[ey-muhl, ee-muhl; Ger. ey-meel]
Brunner, Emil, 1889-1966, Swiss Protestant theologian. A clear and systematic thinker from the school of dialectical theology, he was a professor of theology at the Univ. of Zürich (1924-53) and Christian Univ., Tokyo (1953-55). He several times visited and lectured in the United States. Like Karl Barth he challenged the leaders of modern rational and liberal Christian theology and proclaimed a theology of revelation. The Christian faith, he maintained, arises from the encounter between individuals and God as He is revealed in the Bible. Brunner, in attempting later to leave a place for natural theology in his system, came into conflict with Barth over the question of natural revelation. Brunner refused to accept the radical divorce between grace and human consciousness that Barth proposed. His more important works include Die Mystik und das Wort (1924), Der Mittler (1927, tr. The Mediator, 1934), Das Gebot und die Ordnungen (1932, tr. The Divine Imperative, 1937), Der Mensch in Widerspruch (1937, tr. Man in Revolt, 1939), Wahrheit als Begegung (1938, tr. The Divine-Human Encounter, 1943), and Christianity and Civilization (2 vol., 1948-49).

See study by J. Edward Humphrey (1984).

Ludwig, Emil, 1881-1948, German biographer, originally named Emil Cohn. His vivid and dramatic (although sometimes unreliable) portraits of great men include Goethe (1920, tr. 1928), Napoleon (1924, tr. 1926), Bismarck (1926, tr. 1927), The Son of Man (1928, tr. 1928), and Schliemann of Troy (1931, tr. 1931). Among his other works are the "biographies" The Mediterranean (1927, tr. 1942) and The Nile (1935, tr. 1936). Ludwig left Germany for Switzerland in 1907.
Fischer, Emil, 1852-1919, German organic chemist. He is especially noted for his researches on the structure and synthesis of sugars and of purines and purine base derivatives, e.g., caffeine; for this work he received the 1902 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His many other valuable discoveries include a method of synthesizing polypeptides. He was an assistant of Adolf von Baeyer and was professor at the universities of Erlangen (1882-85), Würzburg (1885-92), and Berlin (from 1892).
Nolde, Emil, 1867-1956, German expressionist painter and graphic artist. His original name was Emil Hansen. After teaching in Switzerland (1892-98), Nolde traveled through Europe and in 1906 joined the Brücke group of German expressionists. Nolde's explosively colored paintings were continually refused by the Berlin secession group. In protest Nolde wrote an open letter to Max Liebermann, president of the secession, and thereby started a bitter controversy. In 1911 he helped found the New Secession. Nolde's most powerful work was his exploration of the supernatural (demonic heads, mystic appearances, and religious images). His woodcut The Prophet (1912; National Gall. of Art, Washington, D.C.) is a terrible, savage image of pain. He painted bold, arresting landscapes and applied his expressionist technique to produce notable oils and watercolors of flowers (e.g., Flowers, Mus. of Modern Art, New York City). His masklike portraits conjure up a world of primitive emotions. Violent, clashing colors are combined with exaggerated distortions of shape. Among of his well-known paintings are Christ among the Children (Mus. of Modern Art, New York City) and Ripe Sunflowers (Inst. of Arts, Detroit). Nolde's work was condemned and largely confiscated by the Nazi regime.

See his Unpainted Pictures, ed. by W. Haftmann (tr. 1965, rev. ed. 1972) and Landscapes, ed. by M. Urban (tr. 1970); studies by W. Haftmann (tr. 1959) and P. Selz (1963).

Strauss, Emil, 1866-1960, German novelist. His writings exemplify the transition from naturalism to impressionism by containing elements of both. His novel Freund Hein (1902) rapidly gained fame for its portrayal of a tyrannical German secondary school. In it, as in his plays, in the short stories of Hans und Grete (1909), and in such novels as Kreuzungen (1904), he exalted the virtues of experience and of free moral and creative development. Vaterland (1923) and later works stress patriotism above personal happiness.
Du Bois-Reymond, Emil, 1818-96, German physiologist of French descent. A pupil and successor (after 1858) of Johannes Müller at the Univ. of Berlin, he is known especially for his studies of nerve and muscle action, in which he demonstrated that electrical changes accompany muscle action.
Kraepelin, Emil, 1856-1926, German psychiatrist, educated at Würzburg (M.D., 1878). He also studied under Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, and was appointed professor of psychiatry at the Univ. of Dorpat, Heidelberg (1891) and Münich (1903), where he also directed a clinic. Kraepelin authored nine editions of a textbook which classified mental diseases according to their cause, symptomatology, course, final stage, and pathological anatomical findings, producing a system of classification which has relevance even today. He established the clinical pictures of dementia praecox (now known as schizophrenia) in 1893, and of manic-depressive psychosis (now known as bipolar disorder) in 1899, after analyzing thousands of case histories. Kraepelin was concerned only with diagnostic classification, and did not accept the theory of unconscious mental activity postulated by psychoanalysts. His classification of mental disorders served as the foundation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), the standard reference text used by psychiatrists today. His major work is his Textbook of Psychiatry (9th ed. 1927).
The name Emil or Emile is a male given name, deriving from the latin Aemilius of the gens Aemilia. The female given name is Emily.

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