Epistemics is a term coined in 1969 by Edinburgh University with the foundation of its School of Epistemics. It is to be distinguished from Epistemology in that this is the philosophical theory of knowledge, whereas epistemics signifies the scientific study of knowledge. Epistemics is also compared to Cognitive Science.
Christopher Longuet-Higgins has defined it as "the construction of formal models of the processes - perceptual, intellectual, and linguistic - by which knowledge and understanding are achieved and communicated".
In his Epistemics: The Regulative Theory of Cognition ,The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 75, No. 10, Oct, 1978., Alvin J. Goldman claims to have coined the term Epistemics to describe his new theory that advocated a reorientation of epistemology. He uses the term to differentiate between Epistemics and epistemology. Despite the terminology, however, Goldman maintains that his epistemics is continuous with traditional epistemology and the new term is only to avoid opposition. Epistemics, in Goldman's version, differs only slightly from traditional epistemology in its alliance with the psychology of cognition. Epistemics stresses the detailed study of mental processess and information-processing mechanisms that lead to knowledge or beliefs.
Epistemics may be understood as the science that deals with the noetic mechanics involved in the attainment of knowledge.
Epistemics refers to the noetic mechanics involved in coming to some knowledge. While epistemology refers to the study of knowledge, epistemics goes beyond this to combine psychological and philosophical studies in human knowledge to understand the why and how of epistemic (or knowledge-related) conclusions. Epistemics of Divine Reality refers to the noetic-mechanics involved in coming to a belief in God. Why do people believe what they believe about God? Are the means employed to knowledge valid or invalid? Such are questions that must be seriously asked.