long, exalted narrative poem, usually on a serious subject, centered on a heroic figure. The earliest epics, known as primary, or original, epics, were shaped from the legends of an age when a nation was conquering and expanding; such is the foundation of the Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh, of the Iliad
and the Odyssey
of the Greek Homer, and of the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf.
Literary, or secondary, epics, written in conscious imitation of earlier forms, are most notably represented by Vergil's Aeneid
and Milton's Paradise Lost.
The epic, which makes great demands on a poet's knowledge and skill, has been deemed the most ambitious of poetic forms. Some of its conventions, followed by epic writers in varying degrees, include a hero who embodies national, cultural, or religious ideals and upon whose actions depends to some degree the fate of his people; a course of action in which the hero performs great and difficult deeds; a whole era in the history of civilization; the intervention and recognition of divine or supernatural powers; the concern with eternal human problems; and a dignified and elaborate poetic style. Other works classified as epics are the Indian Mahabharata
the French Song of Roland,
the Spanish Song of the Cid,
the Germanic Niebelungenlied,
Dante's Divine Comedy,
Tasso's Gerusaleme Liberta,
Ariosto's Orlando Furioso,
Spenser's Faerie Queene,
and Camões's Lusiads.
A mock epic is a form of satire in which trivial characters and events are treated with all the exalted epic conventions and are made to look ridiculous by the incongruity. The plot of Pope's Rape of the Lock,
one of the most famous mock epics, is based on a quarrel over the theft of a lady's curl.
See studies by Sir C. M. Bowra (1961), H. V. Routh (2 vol., 1927; repr. 1968), C. A. Yu (1973), J. Ingalls (1984), and J. K. Newman (1986).
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