era name

Japanese era name

The Japanese era calendar scheme is a common calendar scheme used in Japan, which identifies a year by the combination of the and the year number within the era. For example, the year is Heisei .

As elsewhere in East Asia, the use of nengō, also known as , was originally derived from Chinese Imperial practice, although the Japanese system is independent of the Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese era-naming systems. Unlike these other similar systems, Japanese era names are still in use. Government offices usually require era names and years for official papers.

Sometimes an era name is expressed with the first letter of the romanized name. For example, S55 means Shōwa 55 (i.e. 1980 A.D.). At 64 years, Shōwa is the longest era to date.

Overview

The system on which the Japanese nengō are based originated in China in 140 BCE, and was adopted by Japan in 645 CE, during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku.

The first nengō to be assigned was , celebrating the political and organizational changes which were to flow from the great . Although the regular practice of proclaiming successive nengō was interrupted in the late seventh century, it was permanently re-adopted in 701 during the reign of Emperor Mommu (697-707). Since then, era names have been used continuously up through the present day.

Historical nengō

Prior to the Meiji period, era names were decided by court officials and were subjected to frequent change. A new nengō was usually proclaimed within a year or two after the ascension of a new emperor. A new nengō was also often designated on the first, fifth and 58th years of the sexagenary cycle, because they were inauspicious years in Onmyōdō. These three years are respectively known as , , and , and collectively known as . Era names were also changed due to other felicitous events or natural disasters.

In historical practice, starts whenever the emperor chooses; and the first year continues until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the nengō's second year.

Era names indicate the various reasons for their adoption. For instance, the nengō , during the Nara period was declared due to the discovery of copper deposits in Chichibu. Most nengō are comprised of two kanji, except for a short time during the Nara period when four-kanji names were sometimes adopted to follow the Chinese trend. , , and are some famous nengō names that use four characters. Since the Heian period, Confucian thoughts and ideas have been reflected in era names, such as , and . Although there currently exist a total of 247 Japanese era names, only 72 kanji have been used in composing them. Out of these 72 kanji, 30 of them have been used only once, while the rest have been used repeatedly in different combinations.

Nengō in modern Japan

Mutsuhito assumed the throne in 1867, during the third year of the era. On Oct. 23, 1868, the era name was changed to , and a system was adopted, wherein era names would change only upon imperial succession. This system is similar to the now-defunct Chinese system used since the days of the Ming Dynasty. The Japanese nengō system differs from Chinese practice, in that in the Chinese system the era name was not updated until the year following the emperor's death.

In modern practice, starts immediately upon the emperor's ascension to the throne and ends on December 31st. Subsequent years follow the Gregorian calendar.

For example, the Meiji era lasted until July 30th, 1912, when the emperor died and the era was proclaimed. 1912 is therefore known as both "Meiji 45" and , although Meiji technically ended on Jul. 30th with Mutsuhito's death.

This practice, implemented successfully since the days of Meiji but never formalized, became law in 1979 with the passage of the . Thus, since 1868, there have only been four era names assigned: Meiji, Taishō, Shōwa and Heisei, each corresponding with the rule of only one emperor. Upon death, the emperor is thereafter referred to by the era of his reign. For example, Mutsuhito is posthumously known as . NB: It is protocol in Japan that the reigning emperor should be referred to as Tennō Heika (天皇陛下, "His Majesty the Emperor") or Kinjō Tennō (今上天皇, "current emperor"). To call the current emperor by the current era name, i.e. "Heisei", even in English, is a faux pas, as this is—and will be—his posthumous name. Use of the emperor's given name (i.e., "Akihito") is rare in Japanese.

Conversion table from Gregorian calendar years to nengō

To convert a Japanese year to a Western or Gregorian calendar year, find the first year of the nengō (the nengō = the era name, see list below). When found, subtract 1, and add the number of the Japanese year. For example, the 23rd year of the Showa Era (Showa 23) would be 1948:

ILLUSTRATION: 1926 1 = 1925 ..., and then 1925 + 23 = 1948 ... or Showa 23.

CONVERSION TABLE: Gregorian calendar years / nengō
Year Kanji Romanization Meaning Notes
Asuka period (538-710)
645 大化 Taika "Great Reform" Emperor Kōtoku, 645-654. Also known as "Great Development"
650 白雉 Hakuchi "White Pheasant
654 Naming of eras temporarily discontinued from 654-686: See "Non-Nengō periods" section below
686 朱鳥 Shuchō "vermillion bird" also Suchō, Akamitori or Akamidori; Emperor Temmu, 672-686.
686 Naming of eras temporarily discontinued from 686-701: See "Non-Nengō periods" section below
701 大宝 Taihō "Great Law" also Daihō; Emperor Mommu, 697-707. Also known as "Great Treasure"
704 慶雲 Keiun "jubilant cloud" also Kyōun; Empress Gemmei, 707-715.
708 和銅 Wadō "Japanese Copper
Nara period (710-794)
715 霊亀 Reiki "ethereal tortoise" Empress Genshō, 715-724.
717 養老 Yōrō "caring for the aged"
724 神亀 Jinki "divine tortoise" also Shinki; Emperor Shōmu, 724-749.
729 天平 Tenpyō "heavenly peace" also Tenbyō or Tenhei
749 天平感宝 Tenpyō-kanpō "Gratitude for Treasure also Tenbyō-kanpō
749 天平勝宝 Tenpyō-shōhō "Heavenly Peace and Victorious Buddhism also Tenbyō-shōbō or Tenpei-shōhō; Empress Kōken, 749-758.
757 天平宝字 Tenpyō-hōji "Lucky Inscription also Tenbyō-hōji or Tenpei-hōji; Emperor Junnin, 758-764; Empress Shōtoku, 764-770.
765 天平神護 Tenpyō-jingo "heavenly peace and divine protection" also Tenbyō-jingo or Tenhei-jingo
767 神護景雲 Jingo-keiun "divine protection and cloudy view"
770 宝亀 Hōki "treasure turtle" Emperor Kōnin, 770-781.
781 天応 Ten'ō "heavenly answer" Emperor Kammu, 781-806.
782 延暦 Enryaku "prolonged calendar"
Heian period (794-1192)
806 大同 Daidō "great similarity" Emperor Heizei, 806-809; Emperor Saga, 809-823.
810 弘仁 Kōnin "broad virtue" Emperor Junna, 823-833.
824 天長 Tenchō "heavenly length" Emperor Ninmyō, 833-850.
834 承和 Jōwa "Flourishing Treasure also Shōwa or Sōwa
848 嘉祥 Kashō "Good Augury also Kajō; Emperor Montoku, 850-858.
851 仁寿 Ninju "virtuous long life"
854 斉衡 Saikō "adjusted equilibrium"
857 天安 Ten'an "heavenly peace" also Tennan; Emperor Seiwa, 858-876.
859 貞観 Jōgan "righteous appearance" Emperor Yōzei, 876-884.
877 元慶 Gangyō "former jubilation" also Gankyō or Genkei; Emperor Kōkō, 884-887.
885 仁和 Ninna "virtuous peace" also Ninwa; Emperor Uda, 887-897.
889 寛平 Kanpyō "tolerant balance" also Kanpei or Kanbyō or Kanbei or Kanhei; Emperor Daigo, 887-930.
898 昌泰 Shōtai "prosperous calm"
901 延喜 Engi "prolonged rejoice"
923 延長 Enchō "prolonged chief" Emperor Suzaku, 930-946.
931 承平 Jōhei "receive balance" also Shōhei
938 天慶 Tengyō "heavenly jubilation" also Tenkei or Tenkyō; Emperor Murakami, 946-967.
947 天暦 Tenryaku "heavenly almanac" also Tenreki
957 天徳 Tentoku "heavenly benevolence"
961 応和 Ōwa "answered peace"
964 康保 Kōhō "guaranteed ease" Emperor Reizei, 967-969.
968 安和 Anna "calm peace" also Anwa; Emperor En'yū, 969-984.
970 天禄 Tenroku "heavenly fief"
973 天延 Ten'en "prolonged heaven"
976 貞元 Jōgen "righteous origins" also Teigen
978 天元 Tengen "heavenly origins"
983 永観 Eikan "eternal view" also Yōkan; Emperor Kazan, 984-986.
985 寛和 Kanna "tolerant peace" also Kanwa; Emperor Ichijō, 986-1011.
987 永延 Eien "prolonged eternity" also Yōen
988 永祚 Eiso "eternal imperial throne" also Yōso
990 正暦 Shōryaku "true almanac" also Jōryaku or Shōreki
995 長徳 Chōtoku "chief benevolence"
999 長保 Chōhō "chief guarantee"
1004 寛弘 Kankō ... Emperor Sanjō, 1011-1016.
1012 長和 Chōwa ... Emperor Go-Ichijō, 1016-1036.
1017 寛仁 Kannin ...
1021 治安 Jian ... also Chian
1024 万寿 Manju ...
1028 長元 Chōgen ... Emperor Go-Suzaku, 1036-1045.
1037 長暦 Chōryaku ... also Chōreki
1040 長久 Chōkyū ...
1044 寛徳 Kantoku ... Emperor Go-Reizei, 1045-1068.
1046 永承 Eishō ... also Eijō or Yōjō
1053 天喜 Tengi ... also Tenki
1058 康平 Kōhei ...
1065 治暦 Jiryaku ... also Chiryaku
1069 延久 Enkyū ... Emperor Go-Sanjō, 1068-1073.
1074 承保 Jōhō ... also Shōhō or Shōho; Emperor Shirakawa, 1073-1086.
1077 承暦 Jōryaku ... also Shōryaku or Shōreki
1081 永保 Eihō ... also Yōhō
1084 応徳 Ōtoku ...
1087 寛治 Kanji ... Emperor Horikawa, 1087-1107.
1094 嘉保 Kahō ...
1096 永長 Eichō ... also Yōchō
1097 承徳 Jōtoku ... also Shōtoku
1099 康和 Kōwa ...
1104 長治 Chōji ...
1106 嘉承 Kajō ... also Kashō or Kasō; Emperor Toba, 1107-1123.
1108 天仁 Tennin ...
1110 天永 Ten'ei ... also Ten'yō
1113 永久 Eikyū ... also Yōkyū
1118 元永 Gen'ei ...
1120 保安 Hōan ... Emperor Sutoku, 1123-1142.
1124 天治 Tenji ... also Tenchi
1126 大治 Daiji ... also Taiji
1131 天承 Tenshō ... also Tenjō
1132 長承 Chōshō ... also Chōjō
1135 保延 Hōen ...
1141 永治 Eiji ...
1142 康治 Kōji ... Emperor Konoe, 1142-1155.
1144 天養 Ten'yō ... also Tennyō
1145 久安 Kyūan ...
1151 仁平 Ninpei ... also Ninpyō or Ninbyō or Ninhyō or Ninhei
1154 久寿 Kyūju ... Emperor Go-Shirakawa, 1155-1158.
1156 保元 Hōgen ... also Hogen; Emperor Nijō, 1158-1165.
1159 平治 Heiji ... also Byōji
1160 永暦 Eiryaku ... also Yōryaku
1161 応保 Ōhō ...
1163 長寛 Chōkan ... also Chōgan
1165 永万 Eiman ... also Yōman; Emperor Rokujō, 1165-1168.
1166 仁安 Nin'an ... also Ninnan; Emperor Takakura, 1168-1180.
1169 嘉応 Kaō ...
1171 承安 Jōan ... also Shōan
1175 安元 Angen ...
1177 治承 Jishō ... also Jijō or Chishō; Emperor Antoku, 1180-1185.
1181 養和 Yōwa ...
1182 寿永 Juei ... Emperor Go-Toba, 1183-1198.
1184 元暦 Genryaku ...
1185 文治 Bunji ... also Monchi
1190 建久 Kenkyū ... Emperor Tsuchimikado, 1198-1210.
Kamakura period (1192-1333)
1199 正治 Shōji ...
1201 建仁 Kennin ...
1204 元久 Genkyū ...
1206 建永 Ken'ei ... also Ken'yō
1207 承元 Jōgen ... also Shōgen; Emperor Juntoku, 1210-1221.
1211 建暦 Kenryaku ...
1213 建保 Kenpō ... also Kenhō
1219 承久 Jōkyū ... also Shōkyū; Emperor Chūkyō, 1221;. Emperor Go-Horikawa, 1221-1232.
1222 貞応 Jōō "righteous answer" also Teiō
1224 元仁 Gennin ...
1225 嘉禄 Karoku ...
1227 安貞 Antei ... also Anjō
1229 寛喜 Kangi ... also Kanki
1232 貞永 Jōei ... also Teiei; Emperor Shijō, 1232-1242.
1233 天福 Tenpuku ... also Tenfuku
1234 文暦 Bunryaku ... also Monryaku or Monreki
1235 嘉禎 Katei ...
1238 暦仁 Ryakunin ... also Rekinin
1239 延応 En'ō ... also Ennō
1240 仁治 Ninji ... also Ninchi; Emperor Go-Saga, 1242-1246.
1243 寛元 Kangen ... Emperor Go-Fukakusa, 1246-1260.
1247 宝治 Hōji ...
1249 建長 Kenchō ...
1256 康元 Kōgen ... Emperor Kameyama, 1260-1274.
1257 正嘉 Shōka ...
1259 正元 Shōgen ...
1260 文応 Bun'ō ... also Bunnō
1261 弘長 Kōchō ...
1264 文永 Bun'ei ... Emperor Go-Uda, 1274-1287.
1275 建治 Kenji ...
1278 弘安 Kōan ... Emperor Fushimi, 1287-1298.
1288 正応 Shōō ...
1293 永仁 Einin ... Emperor Go-Fushimi, 1298-1301.
1299 正安 Shōan ... Emperor Go-Nijō, 1301-1308.
1302 乾元 Kengen ...
1303 嘉元 Kagen ...
1306 徳治 Tokuji ...
1308 延慶 Enkyō ... also Engyō or Enkei; Emperor Hanazono, 1308-1318.
1311 応長 Ōchō ...
1312 正和 Shōwa ...
1317 文保 Bunpō ... also Bunhō; Emperor Go-Daigo, 1318-1339.
1319 元応 Gen'ō ... also Gennō
1321 元亨 Genkō ...
1324 正中 Shōchū ...
1326 嘉暦 Karyaku ...
1329 元徳 Gentoku ...
1331 元弘 Genkō ...
1334 建武 Kenmu ... also Kenbu
Nanboku-chō period (1334-1392)
*Nanboku-chō Southern Court
1336 延元 Engen ...
1340 興国 Kōkoku ...
1346 正平 Shōhei ...
1370 建徳 Kentoku ...
1372 文中 Bunchū ...
1375 天授 Tenju ...
1381 弘和 Kōwa ...
1384 元中 Genchū ... Genchū 9 becomes Meitoku 3 in post Nanboku-chō reunification
*Nanboku-chō Northern Court
1332 正慶 Shōkei ... also Shōkyō
1333 Northern court not in existence between 1333 and 1336; no era names apply from 1333 to 1338.
1338 暦応 Ryakuō ... also Rekiō
1342 康永 Kōei ...
1345 貞和 Jōwa ... also Teiwa
1350 観応 Kannō ... also Kan'ō
1352 文和 Bunna ... also Bunwa
1356 延文 Enbun ...
1361 康安 Kōan ...
1362 貞治 Jōji ... also Teiji
1368 応安 Ōan ...
1375 永和 Eiwa ...
1379 康暦 Kōryaku ...
1381 永徳 Eitoku ...
1384 至徳 Shitoku ...
1387 嘉慶 Kakei ... also Kakyō
1389 康応 Kōō ...
1390 明徳 Meitoku ... Meitoku 3 replaces Genchū 9 in post-Nanboku-chō reunification
Muromachi period (1392-1573)
1394 応永 Ōei ... Emperor Shōkō, 1412-1428.
1428 正長 Shōchō ... Emperor Go-Hanazono, 1428-1464.
1429 永享 Eikyō ... also Eikō
1441 嘉吉 Kakitsu ... also Kakichi
1444 文安 Bun'an ... also Bunnan
1449 宝徳 Hōtoku ...
1452 享徳 Kyōtoku ...
1455 康正 Kōshō ...
1457 長禄 Chōroku ...
1460 寛正 Kanshō ... Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado, 1464-1500.
1466 文正 Bunshō ... also Monshō
1467 応仁 Ōnin ...
1469 文明 Bunmei ...
1487 長享 Chōkyō ...
1489 延徳 Entoku ...
1492 明応 Meiō ... Emperor Go-Kashiwabara, 1500-1526.
1501 文亀 Bunki ...
1504 永正 Eishō ...
1521 大永 Daiei ... Emperor Go-Nara, 1526-1557.
1528 享禄 Kyōroku "heaven's favor"
1532 天文 Tenbun ... also Tenmon
1555 弘治 Kōji ... Emperor Ōgimachi, 1557-1586.
1558 永禄 Eiroku ...
1570 元亀 Genki ...
1573 天正 Tenshō ... Emperor Go-Yōzei, 1586-1611.
1592 文禄 Bunroku ...
1596 慶長 Keichō ... also Kyōchō; Emperor Go-Mizunoo, 1611-1629.
Edo period (1603-1867)
1615 元和 Genna "Commencement of Concord" also Genwa
1624 寛永 Kan'ei ... Empress Meishō, 1629-1643; Emperor Go-Kōmyō, 1643-1654.
1644 正保 Shōhō ...
1648 慶安 Keian "Peaceful Gladness also Kyōan
1652 承応 Jōō "receiving answers" also Shōō; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655-1663.
1655 明暦 Meireki ... also Myōryaku or Meiryaku
1658 万治 Manji ...
1661 寛文 Kanbun "generous art" Emperor Reigen, 1663-1687.
1673 延宝 Enpō "prolonged wealth" also Enhō
1681 天和 Tenna "heavenly Imperial peace" also Tenwa
1684 貞享 Jōkyō ... Emperor Higashiyama, 1687-1709.
1688 元禄 Genroku "original happiness"
1704 宝永 Hōei "prosperous eternity" Emperor Nakamikado, 1709-1735.
1711 正徳 Shōtoku "righteous virtue"
1716 享保 Kyōhō "Receiving, Holding Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735-1747.
1736 元文 Genbun "original civility"
1741 寛保 Kanpō "keeping lenient and generous" also Kanhō
1744 延享 Enkyō "becoming prolonged" Emperor Momozono, 1747-1762.
1748 寛延 Kan'en "prolonging lenience"
1751 宝暦 Hōreki "valuable calendar" or "valuable almanac" also Hōryaku; Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762-1771.
1764 明和 Meiwa "bright harmony" Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771-1779.
1772 安永 An'ei "peaceful eternity" Emperor Kōkaku, 1780-1817.
1781 天明 Tenmei "dawn"
1789 寛政 Kansei "tolerant" or "broad-minded government"}
1801 享和 Kyōwa ...
1804 文化 Bunka "culture" or "civilization" Emperor Ninkō, 1817-1846.
1818 文政 Bunsei ...
1830 天保 Tenpō "heavenly Imperial protection" also Tenhō
1844 弘化 Kōka "becoming wide or vast" Emperor Kōmei, 1846-1867.
1848 嘉永 Kaei "Celebration of Eternity "eternal felicity"
1854 安政 Ansei "quiet peaceful government" "tranquil government"
1860 万延 Man'en ...
1861 文久 Bunkyū "literate story"
1864 元治 Genji "original rule"
1865 慶応 Keiō "Joyous Concord"
Modern Japan (1868-present)
1868 明治 Meiji "Enlightened Rule" Emperor Meiji, 1868-1912. Also known as "Enlightened Government" or "Brilliant Rule"
1912 大正 Taishō "great righteousness" Emperor Taishō, 1912-1926.
1926 昭和 Shōwa "Brilliant Harmony" Emperor Shōwa, 1926-1989.
1989 平成 Heisei "Achieving Peace" Akihito, 1989-present [the reigning emperor].

Non-nengō periods

The nengō system that was introduced by Emperor Kōtoku was abandoned after his death; no nengō were designated between 654 and 686. The system was briefly reinstated by Emperor Temmu in 686, but was again abandoned upon his death approximately two months later. In 701, Emperor Mommu once again reinstated the nengō system, and it has continued uninterrupted through today.

Although use of the Gregorian calendar for historical dates has become increasingly common in Japan, the traditional Japanese system demands that dates be written in reference to nengō. The apparent problem introduced by the lack of nengō for the two periods above is resolved by referencing years of imperial reign. This is the same approach used when referencing periods that predate the introduction of the nengō system.

Although in modern Japan posthumous imperial names correspond with the eras of their reign, this is a relatively recent concept, introduced in practice during the Meiji period and instituted by law in 1979. Therefore, the posthumous names of the emperors and empresses who reigned prior to 1868 may not be taken as era names by themselves. For example, the year 572 -- the year in which Emperor Bidatsu assumed the Chrysanthemum Throne — is properly written as "敏達天皇元年" (Bidatsu-Tennō Gannen, lit. "the first year of Emperor Bidatsu"), and not "敏達元年" (Bidatsu Gannen, lit. "the first year of Bidatsu"), although it may be abbreviated as such. By incorporating both proper era names and posthumous imperial names in this manner, it is possible to extend the nengō system to cover all dates from 660 through today.

The following is an example of such an extension of the nengō system to include the post-Taika years not covered by a proper era name:

  • Reign of Emperor Jimmu, 660-581 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suizei, 581-548 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Annei, 548-510 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Itoku, 510-475 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōshō, 475-392 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōan, 392-290 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōrei, 290-214 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kōgen, 214-157 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Kaika, 157-97 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Sujin, 97-29 BC
  • Reign of Emperor Suinin, 29-71
  • Reign of Emperor Keikō, 71-131
  • Reign of Emperor Seimu, 131-192
  • Reign of Emperor Chūai, 192-201
  • Regency of Empress Jingū, 201-270
  • Reign of Emperor Ōjin, 270-313
  • Reign of Emperor Nintoku, 313-400
  • Reign of Emperor Richū, 400-406
  • Reign of Emperor Hanzei, 406-412
  • Reign of Emperor Ingyō, 412-454
  • Reign of Emperor Ankō, 454-457
  • Reign of Emperor Yūryaku, 457-480
  • Reign of Emperor Seinei, 480-485
  • Reign of Emperor Kenzō, 485-488
  • Reign of Emperor Ninken, 488-499
  • Reign of Emperor Buretsu, 499-507
  • Reign of Emperor Keitai, 507-534
  • Reign of Emperor Ankan, 534-536
  • Reign of Emperor Senka, 536-540
  • Reign of Emperor Kinmei, 540-572
  • Reign of Emperor Bidatsu, 572-586
  • Reign of Emperor Yōmei, 586-588
  • Reign of Emperor Sushun, 588-593
  • Reign of Emperor Suiko, 593-629
  • Reign of Emperor Jomei, 629-645
  • Taika era, 645-650
  • Hakuchi era, 650–654
  • Discontinuation of the nengō system, 654-686
  • Shuchō era, 686
  • Discontinuation of the nengō system, 686-701
  • Taihō era, 701-704

Imperial year

Kōki (皇紀), or Imperial year, is an epoch used before WW2. Kōki 1 is the year when Emperor Jimmu founded Japan, 660 BC according to the Gregorian Calendar. This epoch system was adopted in 1872. In terms of nationalism, Kōki emphasizes the long history of Japan and the imperial family because it is a larger number than Common Era (C.E.).

Kōki 2600 (1940) was a special year. 1940 Summer Olympics and Tokyo Expo were planned as anniversary events, but canceled due to Second Sino-Japanese War.

After the Second World War, the United States occupied Japan, and stopped the use of Kōki by officials. Today, Kōki is rarely used.

Unofficial nengō system

In addition to the official nengō system, in which the era names are selected by the imperial court, one also observes—primarily in the ancient documents and epigraphs of shrines and temples—unofficial era names called , also known as or . Currently, there are over 40 confirmed shinengō, most of them dating from the middle ages. Shinengō used prior to the reestablishment of the nengō system in 701 are usually called . A list of shinengō and more information can be seen in the Japanese Wikipedia page 私年号#日本の私年号一覧.

Because official records of shinengō are lacking, the range of dates to which they apply is often unclear. For example, the well-known itsunengō is normally said to refer to 650-654 CE; a poetic synonym for the Hakuchi era. However, alternate interpretations exist. For example, in the Nichūreki, Hakuhō refers to 661-683 CE, and in some middle-age temple documents, Hakuhō refers to 672-685 CE. Thus, shinengō may be used as an alternative way of dating periods for which there is no official era name.

Other well-known itsunengō and shinengō include (591-621+), (686), (1489-1492), (1506-1507 CE or 1507-1508) and (1540-1543).

The most recent shinengō is (1904-1905), named for the Russo-Japanese war.

Kyūshū nengō

Edo period scholar Tsurumine Shikenobu proposed that , said to have been used in ancient Kumaso, should also be considered a form of shinengō. This claim is not generally recognized by the academic community. Lists of the proposed Kyūshū nengō can be seen in the Japanese Wikipedia pages 鶴峯戊申#襲国偽僣考 and 九州王朝説#九州年号表.

Notes

References

See also

External links

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