Storage building for grain, usually a tall frame, metal, or concrete structure with a compartmented interior; also, the device for loading grain into a building. One common mechanism consists of a hopper, a long rectangular open trough, and an endless vertical belt or chain with flights (crosspieces) for conveying the grain to the top of the stack. The force of gravity enables elevated grain to be unloaded quickly and easily from chutes.
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Car that moves in a vertical shaft to carry passengers or freight between the levels of a multistory building. The use of mechanical lifting platforms dates to Roman times. Steam and hydraulic elevators came into use in the 19th century; electric elevators had been introduced by the end of the century. Most modern elevators are electrically propelled through a system of cables and pulleys with the aid of a counterweight, though hydraulic elevators are still used in low buildings. The introduction of an automatic safety device by Elisha Otis (1811–1861) in 1853 made the passenger elevator possible. By opening the way to higher buildings, the elevator played a decisive role in creating the characteristic urban geography of modern cities.
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