as an alkyl group with location prefix given as an italic N: CH3NHCH2CH3 is N-methylethanamine. Tertiary amines (R-NR-R) are treated similarly: CH3CH2N(CH3)CH2CH2CH3 is N-ethyl-N-methylpropanamine. Again, the substituent groups are ordered alphabetically.
Amides (R-CO-NH2) take the suffix "-amide". There is no prefix form, and no location number is required since they always terminate a carbon chain, e.g. CH3CONH2 (acetamide) is named ethanamide.
Secondary and tertiary amides are treated similarly to the case of amines: alkane chains bonded to the nitrogen atom are treated as substituents with the location prefix N: HCON(CH3)2 is N,N-dimethylmethanamide.
Cycloalkanes and aromatic compounds can be treated as the main parent chain of the compound, in which case the position of substituents are numbered around the ring structure. For example, the three isomers of xylene CH3C6H4CH3, commonly the ortho-, meta-, and para- forms, are 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene, and 1,4-dimethylbenzene. The cyclic structures can also be treated as functional groups themselves, in which case they take the prefix "cycloalkyl-" (e.g. "cyclohexyl-") or for benzene, "phenyl-".
The IUPAC nomenclature scheme becomes rapidly more elaborate for more complex cyclic structures, with notation for compounds containing conjoined rings, and many common names such as phenol, furan, indole, etc. being accepted as base names for compounds derived from them.
Prefixed substituents are ordered alphabetically (excluding any modifiers such as di-, tri-, etc.), e.g. chlorofluoromethane, not fluorochloromethane. If there are multiple functional groups of the same type, either prefixed or suffixed, the position numbers are ordered numerically (thus ethane-1,2-diol, not ethane-2,1-diol.) The N position indicator for amines and amides comes before "1", e.g. CH3CH(CH3)CH2NH(CH3) is N,2-dimethylpropanamine.
|2|| Carboxylic acids|
| -oic acid*|
|3|| Carboxylic acid derivatives|
*Note: These suffixes, in which the carbon atom is counted as part of the preceding chain, are the most commonly used. See individual functional group articles for more details.
|Number of carbons||Prefix as in new system||Common name for alcohol||Common name for aldehyde||Common name for acid|
|1||Meth||Methyl alcohol (wood alcohol)||Formaldehyde||Formic acid|
|2||Eth||Ethyl alcohol (grain alcohol)||Acetaldehyde||Acetic acid|
|3||Prop||Propyl alcohol||Propionaldehyde||Propionic acid|
|4||But||Butyl alcohol||Butyraldehyde||Butyric acid|
|5||Pent||Amyl alcohol||Valeraldehyde||Valeric acid|
|7||Hept||Enanthyl alcohol||Enanthaldehyde||Enanthoic acid|
|8||Oct||Capryl alcohol||Caprylaldehyde||Caprylic acid|
|10||Dec||Capric alcohol||Capraldehyde||Capric acid|
|12||Dodec||Lauryl alcohol||Lauraldehyde||Lauric acid|
|16||Hexadec||Cetyl alcohol||Palmitaldehyde||Palmitic acid|
|18||Octadec||Stearyl alcohol||Stearaldehyde||Stearic acid|
|20||Eicos||Arachidyl alcohol||-||Arachidic acid|
|22||Docos||Behenyl alcohol||-||Behenic acid|
|24||Tetracos||Lignoceryl alcohol||-||Lignoceric acid|
|26||Hexacos||Cerotinyl alcohol||-||Cerotinic acid|
|28||Octacos||Montanyl alcohol||-||Montanic acid|
|30||Triacont||Melissyl alcohol||-||Melissic acid|
The first three of the names shown above are still considered to be acceptable IUPAC names
If the cationic center of the hydride is not a halogen, chalcogen or nitrogen-family element then the suffix "-ium" is added to the name of the neutral hydride after dropping any final 'e'. H5C+ is methanium, HO-O+H2 is dioxidanium (HO-OH is dioxidane), and H2N-N+H3 is diazanium (H2N-NH2 is diazane).
The name of each substitution is prefixed to the hydride cation name. If many substitutions by the same functional group occur, then the number is indicated by prefixing with "di-", "tri-" as with halogenation. (CH3)3O+ is trimethyloxonium. CH3F3N+ is trifluoromethylammonium.