Commune (pop., 2001 est.: 203,397), southern Netherlands. Situated on the Dommel River southeast of Rotterdam, it was chartered in 1232 by Henry I, duke of Brabant. After 1900 it developed from a small village into one of the largest industrial centres of The Netherlands, and in 1920 it annexed five adjoining municipalities. The city is the seat of a technical university and the headquarters of Philips Electronics NV.
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Eindhoven is a municipality and a city located in the province of Noord-Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams. The Gender was dammed off in the post-war years, but the Dommel still runs through the city.
Neighbouring cities and towns include Son en Breugel, Nuenen, Geldrop-Mierlo, Heeze-Leende, Waalre, Veldhoven, Eersel, Oirschot and Best. The agglomeration has some 440,000 inhabitants. The metropolitan area (which includes Helmond) has nearly 750,000 inhabitants. Also, Eindhoven is part of Brabant Stad, a metropolitan area with more than 2 million inhabitants.
Around 1388 the city's fortifications were strengthened further. And between 1413 and 1420, a new castle was built within the city walls. In 1486, Eindhoven was plundered and burned by troops from Gelderland. The reconstruction was finished in 1502, with a stronger rampart and a new castle. However, in 1543 Eindhoven fell again: its defense works were neglected due to poverty.
A big fire in 1554 destroyed 75% of the houses but by 1560 these had been rebuilt with the help of William I of Orange. During the Dutch Revolt, Eindhoven changed hands between the Dutch and the Spanish several times during which it was burned down by renegade Spanish soldiers, until finally in 1583 it was captured once more by Spanish troops and its city walls were demolished. Eindhoven did not become part of the Netherlands until 1629. During the French occupation Eindhoven suffered again with many of its houses destroyed by the invading forces. Eindhoven remained a minor city after that until the start of the industrial revolution.
The industrial revolution of the Nineteenth century provided a major growth impulse. Canals, roads and railroads were constructed. Eindhoven was connected to the major Zuid-Willemsvaart canal through the Eindhovens Kanaal branch in 1843 and was connected by rail to Tilburg, 's-Hertogenbosch, Venlo and Belgium between 1866 and 1870. Industrial activities initially centred around tobacco and textile and boomed with the rise of lighting and electronics giant Philips, which was founded as a light bulb manufacturing company in Eindhoven in 1891.
The explosive growth of industry in the region and the subsequent housing needs of workers called for radical changes in administration, as the City of Eindhoven was still confined to its medieval moat city limits. In 1920, the five neighbouring municipalities of Woensel (to the north), Tongelre (northeast and east), Stratum (southeast), Gestel en Blaarthem (southwest) and Strijp (west), which already bore the brunt of the housing needs and related problems, were incorporated into the new Groot-Eindhoven ("Greater Eindhoven") municipality. The prefix "Groot-" was later dropped.
The early twentieth century saw additions in technical industry with the advent of car and truck manufacturing company Van Doorne's Automobiel Fabriek (DAF) and the subsequent shift towards electronics and engineering, with the traditional tobacco and textile industries waning and finally disappearing in the Seventies.
Large-scale air raids in World War II (including the preliminary bombing during Operation Market Garden to aid the paratroopers in securing the bridges in and around the town) destroyed large parts of the city. The reconstruction that followed left very little historical remains and the post-war reconstruction period saw drastic renovation plans in highrise style, some of which were implemented. At the time, there was little regard for historical heritage; in the Sixties, a new city hall was built and its neo-gothic predecessor (1867) demolished to make way for a planned arterial road that never materialised.
The large-scale housing developments of the Twentieth Century saw residential areas being built on former agricultural lands and woods, former heaths that had been turned into cultivable lands in the Nineteenth Century.
Large minority groups include:
In 1891, brothers Gerard and Anton Philips founded the small light bulb factory that would grow into one of the largest electronics firms in the world. Philips' presence is probably the largest single contributing factor to the major growth of Eindhoven in the 20th century. It attracted and spun off many hi-tech companies, making Eindhoven a major technology and industrial hub. In 2005, a full third of the total amount of money spent on research in the Netherlands was spent in or around Eindhoven. A quarter of the jobs in the region are in technology and ICT, with companies such as FEI Company (once Philips Electron Optics), NXP Semiconductors (formerly Philips Semiconductors), ASML, Toolex, Simac, Neways, Atos Origin and the aforementioned Philips and DAF.
Prime examples of industrial heritage in Eindhoven are the renovated Witte Dame ("White Lady") complex, a former Philips lamp factory; and the Admirant building (informally known as Bruine Heer or "Brown Gentleman" in reference to the Witte Dame across the street), the former Philips main offices. The Witte Dame currently houses the municipal library, the Design Academy and a selection of shops. The Admirant has been renovated into an office building for small companies. Across the street from the Witte Dame and next to the Admirant is Philips' first light bulb factory (nicknamed Roze Baby, or "Pink Baby", in reference to its pink colour and much smaller size when compared to the "White Lady" and "Brown Gentleman"). The small building now houses the"Centrum Kunstlicht in de Kunst" (centre artificial light in art) and the"Philips Incandescent Lamp Factory of 1891" museum.
At the turn of the century, a whole new housing development called Meerhoven was constructed at the site of the old airport of Welschap, west of Eindhoven. The airport itself, now called Eindhoven Airport, had moved earlier to a new location, paving the way for much needed new houses. Meerhoven is part of the Strijp district and partially lies on lands annexed from the municipality of Veldhoven.
Of all Eindhoven districts, the historical centre is by far the smallest in size and population, numbering only 5,419 in 2006.
According to the Eindhoven City Council, the city will reach the maximum population of 230,000 inhabitants around the year 2025.
Population figures for all districts, as of January 1, 2008, ranked by size:
On January 23, 2008, a referendum to elect a mayor was held in Eindhoven. This referendum, the second of its kind in the Netherlands, was attended by 24,6% of the inhabitants. This was less than the required 30% needed to make a referendum binding. Nevertheless, the city council would choose the winner of the referendum as the preferred candidate. The main reason for the low attendance was that the candidates, Leen Verbeek and Rob van Gijzel, were from the same party. Rob van Gijzel won the referendum with 61,8% of the votes and will be the city's new mayor.
In research by the Dutch newspaper Algemeen Dagblad based on the police’s statistical data on crime rates, Eindhoven was found to have the highest crime rate in the Netherlands for 2006.
Eindhoven has a lively cultural scene. For going out, there are numerous bars on the Market square, Stratumseind (Stratum's End), Dommelstraat, Wilhelmina square and throughout the rest of the city.
The biggest festivals in Eindhoven are:
The Effenaar is a popular music venue and cultural center in Eindhoven, it's located at the Dommelstraat.
In 1992 the Muziekcentrum Frits Philips was opened as a stage for classical and popular music in Eindhoven, received by critics as a concert hall with acoustics that rival the best halls in Europe.
Parktheater Eindhoven is Eindhoven's stage for opera, cabaret, ballet etc. Opened in 1964, it has received over 250,000 visitors every year. With its 1000 m2 it has one of the largest stages in the Netherlands. With a major renovation ending in 2007, the new Parktheater will receive an estimated 300,000 visitors a year.
During Carnival, Eindhoven is rechristened Lampegat (Lamp Hole).
Eindhoven's Plaza Futura, a former porn theater, is nowadays a cinema featuring cultural movies, lectures and special cultural events.
Up until World War II, a train service connected Amsterdam to Liège via Eindhoven and Valkenswaard, but the service was discontinued and the line broken up. Recently, talks have resumed to have a service to Neerpelt, Belgium via Weert.
Located approximately 8 kilometres from the town centre, Eindhoven Airport is the closest airport nearby, and the second busiest in the country (after Schiphol). There are flights with Air France to London City, and Ryanair serves London Stansted airport, Dublin, Rome, Milan, Pisa, Marseille, Glasgow, Madrid, Valencia, Stockholm and Barcelona. In the summerseason, Reykjavík is served with 2 weekly flights operated by Iceland Express.
The A2 / E25 motorway from Amsterdam to Luxemburg passes Eindhoven to the west and south of the city. The A2 connects to the highway A58 to Tilburg and Breda just north of the city. Just south of Eindhoven, the A2 connects to the A67 / E34 between Antwerp and Duisburg. In 2006, the A50 was completed connecting Eindhoven to Nijmegen and Zwolle.
Football: WE'LL SHOW PSV DUE RESPECT; CHAMPIONS LEAGUE QUARTER-FINAL SECOND LEG: LIVERPOOL V PSV EINDHOVEN ANFIELD, TONIGHT, KICK-OFF 7.45pm (LIVE ON SKY SPORTS 1) We Would Love to Reach Final for Fabio's Sake Says Reina REDS in EUROPE 2006-2007
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