Vocational instruction for employed persons, first used commonly in the developed world during World War II. Work-related training is necessary as new techniques, new methods, new tools, new synthetic materials, new sources of power, and increased uses of automation continue to bring extensive changes. The UN and its agencies contribute to training programs in developing countries. Seealso technical education.
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Any nonwage payment or benefit granted to employees by employers. Examples include pension plans, profit-sharing programs, vacation pay, and company-paid life, health, and unemployment insurance. Employers' payments for fringe benefits are included in employee-compensation costs and therefore are not usually taxed. If the cost of fringe benefits were paid directly as wages, the worker would pay taxes on this amount and therefore have less to spend when purchasing equivalent benefits independently.
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