Definitions

enthrallment

Socionics

Socionics (соционика) is a theory of information processing that incorporates elements of Carl Jung's work on Psychological Types, Freud's theory of the conscious and subconscious mind, and Antoni Kępiński's theory of information metabolism. It has Jung's typology in base supplemented by the idea of personality type model with all 8 information aspects (unlike Jung's 4-aspect model) and the idea of type-level interpersonal interaction (intertype relations). The theory was developed in the 1970s and 80s mainly by the Lithuanian researcher Aušra Augustinavičiūtė, a financier and teacher of political economics. The name socionics is derived from the word "society", since Augustinavičiūtė believed that each personality type has a distinct purpose in society, which can be described and explained by socionics.

The central idea of socionics is that information is divided into 8 different categories ("information elements"), which a person's psyche processes using "psychological functions." Different orderings of these functions result in different ways of perceiving, processing, and producing information, which in turn result in distinct thinking patterns, values, behavior, and thus different personality types. Socionics also features a theory of intertype relations which examines the interaction of these functions among types. Socionics has thus far been developed through introspection and observation; despite describing a wide range of human behavior and interaction, it has no sufficient experimental substantiation for the present.

Jung's psychological types

Carl Jung describes four psychological functions that are capable of becoming conscious, but in different degrees at concrete human :

  • Sensation - all perceptions by means of the sense organs
  • Intuition - perception by way of the unconscious, or perception of unconscious events
  • Thinking (logic) - interpretation of information based on whether it is correct or incorrect
  • Feeling (ethics) - interpretation of information based on its ethical aspects

Each of this functions can be in extraverted [Jung used notation with 'extra', but not 'extro'] or introverted form. If the dominant function in psychological type is extraverted - the type is extraverted, if the dominant function is introverted - the type is introverted.

Sensation and intuition are called irrational or perceiving functions, and are thus named because unlike the rational or judging functions (i.e., thinking and feeling), they deal with raw perception of reality rather than the interpretation of it. If the dominant function is rational - the type is rational, if the dominant function is irrational - the type is irrational.

Beside dominant function, there is auxiliary function. If dominant function is extraverted, auxiliary is introverted; and vice versa, if dominant function is introverted, auxiliary is extraverted. If dominant function is rational, auxiliary is irrational; and vice versa, if dominant function is irrational, auxiliary is rational. For example, if dominant function is extraverted intuition, then auxiliary function can be introverted thinking or introverted feeling (there are 2 types with dominant extraverted intuition).

Jung's model of psychological type has all 4 functions (but with no account taken of their extraverted/introverted forms). Jung believed, that dominant function is first by parameter of conscious, auxiliary is second, and further 3rd (or tertiary) and inferior functions are going. Jung's tertiary function has the same parameters extraverted/introverted and rational/irrational as at auxiliary function, and it is another function in pair of rational or irrational functions (for example, if auxiliary function is introverted thinking, then tertiary function is introverted feeling). Inferior function has the same parameter rational/irrational as at dominant function, and other extraverted/introverted parameter, and it is another function in pair of rational or irrational functions (for example, if dominant function is extraverted intuition, then inferior function is introverted sensation).

For example, Jung's model for 2 types: extraverted intuitive-thinking (ILE, ENTP) and introverted feeling-sensory (ESI, ISFJ)

Functions
dominant function
auxiliary function
tertiary function
inferior function
ILE
extraverted intuition
introverted thinking
introverted feeling
introverted sensation
ESI
introverted feeling
extraverted sensation
extraverted intuition
extraverted thinking

By this Jung's rules 16 psychological types exist. But in his book "Psychological Types" he described in detail only 8 types, by their 8 forms of dominant function (4 functions, each in extraverted/introverted forms).

Information elements

Information relating to Jung's 8 functions (4 functions, each in 2 forms - extraverted or intoverted) is designated in socionics as 8 information aspects, or information elements. A basic premise of socionics is that complete information about anything is encompassed in this 8 categories - information aspects. Each of these aspects of reality is processed by a psychic function. Augustinavičiūtė introduced special symbols for each of this functions to simplify discussion.

To begin discussing socionics it is crucial to see the realm in which each information element measures and experiences reality.

Function Acronym Symbol Description
Extraverted logic (thinking) Te Te is responsible for assessing the efficiency of actions, understanding of technical processes, the accomplishment of work, the efficient and prudent use of resources, factual accuracy, and the acquisition of relevant and useful information. Te understands the difference between effective and ineffective behavior when performing a procedure or accomplishing a task, and aspires to increase the frequency of productive outcomes within a system.
Introverted logic (thinking) Ti Ti is responsible for understanding logic and structure, categorizations, ordering and priorities, logical analysis and distinctions, logical explanations, and the derivation of true statements from "self-evident" rules (axioms). Ti interprets information according to how it fits into a system. Ti is particularly aware of syntactic correctness and how words relate to each other in meaning and structure.
Extraverted ethics (feeling) Fe Fe is responsible for the perception of an emotional state in an individual, and the bodily and linguistic expression of emotions. Fe is able to influence others' emotional condition and to communicate its own, "infecting" others. Fe is used especially in generating and recognizing excitement and enthusiasm.
Introverted ethics (feeling) Fi Fi is responsible for understanding the quality, nature, and proper maintenance of personal relations; makes moral judgments; and aspires to humanism and kindness. Fi has a strong understanding of the social hierarchy and how people feel about each other, their attitudes of like or dislike, enthrallment or disgust, repulsion or attraction, enmity or friendship.
Extraverted sensing Se Se is responsible for the perception, control, defense, and acquisition of space, territory, and control. It assesses objective appearance and the geometric form of subjects, estimates whether forces are in alignment or conflict, and uses strength of will and power-based methods to achieve purposes. Se understands territory and physical aggression.
Introverted sensing Si Si is responsible for perception of physical sensations; questions of comfort, coziness, and pleasure; and a sense of harmony and acclimation with one's environment (especially physical). Si understand how well a person or thing's behavior agrees with its nature as well as the differences between comfortable behaviors and positions and uncomfortable ones.
Extraverted intuition Ne Ne is responsible for understanding the essence (permanent traits) of a thing, estimating opportunities and possibilities for people and things, and visualizing potential outcomes of events. It is responsible for the sense of interest or boredom. Ne will speculate as to why an event occurs, but sees the specific event as static and unalterable.
Introverted intuition Ni Ni is responsible for the estimation of the passage of time, the understanding of a course of processes in time, and forecasting. Ni understand how things change and evolve over time and throughout history. Ni is acutely aware of events that are occurring outside of the immediate perception of the moment, and sees events as part of a continuous flow. Ni perceives the inevitability of future events and notices ties to the past.

The 16 types

Socionics theory contains 16 different psychological types. These types are most commonly specified by their two strongest functions, where Jung's functions are used. Jung described in detail 8 types based on the dominant function of the personality, and said about auxiliary function and it's properties. Socionics describes the different types based on pairs of functions, which in socionics are called the leading (dominant by Jung) function and the creative (auxiliary by Jung) function. The creative function is opposite to the leading function in extraversion and rationality. For example, if the dominant function is introverted logic (a rational and introverted function), the secondary function must be irrational and extraverted, which means the only two functions that could follow introverted thinking are extraverted sensing or extraverted intuition. Socionic types have dominant and auxiliary functions as at Jung's types, but Myers-Briggs typology has differs here. For example, type with dominant logic function is rational (judging by Myers-Briggs) type at Jung always, but this type may be perceiving (irrational by Jung) at Myers-Briggs typology.

Augustinavičiūtė usually used names like sensory-logical introvert to refer to the type. In this example the first function is introverted sensing and the secondary is logic (which must be extraverted). Augustinavičiūtė also introduced the use of names of famous persons as a moniker for each type. For example, she called the type of sensory-logical introvert Gabin or sensory-ethical introvert Dumas. Some later researchers believe that using names of famous persons is not quite appropriate and instead use names like Craftsman or Mediator to directly express the social role as precisely as possible.

In Russian, to keep the text brief, the types are labeled with three-letter acronyms, which are also used to specify the types in English, e.g., ILE, which stands for "intuitive-logical extravert". However, some authors in socionics specify socionic types using MBTI abbreviations, given the similarities present in the two theories. In order to distinguish between socionics and MBTI types using this nomenclature, a tradition of leaving the last letter uncapitalized has been established among some groups. For example, an MBTI extraverted sensing feeling judging type is often referred to as an ESFJ, while a socionics ethical-sensory extravert is referred to as an ESFj.

The following tables provide a list of types with names most commonly used in socionics:

First two functions Formal name MBTI name Social role Type alias
ILE (intuitive-logical extravert) ENTP Seeker / Inventor Don Quixote
SEI (sensory-ethical introvert) ISFP Mediator / Peacemaker Dumas
ESE (ethical-sensory extravert) ESFJ Bonvivant / Enthusiast Hugo
LII (logical-intuitive introvert) INTJ Analyst / Mastermind Robespierre (or Descartes)
EIE (ethical-intuitive extravert) ENFJ Mentor / Actor Hamlet
LSI (logical-sensory introvert) ISTJ Inspector / Pragmatist Maxim Gorky
SLE (sensory-logical extravert) ESTP Legionnaire / Conqueror Zhukov
IEI (intuitive-ethical introvert) INFP Lyricist / Romantic Yesenin
SEE (sensory-ethical extravert) ESFP Politician / Ambassador Napoleon (or Caesar)
ILI (intuitive-logical introvert) INTP Critic / Observer Balzac
LIE (logical-intuitive extravert) ENTJ Enterpriser / Pioneer Jack London
ESI (ethical-sensory introvert) ISFJ Guardian / Conservator Dreiser
LSE (logical-sensory extravert) ESTJ Administrator / Director Stirlitz (or Sherlock Holmes)
EII (ethical-intuitive introvert) INFJ Humanist / Empath Dostoyevsky
IEE (intuitive-ethical extravert) ENFP Psychologist / Reporter Huxley
SLI (sensory-logical introvert) ISTP Craftsman / Artisan Gabin

Model A

Aušra Augustinavičiūtė developed a model of personality called Model A, which includes all eight information elements, as opposed to only four information elements of Jung's model and Myers-Briggs typology. Apparently, that every human (with normal psychology, i.e. not suffering from mental defects such as autism) can perceive and process information of any among eight information aspects. A function's position in Model A reflects the nature of its usage by a particular type. The following diagram is an example of the positions of the functions as expressed in Model A (numbers of functions are in Viktor Gulenko's notation). Note that, although often these functions are numbered 1 to 8, this does not mean that the functions are ordinal in strength, as is the case in MBTI. Example for ILE (ENTP) type:

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!1
!2
!4
!3
!6
!5
!7
!8

Nature of functions

  • Function 1 - leading, program, primary, base, or dominant function. This is the strongest conscious function, and the most utilized function of the psyche. A person's outlook and role in life is largely determined by the nature of this function. One is generally very confident in the use of this function, and may defend it when challenged.
  • Function 2 - creative or secondary function, is second in influence only to the dominant function. It assists the dominant function in achieving its essence. One is generally less confident with the use of this function than with his dominant function. As a result, the creative function is sometimes less instrumental when a person is challenged or threatened, or when dealing with new and complex tasks and data.
  • Function 3 - role function, is a weak but conscious function. One generally tries to be at least adequate in areas where use of the role function is necessary. However, generally one has very little control or confidence over the role function, and criticism is painfully acknowledged with respect to it. Tactful assistance is required from one's dual-seeking function to overcome the problems associated with the role function.
  • Function 4 - place of least resistance or the painful function, is a weak and conscious function, in addition to being the weakest function of the psyche. One painfully perceives his complete inability to use this function, and reacts negatively to its imposition upon him. Tactful assistance is required from one's hidden agenda to overcome the problems associated with this function.
  • Function 5 - suggestive, or inspired function, is a weak and unconscious function which is largely lacked. One requires assistance from somebody confident in this function in order to overcome the difficulties it presents. When left to ones own devices, the suggestive function goes unnoticed.
  • Function 6 - activation, the hidden agenda or estimative function. This is a weak and unconscious function which one often understands poorly. Nonetheless, this function has a strong influence over one's actions. Individuals requires assistance from someone who uses it confidently in order to understand it. Often an individuals is only aware that they are totally unaware of how to use this function.
  • Function 7 - observant or the ignoring function, the function of personal knowledge. This is a strong but unconscious function. One generally has a good grasp of this function, but attempts to limit its use considerably. Individuals will disregard this function when an argument calls for restraint or when it will be difficult to indulge in its essence.
  • Function 8 - demonstrative function. This function is so deeply rooted into the psyche that one is usually not consciously aware of its existence or utilization.

Blocks of the psyche

According to Augustinavičiūtė, there are four blocks of the psyche: the ego block, the super-ego block, the id block, and the super-id block. The ego block contains the dominant (1) and creative (2) functions, the super-ego block contains the role (3) and PoLR (4) functions, the super-id block contains the suggestive (5) and activation (6) functions, while the id block contains the observant (7) and demonstrative (8) functions.

The functions within the ego and super-ego blocks are said to be conscious (or "mental") functions, while those within the id and super-id blocks are said to be unconscious (or "vital"). Similarly, the functions residing within the ego and id blocks are strong functions which are expressed naturally and good, while the functions of the super-ego and super-id blocks are weak and expressed with difficulty and not infrequently incorrectly.

!1
!2
!4
!3
!6
!5
!7
!8
!ego
!super-ego
!super-id
!id

The 16 types in Model A

Intertype relations

The field of Intertype Relations within Socionics attempts to describe the nature of information interchange between two different people based on their socionic type.

Table of intertype relations
ILE SEI ESE LII EIE LSI SLE IEI SEE ILI LIE ESI LSE EII IEE SLI
ILE Id Du Ac Mr Rq+ Sv+ Cp Mg Se Ex QI Cf Rq- Sv- Cg Sd
SEI Du Id Mr Ac Sv+ Rq+ Mg Cp Ex Se Cf QI Sv- Rq- Sd Cg
ESE Ac Mr Id Du Cg Sd Rq- Sv- QI Cf Se Ex Cp Mg Rq+ Sv+
LII Mr Ac Du Id Sd Cg Sv- Rq- Cf QI Ex Se Mg Cp Sv+ Rq+
EIE Rq- Sv- Cg Sd Id Du Ac Mr Rq+ Sv+ Cp Mg Se Ex QI Cf
LSI Sv- Rq- Sd Cg Du Id Mr Ac Sv+ Rq+ Mg Cp Ex Se Cf QI
SLE Cp Mg Rq+ Sv+ Ac Mr Id Du Cg Sd Rq- Sv- QI Cf Se Ex
IEI Mg Cp Sv+ Rq+ Mr Ac Du Id Sd Cg Sv- Rq- Cf QI Ex Se
SEE Se Ex QI Cf Rq- Sv- Cg Sd Id Du Ac Mr Rq+ Sv+ Cp Mg
ILI Ex Se Cf QI Sv- Rq- Sd Cg Du Id Mr Ac Sv+ Rq+ Mg Cp
LIE QI Cf Se Ex Cp Mg Rq+ Sv+ Ac Mr Id Du Cg Sd Rq- Sv-
ESI Cf QI Ex Se Mg Cp Sv+ Rq+ Mr Ac Du Id Sd Cg Sv- Rq-
LSE Rq+ Sv+ Cp Mg Se Ex QI Cf Rq- Sv- Cg Sd Id Du Ac Mr
EII Sv+ Rq+ Mg Cp Ex Se Cf QI Sv- Rq- Sd Cg Du Id Mr Ac
IEE Cg Sd Rq- Sv- QI Cf Se Ex Cp Mg Rq+ Sv+ Ac Mr Id Du
SLI Sd Cg Sv- Rq- Cf QI Ex Se Mg Cp Sv+ Rq+ Mr Ac Du Id

Du - Duality; Ac - Activation; Sd - Semi-duality; Mg - Mirage; Mr - Mirror; Id - Identity; Cp - Cooperation; Cg - Congenerity; QI - Quasi-Identity; Ex - Extinguishment; Se - Super-ego; Cf - Conflict; Rq+ - Requester; Rq- - Request recipient; Sv+ - Supervisor; Sv- - Supervisee

Remark: all relations beside Request and Supervision are bidirectional. Request and Supervision relations are asymmetric and have 2 variants: Request - Requester and Request recipient, Supervision - Supervisor and Supervisee. Each cell in the table shows who the type in the left column is to the type in the top row.

Duality

Duality is a fundamental concept in Socionics. Dual relations are characterized by mutual benefit and support, and are optimal for marriage, friendship and sex (but socionic type is not an only factor influencing on this!). The 8 duality pairs are as follows:
ILE align=left SEI
ESE align=left LII
EIE align=left LSI
SLE align=left IEI
SEE align=left ILI
LIE align=left ESI
LSE align=left EII
IEE align=left SLI
In dual relations, dominant function of one partner is suggestive function of another partner, and creative function of one partner is activation function of another partner; the ego functions (the stongest and most socialized) of one partner are the super-id functions of the other (area where person needs and wants assistance). In this relations 1 of 4 dichotomic attributes of psychological type match - rational/irrational (J/P), while the rest attributes differ. Duality interaction is rewarding and satisfying for both parties, giving inspiration and support. For example, scheme of functions associations for ILE—SEI duality pair:

Activation

Activation relations occur between two members of the same quadra who share either introversion or extraversion. This relations can resemble duality since the super-id functions are both present in the ego functions of the other partner. However, this relations are somewhat less fulfilling than dual relations. Each partner's dominant function is the others activation function. Activation relations are better suited to friendly correspondence.

Activation relationships are often romantic if both partners find each other attractive. These relationships are often very easy to start, as both partners share either extraversion or introversion. Introvert activation relationships appear reserved, while extravert activation relationships appear hectic.

Semi-duality

Relations of semi-duality are similar to relations of duality. Semi-duality occurs between partners who share each other's dual-seeking (5th) functions but lack each other's activation functions. As a result, both partners often perceive elements of duality from the relationship but feel the other partner is misplacing the correct emphasis; as semi-duals will be able to help their partners with their dual seeking functions but both have the least confidence in the same area of the psyche (thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuition).

Relationships of semi-duality can become very close for moderate periods of time until correspondence is broken indefinitely. These relationship are often begin, or rekindle because of mutual interests or friends held in common.

Mirage

Mirage relations occur between partners whose creative functions are the other partners' activation functions, but whose dual seeking functions are part of the id block of the other partner.

Relationships of mirage often become quite close and are easy to begin because both individuals are able to communicate effectively with one another because partners share a preference for thinking, feeling, sensing, or intuiting.

Mirror

Mirror relations occur between types who share the same ego functions, yet place different emphases on them; the dominant function of one partner is the creative function of the other. Mirror relations are characterized by similar actions and motivations between partners, and mutual understanding. Interactions usually result in a drawn out dialogue, as each partner seems to keep opening up avenues of thought which the other needs to now clarify verbally.

An important source of dissension between mirror types is the opposing between EJ and IP, or between EP and IJ. EJs find the passive, unstable IP behavior to be a severe hindrance in getting things done, while IPs find the restless and proactive actions of EJ types paranoid and stifling. Similarly, EP types find IJ types to be somewhat dull and boring, while IJ types see EP types as wildly unpredictable and impetuous.

Identity

Relations of Identity describe relations between two individuals of the same type. Often, both partners will perceive similar situations and problems, and will take similar actions. Partners usually understand the motivations behind the other's actions. A relationship between identity partners is characterized by mutual understanding, self-development, and learning. Each is interested in the other's ideas, and sees their value.

Cooperation

Cooperation relations occur between partners who have the same creative function but differing dominant functions. As a result, partners may often perform similar activities or have similar fields of interest, but often do not understand each other's internal motivations. Partners will often approach their related fields with vastly different agendas and will generate conflict when working as a team. This relations become formal and business like as to avoid open debate and conflict.

Congenerity

Congenerity relations occur between types who share the same dominant function but possess different creative functions. Partners often see each other as interesting people and are often able to see each other's motivations, but tailor their actions towards areas where the other partner is unskilled or uninterested, as the creative function for one partner is the place of least resistance of the other.

Congenerity relationships are often similar to mirror relationships where ideas are communicated through drawn out dialog. This relationships are easy to begin because both partners share a similar type of intelligence, and are able to communicate it easily to one another.

Quasi-Identity

Relations of Quasi-Identity are characterized by mutual misunderstanding. One partner's ego functions are the other partner's demonstrative and observant functions. As quasi-identicals have opposite functions, they will often have similar interests (id block and ego blocks contain the same functions) and become involved in similar activities, but they rarely understand each other's motivations or ideas.

Interestingly, Quasi-Identity partners often identify themselves as being very different than the partner. Outside observers often have trouble seeing the differences that the individual sees between himself and the partner.

Extinguishment

Extinguishment relations occur between types confident in the same area of the psyche but who place different emphases on each function. This relations often consist of similar lifestyles but differing thought processes. Partners will have similar interests and areas of expertise, and have little trouble communicating with one another.

Still, misunderstanding and conflict arise when partners come to vastly different conclusions about specific ideas or events.

Super-ego

Super-ego relations occur between types whose ego functions are the other partners' super-ego functions. Super-ego relations are generally characterized by differing values, discomfort, and mutual misunderstanding.

Partners in a super-ego relationship are often fascinated or terrified by their partners lack of similarity to themselves. Super-ego partners are constantly aware of their total opposition in values to the partner. Outside observers are often similarly aware.

Conflict

Relations of Conflict are, unsurprisingly, characterized by constantly escalating conflict. Conflictors are the types with the most dissimilar values, and they rarely understand anything regarding each other's motivations or lifestyles. Conflictors may take for granted truths that their partners will dismiss as absurd. Sometimes they understand each other so little that the conflict is not well understood, but prevails under the surface, discomfiting both partners to no end. Conflictors also are of opposite temperaments, a fact which both partners often find irritating. Conflictors usually are rather interesting for each other, but and rather tiresome also.

Request

Relations of request are asymmetrical relations; one type requests another. The requester's dual seeking function is the requester's creative function, and as a result the request recipient often takes an interest in the requester. However, the requester's dual seeking function is the request recipient's place of least resistance, and the requester finds the request recipient a highly uninteresting person. Relations of request frequently end with the departure of the requester.

Supervision

Relations of supervision are asymmetrical; one type supervises another. Relations of supervision are characterized by the supervisor's attempt to introduce his base function into the supervisee's life. The supervisor often perceives the supervisee as an interesting person and understands the supervisee's lifestyle, since the supervisor's creative function is the supervisee's base function. Nonetheless, the supervisee is often on the defensive since the supervisor's base function is the supervisee's point of least resistance (the function most vulnerable to criticism). The supervisee often perceives the supervisor to be the evil incarnate, while the bewildered supervisor wonders why the supervisee reacts so poorly to his objective and benevolent assistance.

Groups of types

Clubs

Clubs reflect sphere of activity. There're 4 clubs, each having 4 types:

  • Researchers (NT): ENTP, INTJ, INTP, ENTJ.
  • Practitioners (ST): ISTJ, ESTP, ESTJ, ISTP.
  • Socials (SF): ISFP, ESFJ, ESFP, ISFJ.
  • Humanists (NF): ENFJ, INFP, INFJ, ENFP.

Quadras

A quadra is a group of four types in which identity, dual, activity and mirror relations result between each member of the group. The unique feature of the quadra is that it offers the greatest degree of psychological comfort among all groups containing four types in which functional interaction is symmetrical. The feeling of comfort and harmony produced by the quadra is due to the fact that all types in the quadra are alike in that they seek to give expression to the shared set of information elements in their ego and super-id blocks and to de-emphasize the information elements in their super-ego and id blocks.

The Quadras
1

Alpha

2

Beta

3

Gamma

4

Delta

ILE (ENTp) SEI (ISFp)

ESE (ESFj)

LII (INTj)

EIE (ENFj) LSI (ISTj)

SLE (ESTp)

IEI (INFp)

SEE (ESFp) ILI (INTp)

LIE (ENTj)

ESI (ISFj)

LSE (ESTj) EII (INFj)

IEE (ENFp)

SLI (ISTp)

Temperaments

There is Viktor Gulenko's hypothesis of four temperaments in socionics.

Extraverted Rational Temperament (EJ). Extraverted rational types, namely the ESE, EIE, LIE, and LSE, are characterized by energetic and proactive behavior. (close to choleric temperament)

Introverted Rational Temperament (IJ). Introverted rational types, namely the LII, LSI, ESI, and EII, are characterized by slow and methodical behavior. (close to phlegmatic temperament)

Extraverted Irrational Temperament (EP). Extraverted irrational types, namely the ILE, SLE, SEE, and IEE, are characterized by impulsive and unpredictable behavior. (close to sanguine temperament)

Introverted Irrational Temperament (IP). Introverted irrational types, namely the SEI, IEI, ILI, and SLI, are characterized by lack of motivation, inertia, and unstable moods and energy levels. (close to melancholic temperament)

Beside Gulenko's, еhere are several other theories of correlation between temperaments and socionic types, although almost all socionic authors support Eysenck's view that temperaments do correlate with E/I factor.

Methods of type identification

There are some general methods:

1) Analysis of behavior, interview (including special questionnaires), biography

2) Tests

3) Analysis of nonverbal behavior (mimic, gestures, plastique, etc.)

Socionists often use several methods when determining a personality type.

Separately, it's need to say about analysis of nonverbal behavior (also called image method). It's rather popular method (popularized by Aušra Augustinavičiūtė), but rarely used as basic method, more as auxiliary. It's intuitive generalization of practice mostly. It is based on analysis of impressions from nonverbal behavior of typing man and associating them with features of types. This method can use all information, not only visual, but basicaly typer amounts by this kind of information.

As exotic, there's also physiognomy method of type determing used by small subset of socionists, where type is supposed correlating whith form of nose, ears, legs or something like that. Sergey Ganin's "Visual Identification" method is combination of physiognomy and image methods.

Cultural influence

Socionics originated in Vilnius and has developed extensively in the former Soviet Union in the past 30 years. In the Russian-speaking world (primarily Russia and Ukraine, but also the Baltic States, Central Asia, and Russian communities abroad) socionics has grown significantly in popularity, and is now a topic of discussion among large numbers of amateurs, as well as a group of a few hundred professionals. Clubs for socializing, theoretical discussion, exchange of experience, and other activity exist in many large cities across the former USSR. A couple journals exist, as well as a number of organizations which periodically hold conferences in Kiev, Moscow, St. Petersburg, and other cities.

In the West, however, socionics exists as little more than an internet phenomenon due to its novelty, relative obscurity and a competition with Myers-Briggs's typology. It was first introduced in English on the Internet in the mid 90s when Russian socionist Sergei Ganin created socionics.com Although there do exist English discussion forums where some discussion of the theoretical and practical aspects of socionics does occur, little information about Socionics has dispersed beyond them. Little or no research on socionics has been published in English-language scientific journals. American-born socionist, Rick DeLong recently launched socionics.us and Wikisocion

See also

References

External links

Informational resources

  • http://www.socioniko.net/en/index.html (Multilingual Socionic Site)
  • http://www.socionics.us
  • http://www.wikisocion.org/en/ (The Free Encyclopedia of Socionics)
  • http://www.socionics.com
  • http://www.socionics.ibc.com.ua (International Institute of Socionics)
  • http://www.definitive-socionics.info
  • http://www.socionika.com (collection of some notes)

Socionic forums, blogs, communities

  • http://www.the16types.info/vbulletin/
  • http://www.socionicsworkshop.com/discussion/
  • http://forum.socionix.com
  • http://www.socionics.com/forums/
  • http://socionist.blogspot.com
  • http://www.socionics.us/philosophy/community.shtml

Dating sites

  • http://www.sociolove.com
  • http://www.socionicsdating.com
  • http://www.typetango.com (Myers-Briggs)

Tests

  • http://www.socionics.us/tests.shtml (by Rick DeLong)
  • http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes2.asp (by HumanMetrics)
  • http://spt.skeletus.com/eng/ (Skeletus Personality Test)
  • http://www.socionics.com/sta/sta-1-r.html (by Sergei Ganin)
  • http://www.41q.com ("41 Questions")
  • http://www.neurocareusa.com/GWtest/gwtest.html (by Horace Gray, Joseph Wheelwright and Robert Winer)
  • http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/ (by MyPersonality)
  • http://www.personalitytest.net/types/index.htm (by Personality Test Center)
  • http://www.king.igs.net/~rogersk/psychtst.htm (test at "Shrinkwhere")
  • http://similarminds.com/jung.html (by SimilarMinds)
  • http://www.kisa.ca/personality/ (test at kisa.ca)
  • http://www.eggheadcafe.com/articles/mb/default.asp (by Peter Bromberg)
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/whatamilike/index.shtml (by BBC)
  • http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/mmdi-re/mmdi-re.htm (Mental Muscle Diagram Indicator)
  • http://www.socioniko.net/en/1.1.types/test.html#oldtest (short test by Dmitri Lytov and Marianna Lytova)
  • http://www.personalitypathways.com/type_inventory.html (by Ross Reinhold)
  • http://4np.net/ddli/ (by Terence Duniho and Fergus Duniho, description)
  • http://tap3x.net/indicators/5level2b.html (by John Fudjack and Patricia Dinkelaker)
  • http://www.lovetype.com/quiz.html (by Alexander Avila) [*]
  • http://russellrowe.com/Myers-Briggs%20Typology%20System.htm (by Russell Rowe) [*]
  • [* - manual calculation of result]

    Types of famous people

  • http://www.socioniko.net/en/celebr/index.html - Dmitri Lytov, Marianna Lytova
  • http://socionics.us/celebrities.shtml - Rick DeLong
  • http://socionics.com/advan/famous.htm - Sergei Ganin
  • http://socion2.narod.ru/celsoclists_en.htm - Sol
  • http://celebritytypes.tripod.com - econdude
  • http://keirsey.com - David Keirsey [*]
  • http://www.typelogic.com - Joe Butt, Marina Heiss [*]
  • http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/famous-people/ [*]
  • http://www.knowyourtype.com/famous.html [*]
  • http://www.typetango.com [*]
  • [* - typology similar to socionics]

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