A dosage form
is the physical form of a dose of medication
, such as a capsule
. The route of administration
is dependent on the dosage form of a given drug.
Various dosage forms may exist for the same compound, since different medical conditions may warrant different routes of administration. For example, persistent vomiting may make it difficult to use an oral dosage form; in this case, it may be advisable to use either an injection or a suppository. Also, specific dosage forms may be warranted for certain medications, since there may be problems with stability, e.g. insulin cannot be given orally since it is digested by the gut.
Inhaled dosage forms
Ophthalmic dosage forms
Oral dosage forms
Otic dosage forms
Parenteral dosage forms
Rectal dosage forms
Topical dosage forms
- Cream - Emulsion of oil and water in approximately equal proportions. Penetrates stratum corneum outer layer of skin well.
- Ointment - Combines oil (80%) and water (20%). Effective barrier against moisture loss.
- Gel - Liquefies upon contact with the skin.
- Paste - Combines three agents - oil, water, and powder; an ointment in which a powder is suspended.
- Transdermal patch
Vaginal dosage forms
Pharmaceutical form is the way drugs are delivered to the patient.
Types of pharmaceutical forms (abbreviation, Latin origin)
- ampule (amp; lat. ampula)
- capsule (cap., caps.; lat. capsula)
- cream (cr., crm.)
- elixir (elix.)
- emulsion (emuls.; lat. emulsum)
- microemulsion (microemuls.; gr. micro + lat. emulsum)
- fluid (fl., fld.; lat. fluidum)
- grain (gr.)
- drop(s) (gtt(s).; lat. gutta(e))
- injection (inj.; lat. injectio)
- solution (liq.; lat. liquor)
- solution (sol.; lat. solutio)
- lotion (lot.; lat. lotio)
- a spray (nebul.; lat. nebula)
- powder (pulv.; lat. pulvis)
- suspension (susp.; lat. suspensio)
- syrup (syr.; lat. syrupus)
- tablet (tab.; lat. tabella)
- tincture (tr., tinc., tinct.; lat. tinctura)
- ointment (ung.; lat. unguentum)