Auto-Emancipation (Selbstemanzipation) is an early Zionist pamphlet written by Russian-Polish Jewish doctor and activist Leon Pinsker in 1882. The essay discussed the origins of anti-Semitism, and argued for a Jewish State and the development of a Jewish national consciousness. Pinsker had originally been an assimilationist, calling for greater respect of human rights for Jews in Russia. However, following massive anti-Jewish riots in Tsarist Russia in 1881, and a visit to Western Europe in the first half of 1882, his views changed. That year he published the essay anonymously in German. Pinsker's new perspective also led to his involvement in the development of the Jewish nationalist group Hovevei Zion, which he chaired. The essay itself inspired the group, and Jews throughout Europe, and was a landmark in the development of Zionism and the Jewish State. The original German text was published on January 1, 1882.