(born Jan. 8, 1867, Jamaica Plain, Mass., U.S.—died Jan. 9, 1961, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. sociologist and peace activist. She studied at Bryn Mawr College and taught at Wellesley College from 1896. She founded a settlement house in Boston and served on state commissions on industrial relations (1908–09) and immigration (1913–14). She lost her professorship in 1918 because of her opposition to U.S. entry into World War I. In 1919 she helped found, with Jane Addams, the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. In 1946 she shared the Nobel Prize for Peace with John R. Mott (1865–1955).
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Born in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston into an affluent family, she was amongst the first graduates of Bryn Mawr College in 1889. She continued to study sociology and economics in Europe and the United States, and, in 1896, she joined the faculty of Wellesley College, becoming a full professor of economics and sociology in 1913.
During the World War I, she helped to found the League and campaigned against America's entry into the conflict.
When her contract was terminated by Wellesley because of her pacifist activities, she became an editor of The Nation, a well-known liberal news magazine, acted as secretary of the WILPF (a second term in 1934 without salary for a year and a half), and did much work for the League of Nations.