António Caetano de Abreu Freire EGAS MONIZ (November 29, 1874 – December 13, 1955) was a Portuguese neurologist. He was the first Portuguese to receive a Nobel Prize, "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses."
was born in Avanca
. He was the inventor of prefrontal leucotomy
which was changed to lobotomy
by American surgeons Walter Freeman
and James Watts
, who introduced a larger severing of the neural fibres. It was used as a surgical approach to the radical treatment of several kinds of mental diseases
; one of the several types of psychosurgery
. For this work, Egas-Moniz received the Nobel Prize
in 1949, jointly with the Swiss neurophysiologist Walter Rudolf Hess
Egas Moniz studied medicine
in the University of Coimbra
and thereafter neurology
. He returned to the University of Coimbra as Chairman of the Department of Neurology (1902), but soon left it to enter politics as a representative in the Portuguese parliament
(1903-1917), as minister of Foreign Affairs
(1918) and later as Ambassador
, under the First Republic
(1918-1919). He left politics, returned to the University of Lisbon
, where, from 1921 to 1944, he was professor of Neurology. In 1927 he developed cerebral angiography
, the technique of using x-rays
to visualize arteries and veins that are transiently opacified with the injection of a high density agent. This procedure would allow physicians to map blood vessels
in and around the brain, permitting the diagnosis of several kinds of neurological disorders
, such as tumors
and arteriovenous malformations
. The method is widely used today for the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases in the brain. Egas Moniz received the Oslo Prize for this discovery.
In 1936, Egas Moniz and his associate Almeida Lima developed for the first time a surgical technique to interrupt the nerve fibers which connect the thalamus (a relay for sensory information coming into the brain) to the prefrontal cortex (already known at the time as a brain structure involved in higher intellectual functions of the brain, and in emotions, as well). His technique was widely used around the world in the next decade, and Egas-Moniz received many honours and international recognition, culminating with the Nobel Prize.
In 1939, Dr. Egas Moniz received several shots from a psychiatric patient. He survived and recovered completely. The patient gave vague reasons for the shooting saying he was unsatisfied with the dose of a drug Dr. Egas-Moniz had prescribed.
Egas Moniz died in 1955, in Lisbon, Portugal, from hematemesis.
His former country house became a museum where one can see his art collection. It can be visited in Avanca, in the north of Portugal.