A bipolar (junction) transistor (BJT) is a type of transistor. It is a three-terminal device constructed of doped semiconductor material and may be used in amplifying or switching applications. Bipolar transistors are so named because their operation involves both electrons and holes, as opposed to unipolar transistors, such as field-effect transistors, in which only one carrier type is involved in charge flow.
Although a small part of the transistor current is due to the flow of majority carriers, most of the transistor current is due to the flow of minority carriers and so BJTs are classified as 'minority-carrier' devices.
|- align = "center" | || PNP |- align = "center" | || NPN
An NPN transistor can be considered as two diodes with a shared anode region. In typical operation, the emitter–base junction is forward biased and the base–collector junction is reverse biased. In an NPN transistor, for example, when a positive voltage is applied to the base–emitter junction, the equilibrium between thermally generated carriers and the repelling electric field of the depletion region becomes unbalanced, allowing thermally excited electrons to inject into the base region. These electrons wander (or "diffuse") through the base from the region of high concentration near the emitter towards the region of low concentration near the collector. The electrons in the base are called minority carriers because the base is doped p-type which would make holes the majority carrier in the base.
The base region of the transistor must be made thin, so that carriers can diffuse across it in much less time than the semiconductor's minority carrier lifetime, to minimize the percentage of carriers that recombine before reaching the collector–base junction. To ensure this, the thickness of the base is much less than the diffusion length of the electrons. The collector–base junction is reverse-biased, so little electron injection occurs from the collector to the base, but electrons that diffuse through the base towards the collector are swept into the collector by the electric field in the depletion region of the collector–base junction.
The physical explanation for collector current is the amount of minority-carrier charge in the base region. Detailed models of transistor action, such as the Gummel–Poon model, account for the distribution of this charge explicitly to explain transistor behavior more exactly. The charge-control view easily handles photo-transistors, where minority carriers in the base region are created by the absorption of photons, and handles the dynamics of turn-off, or recovery time, which depends on charge in the base region recombining. However, since base charge is not a signal that is visible at the terminals, the current- and voltage-control views are usually used in circuit design and analysis.
In analog circuit design, the current-control view is sometimes used since it is approximately linear. That is, the collector current is approximately times the base current. Some basic circuits can be designed by assuming that the emitter–base voltage is approximately constant, and that collector current is beta times the base current. However, to accurately and reliably design production BJT circuits, the voltage-control (for example, Ebers–Moll) model is required The voltage-control model requires an exponential function to be taken into account, but when it is linearized such that the transistor can be modelled as a transconductance, as in the Ebers–Moll model, design for circuits such as differential amplifiers again becomes a mostly linear problem, so the voltage-control view is often preferred. For translinear circuits, in which the exponential I–V curve is key to the operation, the transistors are usually modelled as voltage controlled with transconductance proportional to collector current. In general, transistor level circuit design is performed using SPICE or a comparable analogue circuit simulator, so model complexity is usually not of much concern to the designer.
A BJT consists of three differently doped semiconductor regions, the emitter region, the base region and the collector region. These regions are, respectively, p type, n type and p type in a PNP, and n type, p type and n type in a NPN transistor. Each semiconductor region is connected to a terminal, appropriately labeled: emitter (E), base (B) and collector (C).
The base is physically located between the emitter and the collector and is made from lightly doped, high resistivity material. The collector surrounds the emitter region, making it almost impossible for the electrons injected into the base region to escape being collected, thus making the resulting value of α very close to unity, and so, giving the transistor a large β. A cross section view of a BJT indicates that the collector–base junction has a much larger area than the emitter–base junction.
The bipolar junction transistor, unlike other transistors, is usually not a symmetrical device. This means that interchanging the collector and the emitter makes the transistor leave the forward active mode and start to operate in reverse mode. Because the transistor's internal structure is usually optimized to forward-mode operation, interchanging the collector and the emitter makes the values of α and β in reverse operation much smaller than those found in forward operation; often the α of the reverse mode is lower than 0.5. The lack of symmetry is primarily due to the doping ratios of the emitter and the collector. The emitter is heavily doped, while the collector is lightly doped, allowing a large reverse bias voltage to be applied before the collector–base junction breaks down. The collector–base junction is reverse biased in normal operation. The reason the emitter is heavily doped is to increase the emitter injection efficiency: the ratio of carriers injected by the emitter to those injected by the base. For high current gain, most of the carriers injected into the emitter–base junction must come from the emitter.
The low-performance "lateral" bipolar transistors sometimes used in CMOS processes are sometimes designed symmetrically, that is, with no difference between forward and backward operation.
Small changes in the voltage applied across the base–emitter terminals causes the current that flows between the emitter and the collector to change significantly. This effect can be used to amplify the input voltage or current. BJTs can be thought of as voltage-controlled current sources, but are more simply characterized as current-controlled current sources, or current amplifiers, due to the low impedance at the base.
Early transistors were made from germanium but most modern BJTs are made from silicon. A significant minority are also now made from gallium arsenide, especially for very high speed applications (see HBT, below).
NPN is one of the two types of bipolar transistors, in which the letters "N" and "P" refer to the majority charge carriers inside the different regions of the transistor. Most bipolar transistors used today are NPN, because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility in semiconductors, allowing greater currents and faster operation.
NPN transistors consist of a layer of P-doped semiconductor (the "base") between two N-doped layers. A small current entering the base in common-emitter mode is amplified in the collector output. In other terms, an NPN transistor is "on" when its base is pulled high relative to the emitter.
The arrow in the NPN transistor symbol is on the emitter leg and points in the direction of the conventional current flow when the device is in forward active mode.
One mnemonic device for identifying the symbol for the NPN transistor is "not pointing in" or "never points in".
The other type of BJT is the PNP with the letters "P" and "N" referring to the majority charge carriers inside the different regions of the transistor.
PNP transistors consist of a layer of N-doped semiconductor between two layers of P-doped material. A small current leaving the base in common-emitter mode is amplified in the collector output. In other terms, a PNP transistor is "on" when its base is pulled low relative to the emitter.
The arrow in the PNP transistor symbol is on the emitter leg and points in the direction of the conventional current flow when the device is in forward active mode.
One mnemonic device for identifying the symbol for the PNP transistor is "points in proudly" or "points in permanently".
The heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is an improvement of the BJT that can handle signals of very high frequencies up to several hundred GHz. It is common nowadays in ultrafast circuits, mostly RF systems. Heterojunction transistors have different semiconductors for the elements of the transistor. Usually the emitter is composed of a larger bandgap material than the base. The figure shows that this difference in bandgap allows the barrier for holes to inject backward into the base, denoted in figure as Δφp, to be made large, while the barrier for electrons to inject into the base Δφn is made low. This barrier arrangement helps reduce minority carrier injection from the base when the emitter-base junction is under forward bias, and thus reduces base current and increases emitter injection efficiency.
The improved injection of carriers into the base allows the base to have a higher doping level, resulting in lower resistance to access the base electrode. In the more traditional BJT, also referred to as homojunction BJT, the efficiency of carrier injection from the emitter to the base is primarily determined by the doping ratio between the emitter and base, which means the base must be lightly doped to obtain high injection efficiency, making its resistance relatively high. In addition, higher doping in the base can improve figures of merit like the Early voltage by lessening base narrowing.
The grading of composition in the base, for example, by progressively increasing the amount of germanium in a SiGe transistor, causes a gradient in bandgap in the neutral base, denoted in the figure by ΔφG, providing a "built-in" field that assists electron transport across the base. That drift component of transport aids the normal diffusive transport, increasing the frequency response of the transistor by shortening the transit time across the base.
Two commonly used HBTs are silicon–germanium and aluminum gallium arsenide, though a wide variety of semiconductors may be used for the HBT structure. HBT structures are usually grown by epitaxy techniques like MOCVD and MBE.
The diagram opposite is a schematic representation of an npn transistor connected to two voltage sources. To make the transistor conduct appreciable current (on the order of 1 mA) from C to E, must be above a minimum value sometimes referred to as the cut-in voltage. The cut-in voltage is usually about 600 mV for silicon BJTs, but can be different depending on the current level selected for the application and the type of transistor. This applied voltage causes the lower p-n junction to 'turn-on' allowing a flow of electrons from the emitter into the base. Because of the electric field existing between base and collector (caused by ), the majority of these electrons cross the upper p-n junction into the collector to form the collector current, . The remainder of the electrons recombine with holes, the majority carriers in the base, making a current through the base connection to form the base current, . As shown in the diagram, the emitter current, , is the total transistor current which is the sum of the other terminal currents. That is:
In the diagram, the arrows representing current point in the direction of the electric or conventional current—the flow of electrons is in the opposite direction of the arrows since electrons carry negative electric charge. The ratio of the collector current to the base current is called the DC current gain. This gain is usually quite large and is often 100 or more.
It should also be noted that the emitter current is related to exponentially. At room temperature, increasing by about 60 mV increases the emitter current by a factor of 10. The base current is approximately proportional to the emitter current, so it varies the same way.
Bipolar transistors have five distinct regions of operation, defined mostly by applied bias:
While these regions are well defined for sufficiently large applied voltage, they overlap somewhat for small (less than a few hundred millivolts) biases. For example, in the typical grounded-emitter configuration of an NPN BJT used as a pulldown switch in digital logic, the "off" state never involves a reverse-biased junction because the base voltage never goes below ground; nevertheless the forward bias is close enough to zero that essentially no current flows, so this end of the forward active region can be regarded as the cutoff region.
The collector current is slightly less than the emitter current, since the value of is very close to 1.0. In the BJT a small amount of base–emitter current causes a larger amount of collector–emitter current. The ratio of the allowed collector–emitter current to the base–emitter current is called current gain, β or . A β value of 100 is typical for small bipolar transistors. In a typical configuration, a very small signal current flows through the base–emitter junction to control the emitter–collector current. β is related to α through the following relations:
Emitter Efficiency : ; that is, the ratio of current injected into the base to the current in the emitter; the two differ due to backward injection from the base into the emitter and to recombination. See carrier generation and recombination.
The unapproximated Ebers-Moll equations used to describe the three currents in any operating region are given below. These equations are based on the transport model for a bipolar junction transistor. See, for example, Sedra and Smith.
As the applied collector–base voltage () varies, the collector–base depletion region varies in size. An increase in the collector–base voltage, for example, causes a greater reverse bias across the collector–base junction, increasing the collector–base depletion region width, and decreasing the width of the base. This variation in base width often is called the "Early effect" after its discoverer James M. Early.
Narrowing of the base width has two consequences:
Both factors increase the collector or "output" current of the transistor in response to an increase in the collector–base voltage.
In the forward active region the Early effect modifies the collector current () and the forward common emitter current gain () as given by the following equations:
The following assumptions are involved when deriving ideal current-voltage characteristics of the BJT
It is important to characterize the minority diffusion currents induced by injection of carriers.
With regard to pn junction diode, a key relation is the diffusion equation.
A solution of this equation is below, and two boundary conditions are used to solve and find and .
The following equations apply to the emitter and collector region, respectively, and the origins , , and apply to the base, collector, and emitter.
A boundary condition of the emitter is below:
The values of the constants and are zero due to the following conditions of the emitter and collector regions as and .
Since , the values of and are and , respectively.
Expressions of and can be evaluated.
Since insignificant recombination occurs, the second derivative of is zero. There is therefore a linear relationship between excess hole density and .
The following are boundary conditions of .
Substitute into the above linear relation.
With this result, derive value of .
Use the expressions of , , , and to develop an expression of the emitter current.
Similarly, an expression of the collector current is derived.
An expression of the base current is found with the previous results.
Another model commonly used to analyse BJT circuits is the "h-parameter" model, closely related to the hybrid-pi model and the y-parameter two-port, but using input current and output voltage as independent variables, rather than input and output voltages. This two-port network is particularly suited to BJTs as it lends itself easily to the analysis of circuit behaviour, and may be used to develop further accurate models. As shown, the term "x" in the model represents the BJT lead depending on the topology used. For common-emitter mode the various symbols take on the specific values as –
and the h-parameters are given by –
As shown, the h-parameters have lower-case subscripts and hence signify AC conditions or analyses. For DC conditions they are specified in upper-case. For the CE topology, an approximate h-parameter model is commonly used which further simplifies the circuit analysis. For this the hoe and hre parameters are neglected (that is, they are set to infinity and zero, respectively). It should also be noted that the h-parameter model as shown is suited to low-frequency, small-signal analysis. For high-frequency analyses the inter-electrode capacitances that are important at high frequencies must be added.
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