Edward

Edward

[ed-werd]
Edward, Lake, or Edward Nyanza 830 sq mi (2,150 sq km), in the Great Rift Valley, central Africa, on the Congo-Uganda border. It lies at an altitude of c.3,000 ft (910 m), is c.50 mi (80 km) long, and has a maximum width of c.30 mi (48 km). Lake Edward is connected with the Nile system by the Semliki River, which drains the lake in the north and flows into Lake Albert. Lake Edward has many fish, and hippopotamuses abound on its southern shores. Henry Morton Stanley visited the lake in 1889 and named it after Albert Edward, then the prince of Wales (later Edward VII).
Edwards, Edward, 1812-86, English library pioneer. As assistant from 1839 in the British Museum, he helped Sir Anthony Panizzi draw up the rules for the catalog. Edwards collected library statistics and advised William Ewart on the free-library legislation for Great Britain (1850). He was first librarian of the Manchester Free Library from 1850 to 1858. Edwards wrote a biography of Sir Walter Raleigh (1865), Memoirs of Libraries (1859), and Lives of the Founders of the British Museum (1870).
Eggleston, Edward, 1837-1902, American author, Methodist clergyman, b. Vevay, Ind., educated in frontier schools. Before 1870 he was a Bible agent, a farm worker, a circuit rider in Minnesota and Indiana, and a journalist in Chicago. He then joined the editorial staff of the Independent in New York. He established his literary reputation with The Hoosier Schoolmaster (1871) and The Circuit Rider (1874). He was pastor of the Church of Christian Endeavor, Brooklyn, from 1874 until 1879. Besides writing juvenile stories and historical essays and articles, he completed two volumes of his planned history of American life, The Beginners of a Nation (1896) and The Transit of Civilization (1901).

See The First of the Hoosiers (1903) by his brother, G. C. Eggleston; biography by W. P. Randel (1946).

Windsor, Edward, duke of: see Edward VIII.
Winslow, Edward, 1595-1655, one of the founders of Plymouth Colony in New England, b. England. One of the leaders of the Pilgrims who traveled to America on the Mayflower in 1620, Winslow negotiated (1621) the treaty of peace and friendship with the Native American chief Massasoit. Sent back to England (1623-24) as agent of the colony, he wrote Good Newes from New England, which Samuel Purchas published in 1625. On his return to Plymouth he was elected an assistant of the colony and was continuously reelected until 1647, except for the years he served as governor (1633-34, 1636-37, and 1644-45), years in which William Bradford had declined to hold the governorship. Winslow was an active explorer and was apparently the first Englishman to visit (1632) Connecticut. He was also one of the Pilgrim leaders who successfully undertook to discharge the colony's debts to its English backers. In England again (1635) he was imprisoned for a short time for his religious beliefs and for performing the marriage ceremony in the colony. On still another journey to England, to answer charges made against Plymouth Colony, he issued a vigorous defense in Hypocrisie Unmasked (1646). With the Puritan cause triumphant in England, he decided to remain there. He was sent on several missions by Oliver Cromwell, dying on one to the West Indies. He was the father of Josiah Winslow.

See G. F. Willison, Saints and Strangers (rev. ed. 1965).

Bruce, Edward, d. 1318, Scottish king of Ireland, brother of Robert I of Scotland. He aided his brother in the war for independence from England and in 1315 was declared heir to Robert's throne. With Robert's approval he then invaded Ulster, to which he had some hereditary claim. He was crowned king of Ireland in 1316 and found many Irish allies against the Anglo-Irish rulers. However, he failed to consolidate his gains and was killed in battle in 1318.
Taylor, Edward, c.1642-1729, American poet and clergyman, b. England, considered America's foremost colonial poet. He emigrated to America in 1668 and graduated from Harvard in 1671. From then until his death, he served as Congregational minister for Westfield, Mass. An ardent Puritan, Taylor agreed completely with the Calvinistic beliefs of his time. His best poems, "God's Determinations" and "Preparatory Meditations," show a strong similarity to the English devotional metaphysical poets. Since he did not publish his poems in his lifetime, his poetry remained in manuscript until 1937. In 1939, T. H. Johnson published a selection of his poems. The best edition of Taylor's works was edited by D. E. Stanford in 1960.

See studies by N. S. Grabo (1962), D. Stanford (1965), and W. J. Scheik (1974).

Teach, Edward: see Blackbeard.
Teller, Edward, 1908-2003, American physicist, b. Budapest, Hungary, Ph.D. Univ. of Leipzig, 1930, where he studied under Werner Heisenberg. Fleeing the Nazis, he came to the United States in 1935 and was naturalized in 1941. He was (1935-41) a professor of physics at George Washington Univ. and during World War II he worked on atomic bomb research at a number of facilities. Later he was (1946-52) professor of physics at the Univ. of Chicago. He was also associated (1949-51) with the thermonuclear research program of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. From 1952, Teller was professor of physics at the Univ. of California and director of the Livermore division of its radiation laboratory. In 1960 he resigned from his laboratory post to devote his time to teaching and research; he retired in 1975.

Teller worked on the physics of the hydrogen bomb from 1941 forward and was instrumental in making possible the first successful U.S. explosion of the device on Nov. 1, 1952. Robert Oppenheimer had opposed the develop of the bomb on technical and moral grounds, and Teller later publicly called (1954) for his colleague's removal from positions involving national security, an act that alienated many within the scientific community. Teller received the 1962 Enrico Fermi Award For his contributions to the development, use, and control of nuclear energy; in 2003 he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Teller, who distrusted arms control, was a supporter of a nuclear-powered X-ray laser missile defense system and a major proponent of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. His writings include The Legacy of Hiroshima (with Allen Brown, 1962), The Constructive Uses of Nuclear Explosives (with others, 1968), and Memoirs: A Twentieth-Century Journey in Science and Politics (2001).

See biography by P. Goodchild (2005); G. Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb (2002).

Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939, American linguist and anthropologist, b. Pomerania. Sapir was brought to the United States in 1889. After teaching at the Univ. of California and the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he served (1910-25) as chief of the division of anthropology of the Canadian National Museum. He was professor of anthropology at the Univ. of Chicago (1925-31), and of anthropology and linguistics at Yale from 1931 until his death. With his student Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) he developed the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, arguing that the limits of language restrict the scope of possible thought and that every language recognizes peculiar sets of distinctions—e.g., Eskimo and its rich vocabulary for different kinds of snow. The theory has been enormously influential but has for the most part been superseded by subsequent research. Sapir's studies on the ethnology and linguistics of various Native American groups of the United States contributed greatly to the development of descriptive linguistics. Among his books are Wishram Texts (1909), Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture (1916), Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech (1921), and Nootka Texts (1939).
Savage, Edward, 1761-1817, American portrait painter and engraver. He was probably self-taught, although he may have studied with Benjamin West during a brief visit to London. He at one time operated art galleries in Boston, Philadelphia, and New York City. His most famous painting is The Washington Family (National Gall. of Art, Washington, D.C.), which exhibits facility in the spatial organization of stiffly executed figures. The portrait of Abraham Whipple (U.S. Naval Academy) is another of his works often reproduced.
Preble, Edward, 1761-1807, American naval officer, b. Falmouth (now Portland), Maine. In the American Revolution he ran away from home to serve on a privateer, entered (1779) the Massachusetts state marine as a midshipman, and saw service aboard the Protector, which was captured in 1781. After his release he joined the Winthrop and, when the Revolution was over, was engaged in the merchant service. Commissioned lieutenant in the U.S. navy in 1798, he was promoted (1799) to captain and given command of the Essex, which sailed to China and convoyed 14 merchant vessels to New York. In 1803, Preble was transferred to the Constitution and set out in command of a squadron for the Mediterranean, where he took a leading part in the Tripolitan War. After the Philadelphia of his squadron had been captured and held in the harbor of Tripoli, Preble blockaded that port and made a number of attacks, but he failed to capture the strongly fortified town. He was relieved of his command on the arrival of Commodore Samuel Barron. Many of those who served under Preble, such as David Porter and Stephen Decatur, rendered distinguished service in the War of 1812.

See biography by C. McKee (1972).

Boscawen, Edward, 1711-61, British admiral. He was a popular naval hero, famous for his decisive courage displayed against France and Spain at Portobelo (1739), Cape Finisterre (1747), and Lagos Bay (1759). He is noted also for attempts to improve health conditions in the fleet.
Lear, Edward, 1812-88, English humorist and artist. At 19 he was employed as a draftsman by the London Zoological Society; the paintings of parrots that he produced for The Family of the Psittacidae (1832) were among the first color plates of animals ever published in Great Britain. Lear is best known for his illustrated limericks and nonsense verse, which were collected in A Book of Nonsense (1846), Nonsense Songs (1871), Laughable Lyrics (1877), and others. He spent most of his adult life abroad, and wrote several illustrated journals of his European travels, e.g., Journals of a Landscape Painter in the Balkans.

See biographies by A. Davidson (1938, repr. 1968), V. Noakes (1969), and P. Levi (1995); V. Noakes, ed., The Complete Verse and Other Nonsense (2001); studies by V. Dehejia (1989) and J. Wullschläger (1995).

Mansfield, Edward, d. 1667, West Indian buccaneer. Possibly born in Curaçao of Dutch parentage, he is also called Edward Mansveld. He was engaged (1665) by the British governor of Jamaica, Sir Thomas Modyford, to take Curaçao from the Dutch. He set sail with a fleet of 15 vessels, with Henry Morgan as his lieutenant, and made, instead, for Cuba where he sacked Sancti Spiritus. He took the island of Old Providence, ascended the San Juan River to take Granada, Nicaragua, and plundered and burned Spanish possessions along the Central and South American coasts before he returned to Jamaica, where he was mildly reproved by Governor Modyford for his activities. He died shortly afterward and his reputation as chief of the buccaneers passed to Henry (later Sir Henry) Morgan.
Hicks, Edward, 1780-1849, American painter and preacher, b. Bucks co., Pa. A member of the Society of Friends, he became a noted back-country preacher in the conservative group of Quakers associated with his cousin Elias Hicks. He supported himself by painting carriages, signs, furniture, and the like. Hicks's fame rests mainly on the painting The Peaceable Kingdom, nearly 100 versions of which he is believed to have executed, 62 of them still extant. A completely untrained primitive artist who developed considerable skill during his nearly 30 years of easel painting, he borrowed many of his early animal groups from European engravings. His paintings, which also include farm groups and animal portraits, have great charm and appeal. In his day Hicks was known mainly as a preacher.

See biographies by E. P. Mather and D. C. Miller (1983), A. Ford (1985), and C. J. Weekley (1999); study by A. Ford (1952, repr. 1973).

Chamberlin, Edward, 1866-1967, American economist, b. LaConner, Wash. He taught economics at Harvard (1937-67) and made significant contributions to microeconomics, particularly on competition theory and consumer choice, and their connection to prices. One of the most influential economists of his time, Chamberlin coined the term "product differentiation" to describe how a supplier may be able to charge a greater amount for a product than perfect competition would allow. His works include Theory of Monopolistic Competition (1933, 8th ed. 1962) and Toward a More General Theory of Value (1957, repr. 1982).
Channing, Edward, 1856-1931, American historian, b. Dorchester, Mass.; son of William Ellery Channing (1818-1901). He was a prominent teacher at Harvard from 1883 until his retirement in 1929, holding a professor's rank from 1897. Channing wrote The United States of America, 1765-1865 (1896, 2d ed. 1930, repr. 1941); Guide to the Study and Reading of American History (with Albert B. Hart, 1896; rev. and augmented ed. by Channing, Hart, and Frederick Jackson Turner, 1912), an excellent brief bibliography of American history; and The Jeffersonian System, 1801-1811 ("American Nation" series, 1906, repr. 1968). Most of these books were, however, either incidental to, or preparation for, the great work to which Channing devoted most of his life—A History of the United States (6 vol., 1905-25), embracing the years from 1000 to 1865. Based throughout on the author's extensive knowledge of the sources, remarkably accurate in fact, and excellently written, it is generally considered one of the finest histories of the United States ever produced by one man. The final volume on the Civil War won a Pulitzer Prize in 1926.
Pococke, Edward, 1604-91, English Orientalist, b. Oxford. Ordained a priest in 1629, he resided at Aleppo in Syria as a chaplain, where he collected valuable manuscripts and studied Arabic, Hebrew, Syriac, Samaritan, and Ethiopic. Living in England from 1636, he wrote a series of essays on Arabic history, Specimen historiae Arabum (1636), the first book printed in Arabic type. In 1663 he published the Arabic text and his Latin translation of the history by Bar-Hebraeus that had inspired his essays. This important work of scholarship was entitled Historia compendiosa dynastiarum. Pococke also wrote commentaries on Hosea, Joel, Micah, and Malachi, and made his superb collection and his vast knowledge available to other scholars. His library is now part of the Bodleian Library at Oxford. His name appears also as Pocock.
Jenner, Edward, 1749-1823, English physician; pupil of John Hunter. His invaluable experiments beginning in 1796 with the vaccination of eight-year-old James Phipps proved that cowpox provided immunity against smallpox. His discovery was instrumental in ridding many areas of the world of a dread disease and laid the foundations of modern immunology as a science.

See W. R. Le Fanu, A Bio-bibliography of Edward Jenner, 1749-1823 (1951).

Moran, Edward, 1829-1901, American painter of marine and historical subjects, b. England. He came to the United States with his family in 1844. In 1899 he completed a series of 13 paintings illustrating epochs in the maritime history of America from the landing of Leif Ericsson to the return of Admiral Dewey's fleet from the Philippines in 1899 (Pennsylvania Mus. of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia). His brother Thomas Moran, 1837-1926, was an American landscape painter, illustrator, and etcher. He accompanied the exploring expeditions of Professor F. V. Hayden to the Yellowstone River (1871) and of Major J. W. Powell down the Colorado River (1873). Subsequently, he made the illustrations on wood for both expeditions' reports and the sketches from which he painted the two large canvases now in the Capitol at Washington, D.C., The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone and Chasm of the Colorado. In 1884 he became a member of the National Academy of Design. As a painter Moran was strongly influenced by the art of Turner. Other examples of his painting are Bringing Home the Cattle (Buffalo, N.Y., Mus.); The Grand Canal, Venice; The Dream of the Orient; and Tower of Cortez, in Mexico, a watercolor. He also produced many etchings and magazine illustrations on wood. Another brother was Peter Moran, 1841-1914, American landscape and animal painter and etcher. Good examples of his painting are Pasture Land; Santa Barbara Mission; Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico; The Stable Door; and Return of the Herd, awarded a medal at the Centennial Exposition (1876), where his etchings of animals were similarly honored.
Albee, Edward, 1928-, American playwright, one of the leading dramatists of his generation, b. Washington, D.C. Much of his most characteristic work constitutes an absurdist commentary on American life. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf (1962, film 1966), a Tony Award-winner that is generally regarded as his finest play, presents an all-night drinking bout in which a middle-aged professor and his wife verbally lacerate each other in brilliant colloquial language. His major early plays include The Zoo Story (1959), The Death of Bessie Smith (1960), The Sandbox (1960), The Ballad of the Sad Cafe (1963), adapted from the novel by Carson McCullers, and Tiny Alice (1965). Albee won the Pulitzer Prize for A Delicate Balance (1967), Seascape (1975), and Three Tall Women (1994). Other later plays include The Lady from Dubuque (1980), Marriage Play (1987), and The Play about the Baby (1998). In 2002 two new Albee plays debuted, The Goat, or Who Is Sylvia?, a Tony Award-winning family tragicomedy, and Occupant, a portrait of the artist Louise Nevelson.

See P. C. Kolin, Conversations with Edward Albee (1987); biography by M. Gussow (1999); studies by A. Paolucci (1972) and R. E. Amacher (1982).

Randolph, Edward, c.1632-1703, English colonial agent in America. In 1676 he carried royal instructions to Massachusetts Bay that required the colony to send representatives to England to satisfy complaints of the heirs of John Mason (1586-1635) and Sir Ferdinando Gorges; he also had orders to make a complete report on the colony. Rebuffed by the Massachusetts authorities, he made a personal investigation and upon his return to England wrote a denunciatory report based on facts but colored by his dislike for the Puritans. His attack on the legality of the Massachusetts Bay charter helped bring about the withdrawal (1679) of New Hampshire from the colony's administration as well as the order that the colony repeal all laws unfavorable to England and enforce the Navigation Acts. In 1679, Randolph settled in Boston as collector of customs for New England. His relations with the colonials were extremely bitter. After the annulment (1684) of the Massachusetts charter, an act to which he had devoted much energy, he became secretary and register for the Dominion of New England and also acted as a councilor under Joseph Dudley and Sir Edmund Andros. With the collapse (1689) of the Andros regime, Randolph was imprisoned for a time. In 1691 he became surveyor general of customs for North America. His letters and papers have been edited with a biographical commentary by R. N. Toppan and A. T. S. Goodrick (7 vol., 1898-1909, repr. 1967).

See biography by M. G. Hall (1960, repr. 1969).

Hopkins, Edward, 1600-1657, colonial governor of Connecticut, b. England. He migrated (1637) to Hartford, where he soon became a leader because of his wealth and ability. He became governor of the Connecticut colony in 1640 and was governor, assistant governor, or deputy governor every year until 1656, the law not allowing the office of governor to be held two years in succession. As a delegate from Connecticut he helped to form the New England Confederation, and he was elected one of the confederation commissioners. He returned to England shortly before his death to become warden of the fleet, keeper of the palace at Westminster, and member of Parliament.
Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967, American painter and engraver, b. Nyack, N.Y., studied in New York City with Robert Henri. Hopper lived in France for a year but was little influenced by the artistic currents there. His early paintings had slight success; he gained a reputation, however, through his etchings, which remain popular. The first one-man show of his paintings was held in 1920. Hopper excelled in creating realistic pictures of clear-cut, sunlit streets and houses, often without figures. In his paintings there is a frequent atmosphere of loneliness, an almost menacing starkness, and a clear sense of time of day or night. His work in oil and watercolor is slowly and carefully painted, with light and shade used for pattern rather than for modeling. Hopper is represented in many leading American museums. Early Sunday Morning (1930; Whitney Museum, N.Y.C.) and Nighthawks (1942; Art Institute of Chicago) are characteristic oils.

See catalog raisonné ed. by G. Levin (1995); catalog and study by L. Goodrich (both: 1971); biographies by R. Hobbs (1987) and G. Levin (1995, repr. 2007); studies by G. Levin (1981, repr. 1986); S. Wagstaff, D. Anfam, and B. O'Doherty (2004); and C. Troyen, J. Barter, and E. Davis (2007).

FitzGerald, Edward, 1809-83, English man of letters. A dilettante and scholar, FitzGerald spent most of his life living in seclusion in Suffolk. His masterpiece, a translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, appeared anonymously in 1859 and passed unnoticed until Dante Gabriel Rossetti made it famous. Revised editions followed in 1868, 1872, and 1879. FitzGerald's Rubaiyat has long been one of the most popular English poems. Although actually a paraphrase rather than a translation of a poem by the 11th-century Persian poet Omar Khayyam, it retains the spirit of the original in its poignant expression of a philosophy counseling man to live life to the fullest while he can. Among FitzGerald's other works are Euphranor (1851), a Platonic dialogue, and Polonius (1852), a collection of aphorisms.

See his letters (ed. by A. M. and A. B. Terhune, 4 vol., 1980); biographies by A. M. Terhune (1947) and T. Wright (2 vol., 1904; repr. 1971).

Everett, Edward, 1794-1865, American orator and statesman, b. Dorchester, Mass., grad. Harvard (B.A., 1811; M.A., 1814). In 1814 he became a Unitarian minister in Boston, but, appointed (1815) professor of Greek literature at Harvard, he went abroad to study at the Univ. of Göttingen (Ph.D., 1817) and to travel. During his professorship (1819-25) he also edited (1820-23) the North American Review. He was a U.S. Representative (1825-35), governor of Massachusetts (1836-39), minister to England (1841-45), president of Harvard (1846-49), and Secretary of State in the last four months of President Fillmore's administration (1852-53). Massachusetts elected him U.S. Senator, but he resigned in the second year of the term (1854), embarrassed by his old-line Whig attitude of compromise on slavery. In the Civil War he traveled throughout the North speaking for the Union cause and drawing immense audiences. His most famous address, now almost forgotten, was the principal oration delivered at Gettysburg on the same occasion that called forth Abraham Lincoln's enduring Gettysburg Address.
Capell, Edward, 1731-81, English Shakespearean scholar. His 10-volume edition of Shakespeare (1768) was the first to incorporate exact collations of all available old texts. He followed this with a commentary, Notes and Various Readings to Shakespeare (3 vol., 1783).
Carpenter, Edward, 1844-1929, English author. Although ordained a minister in 1869, he became a Fabian socialist in 1874 and renounced religion. Among his works on social reform are Towards Democracy (1883-1902), a long unrhymed poem revealing the influence of his friend Walt Whitman; England's Ideal (1887); Civilization: Its Cause and Cure (1889); and Love's Coming of Age (1896), which treats relations between the sexes.

See the autobiographical My Days and Dreams (1916); biography by S. Rowbotham (2009); E. Delavenay, D. H. Lawrence and Edward Carpenter (1971).

Bellamy, Edward, 1850-98, American author, b. Chicopee Falls (now part of Chicopee), Mass. After being admitted to the bar he tried his hand at journalism and contributed short stories of genuine charm to various magazines. These were later collected as The Blind Man's World and Other Stories (1898). His novels—The Duke of Stockbridge (1879), Dr. Heindenhoff's Process (1880), and Miss Ludington's Sister (1884)—were followed by Looking Backward, 2000-1887 (1888), which overshadowed his other work and brought him fame. This utopian romance pictured the world in the year 2000 under a system of state socialism. Much of the book's appeal lies in its unpretentious style and its vivid picture of the imagined society. The work sold over a million copies in the next few years and resulted in the formation of "Nationalist" clubs throughout the nation and the founding of the Nationalist monthly (1888-91). Bellamy himself founded and edited the New Nation (1891-94), a weekly. Equality, a sequel to Looking Backward, appeared in 1897.

See biography by S. E. Bowman (1958, repr. 1979); J. L. Thomas, Alternative America (1983); D. Patai, ed., Looking Backward, 1988-1888 (1988).

Johnson, Edward, 1881-1959, Canadian tenor and operatic manager, b. Guelph, Ont. As Eduardo di Giovanni, he sang in Italian opera houses (1912-19). In 1920 he joined the Chicago Opera Company and in 1922, the Metropolitan. In 1935 he became general manager of the Metropolitan Opera, retiring in 1950. He was succeeded by Rudolf Bing.
Fairfax, Edward, 1580?-1635, English translator. His excellent translation of Tasso's Gerusalemme liberta was published in 1600 under the title Godfrey of Buloigne. He also wrote a Discourse on Witchcraft (1621), in which he interpreted the seizures of his two young daughters as the result of witchcraft.
Lucie-Smith, Edward, 1933-, British poet and art critic, b. Jamaica, grad. Oxford, 1954. He has lived in London since 1951, where he worked as an advertising copywriter (1956-66) and as an editor of books on art. Among his works of poetry are A Tropical Childhood (1961) and Confessions and Histories (1964). His important criticism includes Art in Britain 1969-1970 (1970), Symbolist Art (1973), American Art Now (1985), and Art Today (1977, rev. ed. 1995). He has also edited The Penguin Book of Elizabethan Verse (1968), British Poetry since 1945 (1970), Art in the 1970s (1980), Art in the 1980s (1990), and Visual Arts in the 20th Century (1996).

See his autobiography, The Burnt Child (1975).

Gibbon, Edward, 1737-94, English historian, author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. His childhood was sickly, and he had little formal education but read enormously and omnivorously. He went at the age of 15 to Oxford, but was forced to leave because of his conversion to Roman Catholicism. His father sent him (1753) to Lausanne, where he was formally reconverted to Protestantism. Actually, he became a skeptic and later greatly offended the pious by his famous chapters of historical criticism of Christianity in his great work. In Lausanne he fell in love with the penniless daughter of a pastor, Suzanne Curchod (who was later to be the great intellectual, Mme Necker). The two were engaged to be married, but Gibbon's father refused consent. Gibbon "sighed as a lover" but "obeyed as a son" and gave up the match. He left Lausanne in 1758. It was on a visit to Rome that he conceived the idea of his magnificent and panoramic history. This appeared as The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (6 vol., 1776-88) and won immediate acclaim, despite some harsh criticism. Gibbon himself was assured of the greatness of his work, which is, indeed, one of the most-read historical works of modern times. He entered upon a short and highly inglorious political career, serving as a member of Parliament from 1774 to 1783. He violently opposed the American Revolution, although later he was to look with favor on the more radical French Revolution. In 1783 he withdrew to Lausanne, where he completed his masterpiece. His own Memoirs of His Life and Writings, commonly called the Autobiography, first appeared in a heavily bowderlized form in the edition of his miscellaneous works by Lord Sheffield in 1796 (repr. 1959). The autobiography is, however, one of the most subtle and interesting works of its kind in English. An edition of Gibbon's original six drafts appeared as The Autobiographies in 1896. A new edition, edited by G. A. Bonnard, was published in 1969 (Am. ed.). Editions of the Decline and Fall are legion. The modern standard edition is that of J. B. Bury (7 vol., 1896-1900).

See his collected letters (ed. by J. E. Norton, 3 vol., 1956); biographies by J. W. Swain (1966), G. De Beer (1968), P. B. Craddock (1982, 1988), and J. W. Burrow (1985); studies by D. P. Jordan (1971) and R. N. Parkinson (1974).

Gierek, Edward, 1913-2001, Polish politician, b. Porąbka. His family emigrated to France, where he was raised. He joined the French Communist party in 1931 and was later deported to Poland for organizing a strike. He went to Belgium, joining the Communist party there. He returned to Poland in 1948 and rose through the party ranks to become by 1957 a member of the Polish parliament. In 1959 he regained the politburo seat that he had occupied briefly in 1956. As first secretary of the Katowice city party organization (1957-70), Gierek created a personal power base and became the recognized leader of the young technocrat faction of the party.

When rioting over economic conditions broke out in late 1970, Gierek replaced Władysław Gomułka as party first secretary. Gierek promised economic reform and, with the aid of foreign loans, instituted a program to modernize industry and increase the availability of consumer goods. The economy, however, began to falter during the 1973 oil crisis, and by 1976 price increases became necessary. New riots broke out, and although they were forcibly suppressed, the increases were rescinded. High foreign debts, food shortages, and an outmoded industrial base compelled a new round of economic reforms in 1980. Once again, price increases set off protests across the country, and Gierek was forced to grant legal status to Solidarity and to concede the right to strike. Shortly thereafter, he was replaced as party leader by Stanisław Kania.

Rutledge, Edward, 1749-1800, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Charleston, S.C.; brother of John Rutledge. He studied law at the Middle Temple, London, and was admitted (1772) to the English bar. He returned to America and was (1774-77) a member of the Continental Congress. He later held official posts at both the national and state level. He was captured (1780) by the British at the fall of Charleston. He was governor of South Carolina from 1798 to 1800.
Rydz-Śmigły or Śmigły-Rydz, Edward, 1886-1941, Polish politician. He served under Piłsudski in the Polish Legions (1914-17), in the war with Soviet Russia (1920), and in the coup of 1926. At Piłsudski's death and in accordance with his wish, Rydz-Śmigły succeeded him (1935) as inspector general of the army; in 1936 he was named "first citizen after the president" and marshal of Poland. A virtual dictator, he fostered the Ozon [Camp of National Unity], a government party that dominated parliament. When Germany and the USSR invaded Poland, he fled (Sept., 1939) to Romania.
Alleyn, Edward, 1566-1626, English actor. He was the foremost member of the Admiral's Men, joining the group c.1587, and was the only rival of Richard Burbage. An exceptionally large man, he gained fame for his portrayals in Marlowe's Tamburlaine, Jew of Malta, and Doctor Faustus. He married the stepdaughter of Philip Henslowe and with Henslowe owned the Rose and Fortune theaters. His popularity brought him wealth, which he employed in the founding of Dulwich College in 1613 and in aiding contemporary writers. After his wife's death, he married a daughter of John Donne.
Vernon, Edward, 1684-1757, British admiral. He entered the navy in 1700 and rose steadily in rank. A member of Parliament from 1722, he opposed the government of Sir Robert Walpole and urged war with Spain. When war was finally declared (see Jenkins's Ear, War of), Vernon won great popularity by his capture (1739) of Portobelo. However, the failure of his joint expedition (1741) with the incompetent General Wentworth against Cartagena and Santiago de Cuba led to his recall. Vernon's nickname, "Grog," was given to the drink—rum diluted with water—that he ordered served to his sailors to curb their drunkenness. George Washington's half brother Lawrence named the Washington estate, Mt. Vernon, for the admiral, under whom he had served.
Villella, Edward, 1936-, American ballet dancer, b. Long Island, N.Y. Villella studied at George Balanchine's School of American Ballet, joining the New York City Ballet in 1957. He soon became a principal dancer with a large repertoire of roles, most notably The Prodigal Son. Villella's dancing is remarkable for its tremendous vigor and dynamic style. He served as artistic coordinator of the Eglevsky Ballet (1979-84) and as director of the Oklahoma Ballet (1983-85), before founding the Miami City Ballet in 1986.
Seaga, Edward, 1930-, prime minister of Jamaica (1980-89). Born in Boston, Mass., to Jamaican parents of Lebanese and Scottish descent, he was a record producer before entering politics. Elected to parliamnent in 1962, he was minister of welfare and development (1962-67) and finance minister (1967-72). He became leader of the conservative Jamaican Labor party (JLP) in 1974, and in 1980 the JLP won the elections and he became prime minister. Seaga severed relations with Cuba, promoted close ties with the United States, and emphasized free-market policies. In 1989 the JLP lost to the People's National party in a landslide and Michael Manley became prime minister. Seaga retired from parliament and as JLP leader in 2005.
York, Edward, duke of, 1373?-1415, English nobleman; elder son of Edmund of Langley, duke of York. In 1390, Edward was made earl of Rutland, and in 1394 he was created earl of Cork while with his cousin Richard II in Ireland. He acted for the king in the marriage negotiations for the hand of Isabella of France. For his help in the proceedings (1397) against the lords appellant, Richard gave him the lands of the attainted Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, and the title duke of Aumâle (Albemarle). He espoused the cause of Henry of Lancaster (Henry IV) against Richard in 1399, but he was accused in Parliament of complicity in the murder of Gloucester and lost his dukedom. He was soon restored to favor, however, and in 1402 he succeeded his father as duke of York. He was appointed (1403) lieutenant of South Wales, but discontent over lack of funds led him to join in an unsuccessful plot to kidnap and make king the captive Edmund de Mortimer, 5th earl of March. York was imprisoned (1405) but was later released and made a privy councilor. Subsequently he served Henry IV in Wales and France and was killed while fighting for Henry V at Agincourt. He was succeeded as duke of York by his nephew, Richard.
Young, Edward, 1683-1765, English poet and dramatist. After a disappointing political life he took holy orders about 1724, serving for a time as the royal chaplain before becoming rector of Welwyn in 1730. He achieved great renown in his own time, both in England and on the Continent, for his long poem The Complaint, or Night Thoughts on Life, Death, and Immortality (1742-45), a Christian apologetic inspired by the deaths of his wife, stepdaughter, and the latter's husband. Besides writing a series of satires, The Universal Passion (1725-28), he was the author of three bombastic tragedies, Busiris (1719), The Revenge (1721), and The Brothers (1753). His last important work was his prose Conjectures on Original Composition (1759).

See his correspondence, ed. by H. Pettit (1972); biography by I. S. Bliss (1969); H. Forster, Edward Young: Poet of the Night Thoughts (1986).

Hall, Edward, 1499?-1547, English chronicler. He wrote The Union of the Noble and Ilustre Famelies of Lancastre and York (1548), usually called Hall's Chronicle. A glorification of the Tudors, it is important for the light it sheds on social life early in the reign of Henry VIII and for the use Shakespeare made of it in his historical plays.
Garnett, Edward: see Garnett, Richard.
Burleson, Edward, 1798-1851, pioneer of Texas, b. Buncombe co., N.C. After living in Tennessee and serving under Andrew Jackson in the war against the Creek (1813-14), he moved to Texas. He distinguished himself in the Texas Revolution and was later (1840) successful in the warfare against the Cherokee in East Texas. Burleson was a senator, then vice president of the Republic of Texas, but was defeated for the presidency in 1844. He also served in the Mexican War.
Bancroft, Edward, 1744-1821, spy in the American Revolution, b. Westfield, Mass. While living in London, he became a friend of Benjamin Franklin and in the Revolution began to operate as an American secret agent. He reported to the American commissioners in France, but, unknown to them, he was a double agent and reported their movements to the British. Bancroft in 1778 gave advance information of the Franco-American alliance to the British. Evidence of his duplicity was revealed by Paul L. Ford in 1891.

See L. Einstein, Divided Loyalties (1933).

Thatch, Edward: see Blackbeard.
Thomas, Edward, 1878-1917, English poet. He began his literary career writing essays, travel books, and critical studies. His friendship with Robert Frost, which began in 1912, turned him to writing poetry, primarily on nature themes. His first volume of verse, Six Poems (1916), mostly pastoral verse, was published shortly before he was killed in World War I.

See his collected poems (1920, rev. ed. 1936); biography by R. P. Eckert (1937); studies by W. Cooke (1970) and H. Coombes (1956, repr. 1973).

Stafford, Edward, 3d duke of Buckingham, 1478-1521, English nobleman; son of Henry Stafford, 2d duke of Buckingham. The attainder (1483) of his father was reversed on the accession (1485) of Henry VII, and after Henry VIII came to the throne (1509), he was made lord high constable, lord high steward, and a privy councilor. However, although Buckingham appeared to be high in the favor of Henry VIII, the king was both jealous and suspicious of him because of his wealth, his lands, and his descent; on the paternal side he was a descendant of Thomas of Woodstock, son of Edward III, and his mother was a sister of Edward IV's queen. He came to represent those nobles who resented the power of Cardinal Wolsey and their own exclusion from high offices. In 1521, Buckingham was arrested and tried on trumped-up charges that he had countenanced prophecies of his own succession to the throne and had expressed his intention to murder the king. He was executed.
Whymper, Edward, 1840-1911, English illustrator and mountain climber, b. London. Sent to Switzerland to make sketches of mountain scenery, he became interested in mountaineering and in 1865, after six failures, climbed the hitherto unscaled Matterhorn. The descent ended in a fall that killed four of the party of seven. Whymper made expeditions to Greenland and later to South America, where he participated (1880) in the first ascent of Chimborazo (20,577 ft/6,272 m). He climbed other major Andean peaks, including Aconcagua and Tupungato. His best-known book is Scrambles amongst the Alps (1871, 6th ed. 1936).
Moore, Edward, 1712-57, English dramatist. He wrote two comedies in the sentimental tradition, The Foundling (1748) and Gil Blas (1751), but his reputation as a dramatist rests primarily on his prose tragedy The Gamester (1753).
Blake, Edward, 1833-1912, Canadian Liberal party leader, b. Upper Canada (Ontario). A prominent constitutional lawyer, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1867. In 1871 he became premier of Ontario, and he later served as minister of justice (1875-77) in Alexander Mackenzie's government and as leader of the Liberal party (1880-87). After withdrawing from Canadian politics (1890), he sat in the British House of Commons (1892-1907) as an Irish nationalist.

See biography by M. A. Banks (1957).

Cave, Edward, 1691-1754, English publisher. He founded (1731) the Gentleman's Magazine, the first modern magazine in English. Cave gave Samuel Johnson his first regular literary employment when he printed (1741-44) Johnson's parliamentary reports, "Debates in the Senate of Magna Lilliputia," in his periodical. Later Cave published other works by Johnson.
Gorey, Edward, 1925-2000, American illustrator and writer, b. Chicago, grad Harvard. He lived and worked in New York City and Cape Cod until 1986 when he moved permanently to the Cape. Gorey is celebrated for his more than 100 small volumes of gothic fables, meticulously hand-lettered and intricately illustrated, most of them in verse. His works are remarkable combinations of the eccentric, the witty, and the macabre and are illustrated lavishly and with superb technique in dark and abundant Edwardian detail. Odd, mysterious, cool, oblique, and very funny, Gorey's works have a completely unique appeal. Many of his early books, published in small editions, have become collector's items; they include The Unstrung Harp (1953) and The Object-Lesson (1958). His later single works include The Awdrey-Gore Legacy (1972), a spoof on English murder mysteries; The Lavender Leotard (1973), concerning ballet; Amphigorey (1975); Amphigorey Too (1980); Amphigorey Also (1983); and The Eclectic Abecedarium (1985).

See the interviews in Ascending Peculiarity: Edward Gorey on Edward Gorey (2001), ed. by K. Wilkin.

Braddock, Edward, 1695-1755, British general in the French and Indian War (see under French and Indian Wars). Although he had seen little active campaigning before 1754, Braddock was reputed to have a good knowledge of European military tactics and was noted as a stern disciplinarian. He was promoted to major general in 1754 and early in 1755 arrived in Virginia as commander in chief of the British forces in North America against the French. His immediate objective was the French stronghold at the forks of the Ohio (see Fort Duquesne). With some 700 colonial militiamen, whom he regarded disdainfully, and over 1,400 British regulars, he moved across the Alleghenies from Fort Cumberland (now Cumberland, Md.), building a road (the foundation of the National Road) as he went. The march was so slow, however, that he feared the French would reinforce Duquesne before he could reach there. Adopting the suggestion of one of his aides-de-camp, George Washington, he left the wagons behind him with one of the two British regiments and pushed ahead with about two thirds of his total force. While crossing the Monongahela River, Braddock was met (July 9, 1755) by a force of not more than 900 men (a few French, some Canadians, and many Native Americans) under Daniel Beaujeu, who had already learned of the advance. The British regulars, as unfamiliar with Native American-style fighting as their commander (although both had been given fair warning by the colonials), bolted from their column formation under the steady fire from a ubiquitous enemy safely concealed in ravines and behind trees. The affair turned into a bloody rout. Since the Native Americans paused to collect scalps and other trophies of war, the demoralized troops were able to rejoin the rear guard and both retreated safely to Fort Cumberland. Of the 1,459 actively engaged, 977 were killed or wounded, including 63 of the 89 officers, who—unlike the soldiers—fought bravely. Braddock himself had four horses shot from under him before he was mortally wounded. He died four days later at Great Meadows and was buried there, near the site of Uniontown, Pa.

See D. S. Freeman, George Washington, Vol. II (1948); biography by L. McCardell (1958).

Bransfield, Edward, 1795-1852, English sea captain and antarctic explorer. In 1820, Bransfield sailed from Chile to the South Shetland Islands off the N Antarctic Peninsula. After claiming King George Island for England, he ventured south, sighting and charting portions of the Antarctic continent. It is believed he may have been the first explorer to sight the Antarctic mainland.
Steichen, Edward, 1879-1973, American photographer, b. Luxembourg, reared in Hancock, Mich. Steichen is credited with the transformation of photography into an art form. At 16, while apprenticed as a lithographer, he taught himself photography and painted in his spare time. Studying art in Paris, he sought painterly effects in his photography, becoming an enormously successful portrait photographer. In New York City he was associated with Alfred Stieglitz in the founding of the "291" and Photo-Secession galleries. At "291" he brought works by Cézanne, Rodin, Picasso, and Matisse to American attention. Back in Paris, Steichen made botanical experiments, a lifelong passion; he was later to win added renown as a crossbreeder of flowers.

During World War I Steichen was instrumental in the development of aerial photography. Fascinated by the technical potential of the medium, he produced pictures remarkable for their clarity, detail, and expressive use of light. From 1923 to 1938 he worked as a portrait and fashion photographer for Condé Nast publications and opened a commercial studio. At this time he made superb photomurals, including those of the George Washington Bridge. During World War II, he was placed in command of naval combat photography.

Steichen was later director of the department of photography of the Museum of Modern Art (1947-62). In this capacity he organized the Family of Man exhibition (1955) to "mirror the essential oneness of mankind"; it is considered the greatest photographic exposition ever mounted. During his time at the museum, Steichen had virtually abandoned his own work; but in his last years he filmed the effect of the passing seasons on a flowering shadblow tree. Steichen's creative imagination and his extraordinarily powerful imagery forged for him and for his medium an honored place among the fine arts.

See his Life in Photography (1963, repr. 1985); Edward Steichen: The Portraits, with text by C. Peterson (1989); C. Sandburg (his brother-in-law) et al., Steichen the Photographer (1961); J. Steichen (his third wife), Steichen's Legacy: Photographs, 1895-1973 (2000); biography by P. Nivens (1997); J. Smith, Edward Steichen: The Early Years (1999).

Stillingfleet, Edward, 1635-99, English prelate and author. A fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, he became (1657) rector of Sutton, Bedfordshire. In 1661 he published Irenicum, a treatise on church government that sought to establish a compromise between episcopacy and the Presbyterian polity. In 1663 he issued Origines Sacrae and in 1664 A Rational Account of the Grounds of the Protestant Religion. In 1677 he became archdeacon of London and in 1678 dean of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. He was consecrated (1689) bishop of Worcester. Among his later works are Origines Britannicae; or, Antiquities of the British Church (1685) and The Bishop of Worcester's Answer to Mr. Locke's Letter (1697), in which he criticized John Locke for undermining the Trinity. An edition of his works, with a life by Richard Bentley, was published in six volumes in 1710.
Livingston, Edward: see under Livingston, family.
Irving, Edward, 1792-1834, Scottish preacher, under whose influence the Catholic Apostolic Church was founded; its members have sometimes been called Irvingites. He was tutor to Jane Welsh, later the wife of Thomas Carlyle, and became the friend of Carlyle. After serving as assistant (1819-22) to Thomas Chalmers in Glasgow, Irving was called to the Caledonian Church, London, where his oratory brought him great popularity; he and his congregation moved to the larger Regent Square Church in 1827. As his preaching began to emphasize the supernatural and the imminence of the second coming of Christ, criticism arose, especially over his views on the human nature of Christ. In 1832 he was debarred from the Regent Square Church; in 1833 he was deposed from the ministry of the Church of Scotland. Irving had, from 1826, been meeting with a group gathered together by Henry Drummond to study the prophecies of the Scriptures. From this "school of the prophets" was developed the Catholic Apostolic Church, of which Irving was an "angel," or bishop.

See biography by M. O. W. Oliphant (1864); H. C. Whitney, Blinded Eagle (1955).

Weston, Edward, 1886-1958, American photographer, b. Highland Park, Ill. Weston began to make photographs in Chicago parks in 1902, and his works were first exhibited in 1903 at the Art Institute of Chicago. Three years later he moved to California and opened a portrait studio in a Los Angeles suburb. The Western landscape soon became his principal subject matter. In the 1930s, Weston and several other photographers, including Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, and Willard van Dyke, formed the f/64 group, which greatly influenced the aesthetics of American photography (see photography, still). In 1937, Weston received the first Guggenheim Fellowship awarded to a photographer, which freed him from earning a living as a portraitist. The works for which he is famous—sharp, stark, brilliantly printed images of sand dunes, nudes, vegetables, rock formations, trees, cacti, shells, water, and human faces are among the finest of 20th-century photographs; their influence on modern art remains inestimable. Weston made his last photographs at his beloved Point Lobos, Calif., during the decade from 1938 to 1948, the year he was stricken with Parkinson's disease. His second son, Brett Weston, 1911-93, and his fourth son, Cole Weston, 1919-2003, were both photographers in their father's tradition.

See The Daybooks of Edward Weston, ed. by N. Newhall (2 vol., 1961-66), The Flame of Recognition, ed. by N. Newhall (1965), and My Camera on Point Lobos (1968); N. Newhall, The Photographs of Edward Weston (1946); C. Weston, Edward Weston: Fifty Years (1973); G. Mora, ed., Edward Weston: Forms of Passion (1996); D. Travis, Edward Weston: The Last Years in Carmel (2001).

Whalley, Edward, d. 1675?, English regicide. During the English civil war he served under his cousin Oliver Cromwell in the parliamentary army. He was given custody of Charles I for a time in 1647, served on the high court of justice that tried him, and signed the death warrant. After 1655, Whalley was one of the major generals who ruled the country until the restored Long Parliament withdrew his commission and those of other prominent Cromwellians. At the Restoration (1660), Whalley, with his son-in-law, William Goffe, fled to New England. He lived successively in Boston, New Haven, Milford (Conn.), and Hadley (Mass.), hunted by English agents but never betrayed.
Calvert, Edward, 1799-1883, English painter and engraver. A great admirer of William Blake, Calvert, along with several of his contemporaries, formed a group around Blake called the Brotherhood of the Ancients. Calvert's art celebrated the life of primitive society. In his later work he was deeply influenced by a visit in 1844 to Greece.

See L. Binyon, The Followers of William Blake (1925).

Dahlberg, Edward, 1900-1977, American novelist, critic, and essayist, b. Boston, grad. Columbia, 1925. The illegitimate son of an itinerant hairdresser, he spent much of his childhood in Kansas City. His childhood experiences were recreated in his first novel, Bottom Dogs (1930). Dahlberg lived mostly in Europe. His works include the novels Those Who Perish (1934) and The Olive of Minerva (1976); mystical literary criticism such as Do These Bones Live? (1941); studies of ancient societies such as The Carnal Myth (1968).

See his autobiographical Because I Was Flesh (1964) and The Confessions of Edward Dahlberg (1971); study by H. Billings, ed. (1968).

Śmigły-Rydz, Edward: see Rydz-Śmigły, Edward.
Dowden, Edward, 1843-1913, English critic, b. Ireland. He is best known as a Shakespearean scholar and as a biographer of Shelley (1886).
Kellogg, Edward, 1790-1858, American economist, b. Norwalk, Conn. He advocated a financial scheme to abolish interest, which was often usurious at the time he wrote. Kellogg devised a system of financial control whereby the government would issue legal tender notes and then lend them on the security of real estate at a low rate of interest. At the same time the government would issue, at the same rate of interest, bonds that could be exchanged freely for the notes. By that system Kellogg hoped to keep the interest rate close to the estimated rate of accumulation of wealth in the United States. His pamphlet Currency: The Evil and the Remedy (1844) was circulated with Horace Greeley's aid; it was revised under the title Labor and Other Capital (1849) and went into many editions after Kellogg's death as A New Monetary System; the 1883 edition includes a biographical sketch by his daughter. Kellogg's views were favored by agrarian and labor organizations and led to the formation of a number of political parties (e.g., the Greenbacks, the Populists) whose aim was a national economy and currency not manipulable by banking and financial interests.

Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as The Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. Edward, an exceptional military leader and popular during his life, died one year before his father and thus never ruled as king (becoming the first English Prince of Wales to suffer that fate). The throne passed instead to his son Richard, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.

Life

Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. Edward was created Earl of Chester in 1333, Duke of Cornwall in 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and finally invested as Prince of Wales in 1343. In England Edward served as a symbolic regent for periods in 1339, 1340, and 1342 while Edward III was on campaign. He was expected to attend all council meetings, and he performed the negotiations with the papacy about the war in 1337.

Edward had been raised with his cousin Joan, "The Fair Maid of Kent." Edward gained Innocent VI's papal permission and absolution for this marriage to a blood-relative (as had Edward III when marrying Philippa of Hainaut, being her second cousin) and married Joan in 10 October 1361 at Windsor Castle, prompting some controversy, mainly because of Joan's chequered marital history and the fact that marriage to an Englishwoman wasted an opportunity to form an alliance with a foreign power.

When in England, Edward's chief residence was at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire).

He served as the king's representative in Aquitaine, where he and Joan kept a court which was considered among the most brilliant of the time. It was the resort of exiled kings, like James of Majorca and Pedro of Castile.

Pedro, thrust from his throne by his illegitimate brother, Henry of Trastámara, offered Edward the lordship of Biscay in 1367, in return for the Black Prince's aid in recovering his throne. Edward was successful in the Battle of Nájera in which he soundly defeated the combined French and Spanish forces led by Bertrand du Guesclin.

During this period, he fathered two sons: Edward (27 January 1365 – 1372), who died at the age of 6; and Richard, born in 1367 and often called Richard of Bordeaux for his place of birth, who would later rule as Richard II of England.

The Black Prince returned to England in January 1371 and died a few years later after a long wasting illness that may have been cancer.

Emblem

Edward and chivalry

Edward lived in a century of decline for the knightly ideal of chivalry. The formation of the Order of the Garter, an English royal order of which Edward was a founding member, signified a shift towards patriotism and away from the crusader mentality that characterized England in the previous two centuries. Edward's stance in this evolution is seemingly somewhat divided. Edward displayed obedience to typical chivalric obligations through his pious contributions to Canterbury Cathedral throughout his life.

On one hand, after capturing John the Good, king of France, and his youngest son at Poitiers, he treated them with great respect, at one point giving John leave to return home, and reportedly praying with John at Canterbury Cathedral. Notably, he also allowed a day for preparations before the Battle of Poitiers so that the two sides could discuss the coming battle with one another, and so that the Cardinal of Perigord could plead for peace. Though not agreeing with knightly charges on the battlefield, he also was devoted to tournament jousting.

On the other hand, his chivalric tendencies were overridden by pragmatism on many occasions. The Black Prince's repeated use of the chevauchée strategy (burning and pillaging towns and farms) was not in keeping with contemporary notions of chivalry, but it was quite effective in accomplishing the goals of his campaigns and weakening the unity and economy of France. On the battlefield, pragmatism over chivalry is also demonstrated via the massed use of infantry strongholds, dismounted men at arms, longbowmen, and flank attacks (a revolutionary practice in such a chivalric age). Moreover, he was exceptionally harsh toward and contemptuous of lower classes in society, as indicated by the heavy taxes he levied as Prince of Aquitaine and by the massacres he perpetrated at Limoges and Caen. Edward's behaviour was typical of an increasing number of English knights and nobles during the late Middle Ages who paid less and less attention to the high ideal of chivalry, which would soon influence other countries.

List of major campaigns and their significance

  • The 1345 Flanders Campaign on the Northern Front, which was of little significance and ended after three weeks when one of Edward's allies was murdered.
  • The Crécy Campaign on the Northern Front, which crippled the French army for 10 years, allowing the siege of Calais to occur with little conventional resistance before the plague set in. Even when France's army did recover, the forces they deployed were about a quarter of that deployed at Crecy (as shown at Poitiers). Normandy came virtually under English control, but a decision was made to focus on northern France, leaving Normandy under the control of England's vassal allies instead.
  • The Siege of Calais on the Northern Front, during which the inhabitants suffered worst and were reduced to eating dogs and rats. The siege gave the English personal and vassal control over northern France before the temporary peace due to the Black Death.
  • The Calais counter-offensive on the Northern Front, after which Calais remained in English hands.
  • Les Espagnols sur Mer or the Battle of Winchelsea on the English Channel Front, which was a Pyrrhic victory of little significance beyond preventing Spanish raids on Essex.
  • The Great Raid of 1355 on the Aquitaine–Languedoc Front, which crippled southern France economically, and provoked resentment of the French throne among French peasantry. The raid also 'cushioned' the area for conquest, opened up alliances with neighbours in Aquitaine of which that with Charles the Bad of Navarre is most notable, and caused many regions to move towards autonomy from France, as France was not as united as England.
  • The Aquitaine Conquests on the Aquitaine Front, which brought much firmer control in Aquitaine, much land for resources and many people to fight for Edward.
  • The Poitiers Campaign on the Aquitaine-Loire Front, which crippled the French Army for the next 13 years, causing the anarchy and chaos which would inevitably cause the Treaty of Bretigney to be signed in 1360. Following this campaign, there was no French Army leader, there were challenges towards Charles the Wise, and more aristocrats were killed at Crécy and Poitiers than those lost to the Black Death.
  • The Reims Campaign, following which peace was finally achieved with the Treaty of Bretigny. But, on the same terms, England was left with about a third of France rather than a little under half which they would have received through the Treaty of London. This is due to the failure to take Reims which led to the need for a safe passage out of France. As a result, a lesser treaty was agreed to and Edward III was obliged to drop his claims to the French throne. France was still forced to pay a huge ransom of around four times France's gross annual domestic product for John the Good. The ransom paid was, however, a little short of that demanded by the English, and John the Good was not returned to the French. Thus, this campaign yielded mixed results, but was mostly positive for Edward. One must also remember Edward III never actually dropped his claim to the throne, and that about half of France was controlled by the English anyway through many vassals.
  • The Najera Campaign on the Castilian Front, during which Pedro the Cruel was temporarily saved from a coup, thus confirming Castilian Spanish dedication to the Prince's cause. Later, however, Pedro was murdered. As a result of Pedro's murder, the money the prince put into the war effort became pointless, and Edward was effectively bankrupt. This forced heavy taxes to be levied in Aquitaine to relieve Edward's financial troubles, leading to a vicious cycle of resentment in Aquitaine and vicious repression of this resentment by Edward. Charles the Wise, king of France, was able to take advantage of the resentment against Edward in Aquitaine. However, the prince temporarily became the Lord of Biscay.
  • The Siege of Limoges in 1370 on the Aquitaine Front, after which the Black Prince was obliged to leave his post for his sickness and financial issues, but also because of the cruelty of the siege, which saw the massacre of some 3,000 residents according to the chronicler Froissart. Without the Prince, the English war effort against Charles the Wise and Bertrand Du Guesclin was doomed. The Prince's brother John of Gaunt was not interested with the war in France, being more interested in the war of succession in Spain.
  • King Edward III and the prince sail from Sandwich with 400 ships, carrying 4,000 men at arms and 10,000 archers for France, but after six weeks of bad weather and being blown off course they are driven back to England.

Burial

He requested to be buried in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral rather than next to the shrine, and a chapel was prepared there as a chantry for him and his wife Joan (this is now the French Protestant Chapel, and contains ceiling bosses of her face and of their coats of arms). However, this was overruled after his death and he was buried on the south side of the shrine of Thomas Becket behind the quire. His tomb consists of a bronze effigy beneath a tester depicting the Holy Trinity, with his heraldic achievements hung over the tester. The achievements have now been replaced by replicas, though the originals can still be seen nearby, and the tester was restored in 2006.

The name "Black Prince"

Although Edward is almost always now called the "Black Prince", there is no record of this name being used during his lifetime. He was instead known as Edward of Woodstock, after his place of birth. The "Black Prince" sobriquet "is first found in writing in Richard Grafton's "Chronicle of England" (1568). Its origin is uncertain; it is usually considered to be derived from an ornate black cuirass presented to the young prince by Edward III at the Battle of Crécy.

In fact, this nickname comes more than probably from his "shield of peace", his coat of arms used during tournaments, which is represented around his effigy at Canterbury. This coat of arms is black with three white ostrich feathers.

It is possible that the name was first coined by French chroniclers in reference to the ruinous military defeats he had inflicted on France or his cruelty in these. Also possible is the idea that Edward garnered the nickname from his explosive temper; the legendary Angevin temper being associated with his family's line since Geoffrey d'Anjou.

Cultural references

Plays

Edward is referenced in William Shakespeare's Henry V in Act 2, Scene 4 KING OF FRANCE
And he is bred out of that bloody strain
That haunted us in our familiar paths:
Witness our too much memorable shame
When Cressy battle fatally was struck,
And all our princes captiv'd by the hand
Of that black name, Edward, Black Prince of Wales

and again later in Act 4, Scene 7 FLUELLEN

Your grandfather of famous memory, an't please your
majesty, and your great-uncle Edward the Black
Prince of Wales, as I have read in the chronicles,
fought a most prave pattle here in France.

The Black Prince is also prominently referred to in George Bernard Shaw's Saint Joan. From Scene 1: ROBERT

Have you heard no tales of their Black Prince who was blacker than the devil himself, or of the English King's father?
… JOAN
I have heard tales of the Black Prince. The moment he touched the soil of our country the devil entered into him, and made him a black fiend. But at home, in the place made for him by God, he was good. It is always so.

Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery devoted his 1667 play ''The Black Prince to Edward.

Novels

Sculpture

A large 1903 equestrian sculpture of the Prince by Thomas Brock can be seen in Leeds City Square. It was a gift from Colonel Thomas Walter Harding, Lord Mayor of Leeds between 1898 and 1899. The choice was probably also a tribute to the future Edward VII, then Prince of Wales, who opened Leeds Infirmary in 1867 and the Yorkshire College buildings (now the University of Leeds) in 1885. The statue is the centrepiece of an array of statues in the square, including more local people such as Joseph Priestley.

Films

  • Edward, Prince of Wales is the main role played by Errol Flynn in the The Dark Avenger (1955). The film was also known as The Warriors in the USA, and The Black Prince in the UK although the latter seems to have been a working title. In Greece it was aired on TV as The Black Knight.
  • Edward, The Black Prince of Wales, was portrayed by James Purefoy in the 2001 film A Knight's Tale. Though never intending to be a historically accurate tale, the film puts an odd spin on Edward as he is portrayed as a kind and benevolent prince who enjoys sneaking into jousting tournaments to compete, and is very kind to the protagonist who is of poor commoner ancestry, even knighting him. This in spite of Edward's known distaste for the lower classes.

Games

  • Edward is portrayed in the 2007 PlayStation3 and Xbox 360 video game Bladestorm: The Hundred Years' War by Koei. Within this video game, he is seen as the primary source of backing for the forces of England, aspiring to conquer the oppositionary country of France, no matter what must be sacrificed in the process.
  • Edward appears under the name of Black Prince in the game Empire Earth in the English campaign in the fourth and fifth scenario.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Arms

As Prince of Wales, Edward's coat of arms were those of the kingdom, differentiated by a label argent of three points.

See also

Notes

Further reading

  • Richard Barber, The Life and Campaigns of the Black Prince, ISBN 0-85115-469-7
  • Barbara Tuchman, A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century, Alfred A. Knopf, New York City, 1978.
  • Life of the Black Prince by the Herald of Sir John Chandos.
  • Royal Berkshire History: Edward the Black Prince including images in both civilian and military dress
  • Guilhem Pepin, 'Towards a new assessment of the Black Prince's principality of Aquitaine: a study of the last years (1369-1372)', Nottingham Medieval Studies, Vol. L, 2006, pp. 59-114.
  • R P Dunn Pattison The Black Prince 1910 Methuen
  • David Green, "Edward, The Black Prince: Power in Medieval Europe", ISBN 978-0-582-78481-9

External links

Ancestry

|}

Search another word or see edwardon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2015 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature