Definitions

electron pair

Cooper electron pair

A Cooper (electron) pair is a quasi-bound state of a pair of two electrons in a superconducting material. The composite entity behaves as a particle, with zero spin and charge twice that of an electron. Cooper pairs carry the current in a superconductor. This effect is most known concerning superconductivity.

A Cooper pair can form in a metal at low temperature. Despite the fact that the electrons Coulomb-repel each other, it may be possible to get an overall attractive force between the two. This is commonly explained in terms of an indirect coupling between the electrons, mediated by the lattice of positive ions.

Cooper pairs are an integral part of the theory of low-temperature superconductors, BCS theory.

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