Entomophthorales

Entomophthorales

The Entomophthorales are an order of fungi that has traditionally been classified in the class Zygomycetes. Most species of the Entomophthorales are pathogens of insects, a few attack nematodes, mites, and tardigrades, and some (particularly the genus Conidiobolus) are free-living saprotrophs.

The name Entomophthorales is derived from the Greek for insect destroyer (Gk: entomo=insect, phthor=destroyer)

Highlighted species

Biology

Most species of the Entomophthorales produce ballistic asexual spores that are forcibly discharged. When not landing on a suitable host, these spores can germinate to make a one of several alternate spore forms, including a smaller version of the original spore, or (in some species) an adhesive spore elevated on a very slender conidiophore called a capilliconidiophore.

Classification

Recent debate has centered on whether the Basidiobolaceae should be included in the Entomophthorales, or raised to ordinal status. Molecular systematics approaches so far give an ambiguous answer. Some analyses suggest the Basdiobolaceae are more closely related to certain chytrid fungi than to the Entomophthorales (Nagahama et al. 1995). Others find weak support to maintain them in the Entomophthorales (James et al. 2006). Morphological characters can be found to support either hypothesis.

References

  • C.J. Alexopoulos, Charles W. Mims, M. Blackwell et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed. (John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken NJ, 2004) ISBN: 0-471-52229-5.
  • Balazy, S. 1993, Entomophthorales: Flora of Poland (Flora Polska), Fungi (Mycota), v. 24. Kraków, Poland, Polish Academy of Science, W. Szafer Inst. Botany.
  • Humber, R. A. 1989. Synopsis of a revised classification for the Entomophthorales (Zygomycotina). Mycotaxon 34:441-460.
  • James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio et al. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443:818-823.
  • Nagahama, T., H. Sato, M. Shimazu, and J. Sugiyama. 1995. Phylogenetic divergence of the entomophthoralean fungi: evidence from nuclear 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Mycologia 87:203-209.
  • Thaxter, R. 1888. The Entomophthoreae of the United States. Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History 4:133-201.

External links

G. Benny. Entomophthorales section of Zygomycetes.org

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