While ceramics have traditionally been admired for their mechanical and thermal stability, their unique electrical, optical and magnetic properties have become of increasing importance in many key technologies including communications, energy conversion and storage, electronics and automation. Such materials are now classified under Electroceramics, as distinguished from other functional ceramics such as advanced structural ceramics.

Historically, developments in the various subclasses of Electroceramics have paralleled the growth of new technologies. Examples include: Ferroelectrics - high dielectric capacitors, non-volatile memories; Ferrites-data and information storage; Solid Electrolytes - energy storage and conversion; Piezoelectrics - sonar; Semiconducting Oxides - environmental monitoring. Recent advances in these areas are described in the Journal of Electroceramics

Dielectric ceramics

Dielectric materials used for construction of ceramic capacitors include zirconium barium titanate, strontium titanate (ST), calcium titanate (CT), magnesium titanate (MT), calcium magnesium titanate (CMT), zinc titanate (ZT), lanthanum titanate (TLT), and neodymium titanate (TNT), barium zirconate (BZ), calcium zirconate (CZ), lead magnesium niobate (PMN), lead zinc niobate (PZN), lithium niobate (LN), barium stannate (BS), calcium stannate (CS), magnesium aluminium silicate, magnesium silicate, barium tantalate, titanium dioxide, niobium oxide, zirconia, silica, sapphire, beryllium oxide, and zirconium tin titanate

Some piezoelectric materials can be used as well; the EIA Class 2 dielectrics are based on mixtures rich on barium titanate. In turn, EIA Class 1 dielectrics contain little or no barium titanate.

Electronically conductive ceramics

Indium tin oxide (ITO)

Fast ion conductor ceramics

Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), gadolinium doped ceria (GDC), lanthanum strontium gallium manganite (LSGM)

Piezoelectric and ferroelectric ceramics

Commercially used piezoceramic is primarily lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Barium titanate (BT), strontium titanate (ST), quartz, and others are also used.

See Piezoelectric materials.

Magnetic ceramics


See also

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