Emily

Emily

[em-uh-lee]
Eden, Emily, 1797-1869, English novelist. She went with her brother George, Lord Auckland, to India when he was governor-general (1836-42). Her two novels, The Semi-detached House (1859) and The Semi-attached Couple (1860; with biographical introduction by Anthony Eden, 1947), give witty pictures of life in the early 19th cent.

See her letters (ed. by V. Dickinson, 1919).

Dickinson, Emily, 1830-86, American poet, b. Amherst, Mass. She is widely considered one of the greatest poets in American literature. Her unique, gemlike lyrics are distillations of profound feeling and original intellect that stand outside the mainstream of 19th-century American literature.

Life

Dickinson spent almost all her life in her birthplace. Her father was a prominent lawyer who was active in civic affairs. His three children (Emily; a son, Austin; and another daughter, Lavinia) thus had the opportunity to meet many distinguished visitors. Emily Dickinson attended Amherst Academy irregularly for six years and Mount Holyoke Seminary for one, and in those years lived a normal life filled with friendships, parties, church, and housekeeping. Before she was 30, however, she began to withdraw from village activities and gradually ceased to leave home at all. While she corresponded with many friends, she eventually stopped seeing them. She often fled from visitors and eventually lived as a virtual recluse in her father's house. As a mature woman, she was intense and sensitive and was exhausted by emotional contact with others.

Even before her withdrawal from the world Dickinson had been writing poetry, and her creative peak seems to have been reached in the period from 1858 to 1862. She was encouraged by the critic Thomas Wentworth Higginson, her chosen reader and an advocate who may never have fully comprehended her genius but who, through their considerable correspondence, helped make her aware of events in the world beyond Amherst, and by Helen Hunt Jackson, who believed she was a great poet. Nonetheless, Dickinson published only seven poems during her lifetime. Her mode of existence, although circumscribed, was evidently satisfying, even essential, to her. After her death in 1886, Lavinia Dickinson discovered over 1,000 poems in her sister's bureau. For too long Dickinson was treated less as a serious artist than as a romantic figure who had renounced the world after a disappointment in love. This legend, based on conjecture, distortion, and even fabrication, has plagued even some of her modern biographers.

Works

While Dickinson wrote love poetry that indicates a strong attachment, it has proved impossible to know the object of her feelings, or even how much was fed by her poetic imagination. The chief tension in her work comes from a different source: her inability to accept the orthodox religious faith of her day and her longing for its spiritual comfort. Immortality she called "the flood subject," and she alternated confident statements of belief with lyrics of despairing uncertainty that were both reverent and rebellious. Her verse, noted for its aphoristic style, its wit, its delicate metrical variation and irregular rhymes, its directness of statement, and its bold and startling imagery, has won enormous acclaim and had a great influence on 20th-century poetry.

Dickinson's posthumous fame began when Mabel Loomis Todd and Higginson edited and published two volumes of poems (1890, 1891) and some of her correspondence (2 vol., 1894). Other editions of verse followed, many of which were marred by unskillful and unnecessary editing. A definitive edition of her works did not appear until the 1950s, when T. H. Johnson published her poems (3 vol., 1955) and letters (3 vol., 1958); only then was serious study of her work possible. Dickinson scholarship was further advanced by R. W. Franklin's variorum edition of her poetry (3 vol., 1998).

Bibliography

See also R. W. Franklin, ed., Manuscript Books of Emily Dickinson (1981) and Master Letters of Emily Dickinson (1986). Valuable biographies of Dickinson include G. F. Wicher, This Was a Poet (1938, repr. 1980); M. T. Bingham, Emily Dickinson: A Revelation (1954) and Emily Dickinson's Home (1955, repr. 1967); J. Leyda, Years and Hours of Emily Dickinson (2 vol., 1960, repr. 1970); R. B. Sewall, The Life of Emily Dickinson (2 vol., 1974); C. G. Wolff, Emily Dickinson (1986); and A. Habegger, My Wars Are Laid Away in Books (2001). Among the many studies of Dickinson are those by C. R. Anderson (1960), A. J. Gelpi (1965), D. J. M. Higgins (1967), W. R. Sherwood (1968), S. Wolosky (1984), B. L. St. Armand (1986), J. Farr (1992), and B. Wineapple (2008).

Carr, Emily, 1871-1945, Canadian painter. She studied (1889-c.1895) at the San Francisco School of Art and later in London and in Paris. In Victoria, British Columbia, she taught painting and visited native villages. From her study of totem poles and other indigenous art, she developed a powerful style marked by simplified forms and a fauvist intensity of color. She wrote Klee Wyck (1941) and The House of All Sorts (1944).

See her autobiography, Growing Pains (1946).

Davies, Emily (Sarah Emily Davies), 1830-1921, British feminist, co-founder of Girton College, Cambridge. Educated at home, she became (1862) secretary of a committee to obtain the admission of women to university examinations. Out of this undertaking grew another committee, of which she was also secretary, to form a college for women. The college was organized at Hitchin, Hertfordshire, in 1869 and in 1873 transferred to Cambridge as Girton College. Davies was mistress of the college (1873-75) and its honorary secretary until 1904. From 1866 she was closely associated with the English woman-suffrage movement and was active in organizing the first woman-suffrage petition presented to Parliament by John Stuart Mill in 1866. She wrote Higher Education of Women (1866) and Thoughts on Some Questions Relating to Women (1910).

See D. Bennett Emily Davies and the Liberation of Women, 1830-1921 (1990).

(born Jan. 8, 1867, Jamaica Plain, Mass., U.S.—died Jan. 9, 1961, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. sociologist and peace activist. She studied at Bryn Mawr College and taught at Wellesley College from 1896. She founded a settlement house in Boston and served on state commissions on industrial relations (1908–09) and immigration (1913–14). She lost her professorship in 1918 because of her opposition to U.S. entry into World War I. In 1919 she helped found, with Jane Addams, the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. In 1946 she shared the Nobel Prize for Peace with John R. Mott (1865–1955).

Learn more about Balch, Emily Greene with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Emily Dickinson, circa 1850.

(born Dec. 10, 1830, Amherst, Mass., U.S.—died May 15, 1886, Amherst) U.S. poet. Granddaughter of the cofounder of Amherst College and daughter of a respected lawyer and one-term congressman, Dickinson was educated at Amherst (Mass.) Academy and Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. She subsequently spent virtually all her life, increasingly reclusive, in her family home in Amherst. She began writing in the 1850s; by 1860 she was boldly experimenting with language and prosody, striving for vivid, exact words and epigrammatic concision while adhering to the basic quatrains and metres of the Protestant hymn. The subjects of her deceptively simple lyrics, whose depth and intensity contrast with the apparent quiet of her life, include love, death, and nature. Her numerous letters are sometimes equal in artistry to her poems. By 1870 she was dressing only in white and declining to see most visitors. Of her nearly 1,800 poems, only 10 are known to have been published during her lifetime. After posthumous publications (some rather inaccurate), her reputation and readership grew. Her complete works were published in 1955, and she has since become universally regarded as one of the greatest American poets.

Learn more about Dickinson, Emily (Elizabeth) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Emily Dickinson, circa 1850.

(born Dec. 10, 1830, Amherst, Mass., U.S.—died May 15, 1886, Amherst) U.S. poet. Granddaughter of the cofounder of Amherst College and daughter of a respected lawyer and one-term congressman, Dickinson was educated at Amherst (Mass.) Academy and Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. She subsequently spent virtually all her life, increasingly reclusive, in her family home in Amherst. She began writing in the 1850s; by 1860 she was boldly experimenting with language and prosody, striving for vivid, exact words and epigrammatic concision while adhering to the basic quatrains and metres of the Protestant hymn. The subjects of her deceptively simple lyrics, whose depth and intensity contrast with the apparent quiet of her life, include love, death, and nature. Her numerous letters are sometimes equal in artistry to her poems. By 1870 she was dressing only in white and declining to see most visitors. Of her nearly 1,800 poems, only 10 are known to have been published during her lifetime. After posthumous publications (some rather inaccurate), her reputation and readership grew. Her complete works were published in 1955, and she has since become universally regarded as one of the greatest American poets.

Learn more about Dickinson, Emily (Elizabeth) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 8, 1867, Jamaica Plain, Mass., U.S.—died Jan. 9, 1961, Cambridge, Mass.) U.S. sociologist and peace activist. She studied at Bryn Mawr College and taught at Wellesley College from 1896. She founded a settlement house in Boston and served on state commissions on industrial relations (1908–09) and immigration (1913–14). She lost her professorship in 1918 because of her opposition to U.S. entry into World War I. In 1919 she helped found, with Jane Addams, the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. In 1946 she shared the Nobel Prize for Peace with John R. Mott (1865–1955).

Learn more about Balch, Emily Greene with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Emily is a city in Crow Wing County, Minnesota, United States. The population was 847 at the 2000 census.It is part of the Brainerd Micropolitan Statistical Area. Minnesota State Highway 6 serves as a main route in the community.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 36.1 square miles (93.5 km²), of which, 30.0 square miles (77.7 km²) of it is land and 6.1 square miles (15.8 km²) of it (16.90%) is water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 847 people, 368 households, and 243 families residing in the city. The population density was 28.2 people per square mile (10.9/km²). There were 876 housing units at an average density of 29.2/sq mi (11.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.87% White, 0.24% African American, 0.94% Native American, 0.24% Asian, and 0.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.71% of the population.

There were 368 households out of which 21.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.7% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.85.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 4.8% from 18 to 24, 19.1% from 25 to 44, 29.0% from 45 to 64, and 24.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females there were 102.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $34,276, and the median income for a family was $37,750. Males had a median income of $30,000 versus $23,068 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,854. About 3.9% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.9% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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