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Egas Moniz

Egas Moniz

Moniz, Egas, 1874-1955, Portuguese neurologist and diplomat. From 1903 he served in the Cortes several times and was Portuguese minister (1917) in Madrid and secretary for foreign affairs (1918-19). He was professor of neurology at the Univ. of Lisbon from 1911 until 1944. He shared the 1949 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with W. R. Hess for his work on methods for diagnosing diseases of the brain and for the development of an operation known as prefrontal lobotomy or prefrontal leucotomy, a severing of the nerve fibers connecting the frontal lobes with the lower brain centers. That operation has been used to alleviate uncontrollable pain and to calm victims of severe mental disorders. Moniz was author and coauthor of more than 300 medical works.

António Caetano de Abreu Freire EGAS MONIZ (November 29, 1874December 13, 1955) was a Portuguese neurologist. He was the first Portuguese to receive a Nobel Prize, "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses."

Biography

António EGAS MONIZ was born in Avanca, Estarreja, Portugal. He was the inventor of prefrontal leucotomy which was changed to lobotomy by American surgeons Walter Freeman and James Watts, who introduced a larger severing of the neural fibres. It was used as a surgical approach to the radical treatment of several kinds of mental diseases; one of the several types of psychosurgery. For this work, Egas-Moniz received the Nobel Prize in 1949, jointly with the Swiss neurophysiologist Walter Rudolf Hess.

Career

Egas Moniz studied medicine in the University of Coimbra and thereafter neurology in Bordeaux and Paris, France. He returned to the University of Coimbra as Chairman of the Department of Neurology (1902), but soon left it to enter politics as a representative in the Portuguese parliament (1903-1917), as minister of Foreign Affairs (1918) and later as Ambassador to Spain, under the First Republic (1918-1919). He left politics, returned to the University of Lisbon, where, from 1921 to 1944, he was professor of Neurology. In 1927 he developed cerebral angiography, the technique of using x-rays to visualize arteries and veins that are transiently opacified with the injection of a high density agent. This procedure would allow physicians to map blood vessels in and around the brain, permitting the diagnosis of several kinds of neurological disorders, such as tumors and arteriovenous malformations. The method is widely used today for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases in the brain. Egas Moniz received the Oslo Prize for this discovery.

In 1936, Egas Moniz and his associate Almeida Lima developed for the first time a surgical technique to interrupt the nerve fibers which connect the thalamus (a relay for sensory information coming into the brain) to the prefrontal cortex (already known at the time as a brain structure involved in higher intellectual functions of the brain, and in emotions, as well). His technique was widely used around the world in the next decade, and Egas-Moniz received many honours and international recognition, culminating with the Nobel Prize.

In 1939, Dr. Egas Moniz received several shots from a psychiatric patient. He survived and recovered completely. The patient gave vague reasons for the shooting saying he was unsatisfied with the dose of a drug Dr. Egas-Moniz had prescribed. Egas Moniz died in 1955, in Lisbon, Portugal, from hematemesis.

His former country house became a museum where one can see his art collection. It can be visited in Avanca, in the north of Portugal.

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