electronic game

electronic game

electronic game, device or computer program that provides entertainment by challenging a person's eye-hand coordination or mental abilities. Made possible by the development of the microprocessor, electronic games are marketed in various formats, such as hand-held one-player models, cartridges or compact discs that are inserted in modules attached to television sets, computer programs run on personal or network computers, and freestanding arcade versions. Most of their appeal comes from the computer program that synchronizes flashing lights and a variety of sounds with the movielike animated action portrayed on a graphic display (see computer graphics). As the technology has advanced from 8-bit microprocessors to ever faster chips with greater graphic and sound capabilities, the programming has kept pace. For example, the newest games have so many levels and twists that they may take more than 100 hours to complete, and the graphic capabilities allow the game player to alter the visual perspective from narrow to panoramic. The games may be contested among several players, or an individual may engage in a test of skill against the computer. Some Internet-based games, known as massively multiplayer on-line games (MMOGs), involve thousands of individuals interacting with each other in ongoing, open-ended play; by 2007 MMOGs were a $1 billion industry. Game subjects include sports (e.g., baseball and football); action warfare, adventure, and role-playing; casino gambling (e.g., as roulette, poker, and simulated slot machines); and such classics as solitaire, contract bridge, chess, and backgammon. See also virtual reality.

See S. L. Kent, The Ultimate History of Video Games (2001); M. J. P. Wolf, ed., The Medium of the Video Game (2002); R. DeMaria and J. L. Wilson, High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games (2d ed. 2003); E. Castronova, Synthetic Worlds: The Business and Culture of Online Games (2005); H. Chaplin and A. Ruby, Smartbomb: The Quest for Art, Entertainment, and Big Bucks in the Videogame Revolution (2005); J. Juul, Half-Real: Video Games between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds (2005); J. Raessens and J. Goldstein, ed., Handbook of Computer Game Studies (2005); T. L. Taylor, Play between Worlds (2006).

In 2002 the Greek government, ostensibly in an attempt to fight illegal gambling, passed the ambiguous and controversial law 3037/2002 which effectively banned all electronic games, including those running on home computers. The bill was formulated after a member of the ruling Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) political party was videotaped in an illegal gambling establishment, resulting in public hysteria that was fueled by sensationalist reporting in the press. The bill was declared a law on July 30, 2002.

During a case against some Internet café owners who allowed their customers to play online chess and other games, a local court in Thessaloniki declared the law unconstitutional. More than 300 people were gathered outside the court in support of the Internet café owners.

The European Commission sent an official letter to the Greek Foreign Ministry explaining that the law may be in conflict with European legislation. In that case, the European Court of Justice could take action against Greece.

The law would affect both Greek citizens and foreigners.

On September 24, 2002, government officials published a document in an effort to clarify the controversial articles of the law.

After the European Union intervention and debates with the Internet café owners, the government passed a new decision (1107414/1491/T. & E. F.), published in the Government Gazette issue 1827, on December 8, 2003. The new law clarifies some articles of 3037/2002 but it still bans video games in Internet café, and computer software which delete or encrypt files on hard disks of computers owned by Internet café.

The law is currently suspended as unconstitutional; therefore, it is not being enforced.

Related events

On January 14, 2004, the Greek police raided Internet cafes in Larissa, as reported by Eleftherotypia newspaper. Eighty computers were taken by the police as evidence, and three Internet cafe owners were arrested. See

On February 10, 2005 the European Commission referred Greece to the European Court of Justice over its ban on electronic games. See

External links

  • Information in English:
    • http://dan.tobias.name/controversies/greekgames.html
  • News in English:
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/2238242.stm
    • http://news.com.com/2100-1040-956357.html
    • http://www.overclockers.com/tips00103/
    • http://www.wired.com/news/games/0,2101,57305,00.html
    • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/2357645.stm
    • http://www.geeklife.com/article.aspx?articleid=756&CommentCount=4
    • http://zdnet.com.com/2100-1106-957487.html
    • http://special.reserve.co.uk/news/story.php?id=2104&af=uf170902
    • http://zdnet.com.com/2100-1103-956357.html
  • News in Greek:
    • http://www.adslgr.com/news.php?newsid=353
    • http://www.pcmaster.gr/columns/default.asp?Column=10&ArticleID=993
    • http://www.in.gr/news/article.asp?lngEntityID=403098
    • http://www.in.gr/news/article.asp?lngEntityID=404097
    • http://www.in.gr/news/article.asp?lngEntityID=407029
    • http://www.in.gr/news/article.asp?lngEntityID=414321
    • http://www.in.gr/news/article.asp?lngEntityID=421151
  • Official Web Sites:
  • Unofficial Web Sites:

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