Edward

Edward

[ed-werd]
Edward, Lake, or Edward Nyanza 830 sq mi (2,150 sq km), in the Great Rift Valley, central Africa, on the Congo-Uganda border. It lies at an altitude of c.3,000 ft (910 m), is c.50 mi (80 km) long, and has a maximum width of c.30 mi (48 km). Lake Edward is connected with the Nile system by the Semliki River, which drains the lake in the north and flows into Lake Albert. Lake Edward has many fish, and hippopotamuses abound on its southern shores. Henry Morton Stanley visited the lake in 1889 and named it after Albert Edward, then the prince of Wales (later Edward VII).
Edwards, Edward, 1812-86, English library pioneer. As assistant from 1839 in the British Museum, he helped Sir Anthony Panizzi draw up the rules for the catalog. Edwards collected library statistics and advised William Ewart on the free-library legislation for Great Britain (1850). He was first librarian of the Manchester Free Library from 1850 to 1858. Edwards wrote a biography of Sir Walter Raleigh (1865), Memoirs of Libraries (1859), and Lives of the Founders of the British Museum (1870).
Eggleston, Edward, 1837-1902, American author, Methodist clergyman, b. Vevay, Ind., educated in frontier schools. Before 1870 he was a Bible agent, a farm worker, a circuit rider in Minnesota and Indiana, and a journalist in Chicago. He then joined the editorial staff of the Independent in New York. He established his literary reputation with The Hoosier Schoolmaster (1871) and The Circuit Rider (1874). He was pastor of the Church of Christian Endeavor, Brooklyn, from 1874 until 1879. Besides writing juvenile stories and historical essays and articles, he completed two volumes of his planned history of American life, The Beginners of a Nation (1896) and The Transit of Civilization (1901).

See The First of the Hoosiers (1903) by his brother, G. C. Eggleston; biography by W. P. Randel (1946).

Windsor, Edward, duke of: see Edward VIII.
Winslow, Edward, 1595-1655, one of the founders of Plymouth Colony in New England, b. England. One of the leaders of the Pilgrims who traveled to America on the Mayflower in 1620, Winslow negotiated (1621) the treaty of peace and friendship with the Native American chief Massasoit. Sent back to England (1623-24) as agent of the colony, he wrote Good Newes from New England, which Samuel Purchas published in 1625. On his return to Plymouth he was elected an assistant of the colony and was continuously reelected until 1647, except for the years he served as governor (1633-34, 1636-37, and 1644-45), years in which William Bradford had declined to hold the governorship. Winslow was an active explorer and was apparently the first Englishman to visit (1632) Connecticut. He was also one of the Pilgrim leaders who successfully undertook to discharge the colony's debts to its English backers. In England again (1635) he was imprisoned for a short time for his religious beliefs and for performing the marriage ceremony in the colony. On still another journey to England, to answer charges made against Plymouth Colony, he issued a vigorous defense in Hypocrisie Unmasked (1646). With the Puritan cause triumphant in England, he decided to remain there. He was sent on several missions by Oliver Cromwell, dying on one to the West Indies. He was the father of Josiah Winslow.

See G. F. Willison, Saints and Strangers (rev. ed. 1965).

Bruce, Edward, d. 1318, Scottish king of Ireland, brother of Robert I of Scotland. He aided his brother in the war for independence from England and in 1315 was declared heir to Robert's throne. With Robert's approval he then invaded Ulster, to which he had some hereditary claim. He was crowned king of Ireland in 1316 and found many Irish allies against the Anglo-Irish rulers. However, he failed to consolidate his gains and was killed in battle in 1318.
Taylor, Edward, c.1642-1729, American poet and clergyman, b. England, considered America's foremost colonial poet. He emigrated to America in 1668 and graduated from Harvard in 1671. From then until his death, he served as Congregational minister for Westfield, Mass. An ardent Puritan, Taylor agreed completely with the Calvinistic beliefs of his time. His best poems, "God's Determinations" and "Preparatory Meditations," show a strong similarity to the English devotional metaphysical poets. Since he did not publish his poems in his lifetime, his poetry remained in manuscript until 1937. In 1939, T. H. Johnson published a selection of his poems. The best edition of Taylor's works was edited by D. E. Stanford in 1960.

See studies by N. S. Grabo (1962), D. Stanford (1965), and W. J. Scheik (1974).

Teach, Edward: see Blackbeard.
Teller, Edward, 1908-2003, American physicist, b. Budapest, Hungary, Ph.D. Univ. of Leipzig, 1930, where he studied under Werner Heisenberg. Fleeing the Nazis, he came to the United States in 1935 and was naturalized in 1941. He was (1935-41) a professor of physics at George Washington Univ. and during World War II he worked on atomic bomb research at a number of facilities. Later he was (1946-52) professor of physics at the Univ. of Chicago. He was also associated (1949-51) with the thermonuclear research program of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. From 1952, Teller was professor of physics at the Univ. of California and director of the Livermore division of its radiation laboratory. In 1960 he resigned from his laboratory post to devote his time to teaching and research; he retired in 1975.

Teller worked on the physics of the hydrogen bomb from 1941 forward and was instrumental in making possible the first successful U.S. explosion of the device on Nov. 1, 1952. Robert Oppenheimer had opposed the develop of the bomb on technical and moral grounds, and Teller later publicly called (1954) for his colleague's removal from positions involving national security, an act that alienated many within the scientific community. Teller received the 1962 Enrico Fermi Award For his contributions to the development, use, and control of nuclear energy; in 2003 he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Teller, who distrusted arms control, was a supporter of a nuclear-powered X-ray laser missile defense system and a major proponent of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. His writings include The Legacy of Hiroshima (with Allen Brown, 1962), The Constructive Uses of Nuclear Explosives (with others, 1968), and Memoirs: A Twentieth-Century Journey in Science and Politics (2001).

See biography by P. Goodchild (2005); G. Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb (2002).

Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939, American linguist and anthropologist, b. Pomerania. Sapir was brought to the United States in 1889. After teaching at the Univ. of California and the Univ. of Pennsylvania, he served (1910-25) as chief of the division of anthropology of the Canadian National Museum. He was professor of anthropology at the Univ. of Chicago (1925-31), and of anthropology and linguistics at Yale from 1931 until his death. With his student Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) he developed the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, arguing that the limits of language restrict the scope of possible thought and that every language recognizes peculiar sets of distinctions—e.g., Eskimo and its rich vocabulary for different kinds of snow. The theory has been enormously influential but has for the most part been superseded by subsequent research. Sapir's studies on the ethnology and linguistics of various Native American groups of the United States contributed greatly to the development of descriptive linguistics. Among his books are Wishram Texts (1909), Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture (1916), Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech (1921), and Nootka Texts (1939).
Savage, Edward, 1761-1817, American portrait painter and engraver. He was probably self-taught, although he may have studied with Benjamin West during a brief visit to London. He at one time operated art galleries in Boston, Philadelphia, and New York City. His most famous painting is The Washington Family (National Gall. of Art, Washington, D.C.), which exhibits facility in the spatial organization of stiffly executed figures. The portrait of Abraham Whipple (U.S. Naval Academy) is another of his works often reproduced.
Preble, Edward, 1761-1807, American naval officer, b. Falmouth (now Portland), Maine. In the American Revolution he ran away from home to serve on a privateer, entered (1779) the Massachusetts state marine as a midshipman, and saw service aboard the Protector, which was captured in 1781. After his release he joined the Winthrop and, when the Revolution was over, was engaged in the merchant service. Commissioned lieutenant in the U.S. navy in 1798, he was promoted (1799) to captain and given command of the Essex, which sailed to China and convoyed 14 merchant vessels to New York. In 1803, Preble was transferred to the Constitution and set out in command of a squadron for the Mediterranean, where he took a leading part in the Tripolitan War. After the Philadelphia of his squadron had been captured and held in the harbor of Tripoli, Preble blockaded that port and made a number of attacks, but he failed to capture the strongly fortified town. He was relieved of his command on the arrival of Commodore Samuel Barron. Many of those who served under Preble, such as David Porter and Stephen Decatur, rendered distinguished service in the War of 1812.

See biography by C. McKee (1972).

Boscawen, Edward, 1711-61, British admiral. He was a popular naval hero, famous for his decisive courage displayed against France and Spain at Portobelo (1739), Cape Finisterre (1747), and Lagos Bay (1759). He is noted also for attempts to improve health conditions in the fleet.
Lear, Edward, 1812-88, English humorist and artist. At 19 he was employed as a draftsman by the London Zoological Society; the paintings of parrots that he produced for The Family of the Psittacidae (1832) were among the first color plates of animals ever published in Great Britain. Lear is best known for his illustrated limericks and nonsense verse, which were collected in A Book of Nonsense (1846), Nonsense Songs (1871), Laughable Lyrics (1877), and others. He spent most of his adult life abroad, and wrote several illustrated journals of his European travels, e.g., Journals of a Landscape Painter in the Balkans.

See biographies by A. Davidson (1938, repr. 1968), V. Noakes (1969), and P. Levi (1995); V. Noakes, ed., The Complete Verse and Other Nonsense (2001); studies by V. Dehejia (1989) and J. Wullschläger (1995).

Mansfield, Edward, d. 1667, West Indian buccaneer. Possibly born in Curaçao of Dutch parentage, he is also called Edward Mansveld. He was engaged (1665) by the British governor of Jamaica, Sir Thomas Modyford, to take Curaçao from the Dutch. He set sail with a fleet of 15 vessels, with Henry Morgan as his lieutenant, and made, instead, for Cuba where he sacked Sancti Spiritus. He took the island of Old Providence, ascended the San Juan River to take Granada, Nicaragua, and plundered and burned Spanish possessions along the Central and South American coasts before he returned to Jamaica, where he was mildly reproved by Governor Modyford for his activities. He died shortly afterward and his reputation as chief of the buccaneers passed to Henry (later Sir Henry) Morgan.
Hicks, Edward, 1780-1849, American painter and preacher, b. Bucks co., Pa. A member of the Society of Friends, he became a noted back-country preacher in the conservative group of Quakers associated with his cousin Elias Hicks. He supported himself by painting carriages, signs, furniture, and the like. Hicks's fame rests mainly on the painting The Peaceable Kingdom, nearly 100 versions of which he is believed to have executed, 62 of them still extant. A completely untrained primitive artist who developed considerable skill during his nearly 30 years of easel painting, he borrowed many of his early animal groups from European engravings. His paintings, which also include farm groups and animal portraits, have great charm and appeal. In his day Hicks was known mainly as a preacher.

See biographies by E. P. Mather and D. C. Miller (1983), A. Ford (1985), and C. J. Weekley (1999); study by A. Ford (1952, repr. 1973).

Chamberlin, Edward, 1866-1967, American economist, b. LaConner, Wash. He taught economics at Harvard (1937-67) and made significant contributions to microeconomics, particularly on competition theory and consumer choice, and their connection to prices. One of the most influential economists of his time, Chamberlin coined the term "product differentiation" to describe how a supplier may be able to charge a greater amount for a product than perfect competition would allow. His works include Theory of Monopolistic Competition (1933, 8th ed. 1962) and Toward a More General Theory of Value (1957, repr. 1982).
Channing, Edward, 1856-1931, American historian, b. Dorchester, Mass.; son of William Ellery Channing (1818-1901). He was a prominent teacher at Harvard from 1883 until his retirement in 1929, holding a professor's rank from 1897. Channing wrote The United States of America, 1765-1865 (1896, 2d ed. 1930, repr. 1941); Guide to the Study and Reading of American History (with Albert B. Hart, 1896; rev. and augmented ed. by Channing, Hart, and Frederick Jackson Turner, 1912), an excellent brief bibliography of American history; and The Jeffersonian System, 1801-1811 ("American Nation" series, 1906, repr. 1968). Most of these books were, however, either incidental to, or preparation for, the great work to which Channing devoted most of his life—A History of the United States (6 vol., 1905-25), embracing the years from 1000 to 1865. Based throughout on the author's extensive knowledge of the sources, remarkably accurate in fact, and excellently written, it is generally considered one of the finest histories of the United States ever produced by one man. The final volume on the Civil War won a Pulitzer Prize in 1926.
Pococke, Edward, 1604-91, English Orientalist, b. Oxford. Ordained a priest in 1629, he resided at Aleppo in Syria as a chaplain, where he collected valuable manuscripts and studied Arabic, Hebrew, Syriac, Samaritan, and Ethiopic. Living in England from 1636, he wrote a series of essays on Arabic history, Specimen historiae Arabum (1636), the first book printed in Arabic type. In 1663 he published the Arabic text and his Latin translation of the history by Bar-Hebraeus that had inspired his essays. This important work of scholarship was entitled Historia compendiosa dynastiarum. Pococke also wrote commentaries on Hosea, Joel, Micah, and Malachi, and made his superb collection and his vast knowledge available to other scholars. His library is now part of the Bodleian Library at Oxford. His name appears also as Pocock.
Jenner, Edward, 1749-1823, English physician; pupil of John Hunter. His invaluable experiments beginning in 1796 with the vaccination of eight-year-old James Phipps proved that cowpox provided immunity against smallpox. His discovery was instrumental in ridding many areas of the world of a dread disease and laid the foundations of modern immunology as a science.

See W. R. Le Fanu, A Bio-bibliography of Edward Jenner, 1749-1823 (1951).

Moran, Edward, 1829-1901, American painter of marine and historical subjects, b. England. He came to the United States with his family in 1844. In 1899 he completed a series of 13 paintings illustrating epochs in the maritime history of America from the landing of Leif Ericsson to the return of Admiral Dewey's fleet from the Philippines in 1899 (Pennsylvania Mus. of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia). His brother Thomas Moran, 1837-1926, was an American landscape painter, illustrator, and etcher. He accompanied the exploring expeditions of Professor F. V. Hayden to the Yellowstone River (1871) and of Major J. W. Powell down the Colorado River (1873). Subsequently, he made the illustrations on wood for both expeditions' reports and the sketches from which he painted the two large canvases now in the Capitol at Washington, D.C., The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone and Chasm of the Colorado. In 1884 he became a member of the National Academy of Design. As a painter Moran was strongly influenced by the art of Turner. Other examples of his painting are Bringing Home the Cattle (Buffalo, N.Y., Mus.); The Grand Canal, Venice; The Dream of the Orient; and Tower of Cortez, in Mexico, a watercolor. He also produced many etchings and magazine illustrations on wood. Another brother was Peter Moran, 1841-1914, American landscape and animal painter and etcher. Good examples of his painting are Pasture Land; Santa Barbara Mission; Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico; The Stable Door; and Return of the Herd, awarded a medal at the Centennial Exposition (1876), where his etchings of animals were similarly honored.
Albee, Edward, 1928-, American playwright, one of the leading dramatists of his generation, b. Washington, D.C. Much of his most characteristic work constitutes an absurdist commentary on American life. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf (1962, film 1966), a Tony Award-winner that is generally regarded as his finest play, presents an all-night drinking bout in which a middle-aged professor and his wife verbally lacerate each other in brilliant colloquial language. His major early plays include The Zoo Story (1959), The Death of Bessie Smith (1960), The Sandbox (1960), The Ballad of the Sad Cafe (1963), adapted from the novel by Carson McCullers, and Tiny Alice (1965). Albee won the Pulitzer Prize for A Delicate Balance (1967), Seascape (1975), and Three Tall Women (1994). Other later plays include The Lady from Dubuque (1980), Marriage Play (1987), and The Play about the Baby (1998). In 2002 two new Albee plays debuted, The Goat, or Who Is Sylvia?, a Tony Award-winning family tragicomedy, and Occupant, a portrait of the artist Louise Nevelson.

See P. C. Kolin, Conversations with Edward Albee (1987); biography by M. Gussow (1999); studies by A. Paolucci (1972) and R. E. Amacher (1982).

Randolph, Edward, c.1632-1703, English colonial agent in America. In 1676 he carried royal instructions to Massachusetts Bay that required the colony to send representatives to England to satisfy complaints of the heirs of John Mason (1586-1635) and Sir Ferdinando Gorges; he also had orders to make a complete report on the colony. Rebuffed by the Massachusetts authorities, he made a personal investigation and upon his return to England wrote a denunciatory report based on facts but colored by his dislike for the Puritans. His attack on the legality of the Massachusetts Bay charter helped bring about the withdrawal (1679) of New Hampshire from the colony's administration as well as the order that the colony repeal all laws unfavorable to England and enforce the Navigation Acts. In 1679, Randolph settled in Boston as collector of customs for New England. His relations with the colonials were extremely bitter. After the annulment (1684) of the Massachusetts charter, an act to which he had devoted much energy, he became secretary and register for the Dominion of New England and also acted as a councilor under Joseph Dudley and Sir Edmund Andros. With the collapse (1689) of the Andros regime, Randolph was imprisoned for a time. In 1691 he became surveyor general of customs for North America. His letters and papers have been edited with a biographical commentary by R. N. Toppan and A. T. S. Goodrick (7 vol., 1898-1909, repr. 1967).

See biography by M. G. Hall (1960, repr. 1969).

Hopkins, Edward, 1600-1657, colonial governor of Connecticut, b. England. He migrated (1637) to Hartford, where he soon became a leader because of his wealth and ability. He became governor of the Connecticut colony in 1640 and was governor, assistant governor, or deputy governor every year until 1656, the law not allowing the office of governor to be held two years in succession. As a delegate from Connecticut he helped to form the New England Confederation, and he was elected one of the confederation commissioners. He returned to England shortly before his death to become warden of the fleet, keeper of the palace at Westminster, and member of Parliament.
Hopper, Edward, 1882-1967, American painter and engraver, b. Nyack, N.Y., studied in New York City with Robert Henri. Hopper lived in France for a year but was little influenced by the artistic currents there. His early paintings had slight success; he gained a reputation, however, through his etchings, which remain popular. The first one-man show of his paintings was held in 1920. Hopper excelled in creating realistic pictures of clear-cut, sunlit streets and houses, often without figures. In his paintings there is a frequent atmosphere of loneliness, an almost menacing starkness, and a clear sense of time of day or night. His work in oil and watercolor is slowly and carefully painted, with light and shade used for pattern rather than for modeling. Hopper is represented in many leading American museums. Early Sunday Morning (1930; Whitney Museum, N.Y.C.) and Nighthawks (1942; Art Institute of Chicago) are characteristic oils.

See catalog raisonné ed. by G. Levin (1995); catalog and study by L. Goodrich (both: 1971); biographies by R. Hobbs (1987) and G. Levin (1995, repr. 2007); studies by G. Levin (1981, repr. 1986); S. Wagstaff, D. Anfam, and B. O'Doherty (2004); and C. Troyen, J. Barter, and E. Davis (2007).

FitzGerald, Edward, 1809-83, English man of letters. A dilettante and scholar, FitzGerald spent most of his life living in seclusion in Suffolk. His masterpiece, a translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, appeared anonymously in 1859 and passed unnoticed until Dante Gabriel Rossetti made it famous. Revised editions followed in 1868, 1872, and 1879. FitzGerald's Rubaiyat has long been one of the most popular English poems. Although actually a paraphrase rather than a translation of a poem by the 11th-century Persian poet Omar Khayyam, it retains the spirit of the original in its poignant expression of a philosophy counseling man to live life to the fullest while he can. Among FitzGerald's other works are Euphranor (1851), a Platonic dialogue, and Polonius (1852), a collection of aphorisms.

See his letters (ed. by A. M. and A. B. Terhune, 4 vol., 1980); biographies by A. M. Terhune (1947) and T. Wright (2 vol., 1904; repr. 1971).

Everett, Edward, 1794-1865, American orator and statesman, b. Dorchester, Mass., grad. Harvard (B.A., 1811; M.A., 1814). In 1814 he became a Unitarian minister in Boston, but, appointed (1815) professor of Greek literature at Harvard, he went abroad to study at the Univ. of Göttingen (Ph.D., 1817) and to travel. During his professorship (1819-25) he also edited (1820-23) the North American Review. He was a U.S. Representative (1825-35), governor of Massachusetts (1836-39), minister to England (1841-45), president of Harvard (1846-49), and Secretary of State in the last four months of President Fillmore's administration (1852-53). Massachusetts elected him U.S. Senator, but he resigned in the second year of the term (1854), embarrassed by his old-line Whig attitude of compromise on slavery. In the Civil War he traveled throughout the North speaking for the Union cause and drawing immense audiences. His most famous address, now almost forgotten, was the principal oration delivered at Gettysburg on the same occasion that called forth Abraham Lincoln's enduring Gettysburg Address.
Capell, Edward, 1731-81, English Shakespearean scholar. His 10-volume edition of Shakespeare (1768) was the first to incorporate exact collations of all available old texts. He followed this with a commentary, Notes and Various Readings to Shakespeare (3 vol., 1783).
Carpenter, Edward, 1844-1929, English author. Although ordained a minister in 1869, he became a Fabian socialist in 1874 and renounced religion. Among his works on social reform are Towards Democracy (1883-1902), a long unrhymed poem revealing the influence of his friend Walt Whitman; England's Ideal (1887); Civilization: Its Cause and Cure (1889); and Love's Coming of Age (1896), which treats relations between the sexes.

See the autobiographical My Days and Dreams (1916); biography by S. Rowbotham (2009); E. Delavenay, D. H. Lawrence and Edward Carpenter (1971).

Bellamy, Edward, 1850-98, American author, b. Chicopee Falls (now part of Chicopee), Mass. After being admitted to the bar he tried his hand at journalism and contributed short stories of genuine charm to various magazines. These were later collected as The Blind Man's World and Other Stories (1898). His novels—The Duke of Stockbridge (1879), Dr. Heindenhoff's Process (1880), and Miss Ludington's Sister (1884)—were followed by Looking Backward, 2000-1887 (1888), which overshadowed his other work and brought him fame. This utopian romance pictured the world in the year 2000 under a system of state socialism. Much of the book's appeal lies in its unpretentious style and its vivid picture of the imagined society. The work sold over a million copies in the next few years and resulted in the formation of "Nationalist" clubs throughout the nation and the founding of the Nationalist monthly (1888-91). Bellamy himself founded and edited the New Nation (1891-94), a weekly. Equality, a sequel to Looking Backward, appeared in 1897.

See biography by S. E. Bowman (1958, repr. 1979); J. L. Thomas, Alternative America (1983); D. Patai, ed., Looking Backward, 1988-1888 (1988).

Johnson, Edward, 1881-1959, Canadian tenor and operatic manager, b. Guelph, Ont. As Eduardo di Giovanni, he sang in Italian opera houses (1912-19). In 1920 he joined the Chicago Opera Company and in 1922, the Metropolitan. In 1935 he became general manager of the Metropolitan Opera, retiring in 1950. He was succeeded by Rudolf Bing.
Fairfax, Edward, 1580?-1635, English translator. His excellent translation of Tasso's Gerusalemme liberta was published in 1600 under the title Godfrey of Buloigne. He also wrote a Discourse on Witchcraft (1621), in which he interpreted the seizures of his two young daughters as the result of witchcraft.
Lucie-Smith, Edward, 1933-, British poet and art critic, b. Jamaica, grad. Oxford, 1954. He has lived in London since 1951, where he worked as an advertising copywriter (1956-66) and as an editor of books on art. Among his works of poetry are A Tropical Childhood (1961) and Confessions and Histories (1964). His important criticism includes Art in Britain 1969-1970 (1970), Symbolist Art (1973), American Art Now (1985), and Art Today (1977, rev. ed. 1995). He has also edited The Penguin Book of Elizabethan Verse (1968), British Poetry since 1945 (1970), Art in the 1970s (1980), Art in the 1980s (1990), and Visual Arts in the 20th Century (1996).

See his autobiography, The Burnt Child (1975).

Gibbon, Edward, 1737-94, English historian, author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. His childhood was sickly, and he had little formal education but read enormously and omnivorously. He went at the age of 15 to Oxford, but was forced to leave because of his conversion to Roman Catholicism. His father sent him (1753) to Lausanne, where he was formally reconverted to Protestantism. Actually, he became a skeptic and later greatly offended the pious by his famous chapters of historical criticism of Christianity in his great work. In Lausanne he fell in love with the penniless daughter of a pastor, Suzanne Curchod (who was later to be the great intellectual, Mme Necker). The two were engaged to be married, but Gibbon's father refused consent. Gibbon "sighed as a lover" but "obeyed as a son" and gave up the match. He left Lausanne in 1758. It was on a visit to Rome that he conceived the idea of his magnificent and panoramic history. This appeared as The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (6 vol., 1776-88) and won immediate acclaim, despite some harsh criticism. Gibbon himself was assured of the greatness of his work, which is, indeed, one of the most-read historical works of modern times. He entered upon a short and highly inglorious political career, serving as a member of Parliament from 1774 to 1783. He violently opposed the American Revolution, although later he was to look with favor on the more radical French Revolution. In 1783 he withdrew to Lausanne, where he completed his masterpiece. His own Memoirs of His Life and Writings, commonly called the Autobiography, first appeared in a heavily bowderlized form in the edition of his miscellaneous works by Lord Sheffield in 1796 (repr. 1959). The autobiography is, however, one of the most subtle and interesting works of its kind in English. An edition of Gibbon's original six drafts appeared as The Autobiographies in 1896. A new edition, edited by G. A. Bonnard, was published in 1969 (Am. ed.). Editions of the Decline and Fall are legion. The modern standard edition is that of J. B. Bury (7 vol., 1896-1900).

See his collected letters (ed. by J. E. Norton, 3 vol., 1956); biographies by J. W. Swain (1966), G. De Beer (1968), P. B. Craddock (1982, 1988), and J. W. Burrow (1985); studies by D. P. Jordan (1971) and R. N. Parkinson (1974).

Gierek, Edward, 1913-2001, Polish politician, b. Porąbka. His family emigrated to France, where he was raised. He joined the French Communist party in 1931 and was later deported to Poland for organizing a strike. He went to Belgium, joining the Communist party there. He returned to Poland in 1948 and rose through the party ranks to become by 1957 a member of the Polish parliament. In 1959 he regained the politburo seat that he had occupied briefly in 1956. As first secretary of the Katowice city party organization (1957-70), Gierek created a personal power base and became the recognized leader of the young technocrat faction of the party.

When rioting over economic conditions broke out in late 1970, Gierek replaced Władysław Gomułka as party first secretary. Gierek promised economic reform and, with the aid of foreign loans, instituted a program to modernize industry and increase the availability of consumer goods. The economy, however, began to falter during the 1973 oil crisis, and by 1976 price increases became necessary. New riots broke out, and although they were forcibly suppressed, the increases were rescinded. High foreign debts, food shortages, and an outmoded industrial base compelled a new round of economic reforms in 1980. Once again, price increases set off protests across the country, and Gierek was forced to grant legal status to Solidarity and to concede the right to strike. Shortly thereafter, he was replaced as party leader by Stanisław Kania.

Rutledge, Edward, 1749-1800, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Charleston, S.C.; brother of John Rutledge. He studied law at the Middle Temple, London, and was admitted (1772) to the English bar. He returned to America and was (1774-77) a member of the Continental Congress. He later held official posts at both the national and state level. He was captured (1780) by the British at the fall of Charleston. He was governor of South Carolina from 1798 to 1800.
Rydz-Śmigły or Śmigły-Rydz, Edward, 1886-1941, Polish politician. He served under Piłsudski in the Polish Legions (1914-17), in the war with Soviet Russia (1920), and in the coup of 1926. At Piłsudski's death and in accordance with his wish, Rydz-Śmigły succeeded him (1935) as inspector general of the army; in 1936 he was named "first citizen after the president" and marshal of Poland. A virtual dictator, he fostered the Ozon [Camp of National Unity], a government party that dominated parliament. When Germany and the USSR invaded Poland, he fled (Sept., 1939) to Romania.
Alleyn, Edward, 1566-1626, English actor. He was the foremost member of the Admiral's Men, joining the group c.1587, and was the only rival of Richard Burbage. An exceptionally large man, he gained fame for his portrayals in Marlowe's Tamburlaine, Jew of Malta, and Doctor Faustus. He married the stepdaughter of Philip Henslowe and with Henslowe owned the Rose and Fortune theaters. His popularity brought him wealth, which he employed in the founding of Dulwich College in 1613 and in aiding contemporary writers. After his wife's death, he married a daughter of John Donne.
Vernon, Edward, 1684-1757, British admiral. He entered the navy in 1700 and rose steadily in rank. A member of Parliament from 1722, he opposed the government of Sir Robert Walpole and urged war with Spain. When war was finally declared (see Jenkins's Ear, War of), Vernon won great popularity by his capture (1739) of Portobelo. However, the failure of his joint expedition (1741) with the incompetent General Wentworth against Cartagena and Santiago de Cuba led to his recall. Vernon's nickname, "Grog," was given to the drink—rum diluted with water—that he ordered served to his sailors to curb their drunkenness. George Washington's half brother Lawrence named the Washington estate, Mt. Vernon, for the admiral, under whom he had served.
Villella, Edward, 1936-, American ballet dancer, b. Long Island, N.Y. Villella studied at George Balanchine's School of American Ballet, joining the New York City Ballet in 1957. He soon became a principal dancer with a large repertoire of roles, most notably The Prodigal Son. Villella's dancing is remarkable for its tremendous vigor and dynamic style. He served as artistic coordinator of the Eglevsky Ballet (1979-84) and as director of the Oklahoma Ballet (1983-85), before founding the Miami City Ballet in 1986.
Seaga, Edward, 1930-, prime minister of Jamaica (1980-89). Born in Boston, Mass., to Jamaican parents of Lebanese and Scottish descent, he was a record producer before entering politics. Elected to parliamnent in 1962, he was minister of welfare and development (1962-67) and finance minister (1967-72). He became leader of the conservative Jamaican Labor party (JLP) in 1974, and in 1980 the JLP won the elections and he became prime minister. Seaga severed relations with Cuba, promoted close ties with the United States, and emphasized free-market policies. In 1989 the JLP lost to the People's National party in a landslide and Michael Manley became prime minister. Seaga retired from parliament and as JLP leader in 2005.
York, Edward, duke of, 1373?-1415, English nobleman; elder son of Edmund of Langley, duke of York. In 1390, Edward was made earl of Rutland, and in 1394 he was created earl of Cork while with his cousin Richard II in Ireland. He acted for the king in the marriage negotiations for the hand of Isabella of France. For his help in the proceedings (1397) against the lords appellant, Richard gave him the lands of the attainted Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, and the title duke of Aumâle (Albemarle). He espoused the cause of Henry of Lancaster (Henry IV) against Richard in 1399, but he was accused in Parliament of complicity in the murder of Gloucester and lost his dukedom. He was soon restored to favor, however, and in 1402 he succeeded his father as duke of York. He was appointed (1403) lieutenant of South Wales, but discontent over lack of funds led him to join in an unsuccessful plot to kidnap and make king the captive Edmund de Mortimer, 5th earl of March. York was imprisoned (1405) but was later released and made a privy councilor. Subsequently he served Henry IV in Wales and France and was killed while fighting for Henry V at Agincourt. He was succeeded as duke of York by his nephew, Richard.
Young, Edward, 1683-1765, English poet and dramatist. After a disappointing political life he took holy orders about 1724, serving for a time as the royal chaplain before becoming rector of Welwyn in 1730. He achieved great renown in his own time, both in England and on the Continent, for his long poem The Complaint, or Night Thoughts on Life, Death, and Immortality (1742-45), a Christian apologetic inspired by the deaths of his wife, stepdaughter, and the latter's husband. Besides writing a series of satires, The Universal Passion (1725-28), he was the author of three bombastic tragedies, Busiris (1719), The Revenge (1721), and The Brothers (1753). His last important work was his prose Conjectures on Original Composition (1759).

See his correspondence, ed. by H. Pettit (1972); biography by I. S. Bliss (1969); H. Forster, Edward Young: Poet of the Night Thoughts (1986).

Hall, Edward, 1499?-1547, English chronicler. He wrote The Union of the Noble and Ilustre Famelies of Lancastre and York (1548), usually called Hall's Chronicle. A glorification of the Tudors, it is important for the light it sheds on social life early in the reign of Henry VIII and for the use Shakespeare made of it in his historical plays.
Garnett, Edward: see Garnett, Richard.
Burleson, Edward, 1798-1851, pioneer of Texas, b. Buncombe co., N.C. After living in Tennessee and serving under Andrew Jackson in the war against the Creek (1813-14), he moved to Texas. He distinguished himself in the Texas Revolution and was later (1840) successful in the warfare against the Cherokee in East Texas. Burleson was a senator, then vice president of the Republic of Texas, but was defeated for the presidency in 1844. He also served in the Mexican War.
Bancroft, Edward, 1744-1821, spy in the American Revolution, b. Westfield, Mass. While living in London, he became a friend of Benjamin Franklin and in the Revolution began to operate as an American secret agent. He reported to the American commissioners in France, but, unknown to them, he was a double agent and reported their movements to the British. Bancroft in 1778 gave advance information of the Franco-American alliance to the British. Evidence of his duplicity was revealed by Paul L. Ford in 1891.

See L. Einstein, Divided Loyalties (1933).

Thatch, Edward: see Blackbeard.
Thomas, Edward, 1878-1917, English poet. He began his literary career writing essays, travel books, and critical studies. His friendship with Robert Frost, which began in 1912, turned him to writing poetry, primarily on nature themes. His first volume of verse, Six Poems (1916), mostly pastoral verse, was published shortly before he was killed in World War I.

See his collected poems (1920, rev. ed. 1936); biography by R. P. Eckert (1937); studies by W. Cooke (1970) and H. Coombes (1956, repr. 1973).

Stafford, Edward, 3d duke of Buckingham, 1478-1521, English nobleman; son of Henry Stafford, 2d duke of Buckingham. The attainder (1483) of his father was reversed on the accession (1485) of Henry VII, and after Henry VIII came to the throne (1509), he was made lord high constable, lord high steward, and a privy councilor. However, although Buckingham appeared to be high in the favor of Henry VIII, the king was both jealous and suspicious of him because of his wealth, his lands, and his descent; on the paternal side he was a descendant of Thomas of Woodstock, son of Edward III, and his mother was a sister of Edward IV's queen. He came to represent those nobles who resented the power of Cardinal Wolsey and their own exclusion from high offices. In 1521, Buckingham was arrested and tried on trumped-up charges that he had countenanced prophecies of his own succession to the throne and had expressed his intention to murder the king. He was executed.
Whymper, Edward, 1840-1911, English illustrator and mountain climber, b. London. Sent to Switzerland to make sketches of mountain scenery, he became interested in mountaineering and in 1865, after six failures, climbed the hitherto unscaled Matterhorn. The descent ended in a fall that killed four of the party of seven. Whymper made expeditions to Greenland and later to South America, where he participated (1880) in the first ascent of Chimborazo (20,577 ft/6,272 m). He climbed other major Andean peaks, including Aconcagua and Tupungato. His best-known book is Scrambles amongst the Alps (1871, 6th ed. 1936).
Moore, Edward, 1712-57, English dramatist. He wrote two comedies in the sentimental tradition, The Foundling (1748) and Gil Blas (1751), but his reputation as a dramatist rests primarily on his prose tragedy The Gamester (1753).
Blake, Edward, 1833-1912, Canadian Liberal party leader, b. Upper Canada (Ontario). A prominent constitutional lawyer, he was elected to the House of Commons in 1867. In 1871 he became premier of Ontario, and he later served as minister of justice (1875-77) in Alexander Mackenzie's government and as leader of the Liberal party (1880-87). After withdrawing from Canadian politics (1890), he sat in the British House of Commons (1892-1907) as an Irish nationalist.

See biography by M. A. Banks (1957).

Cave, Edward, 1691-1754, English publisher. He founded (1731) the Gentleman's Magazine, the first modern magazine in English. Cave gave Samuel Johnson his first regular literary employment when he printed (1741-44) Johnson's parliamentary reports, "Debates in the Senate of Magna Lilliputia," in his periodical. Later Cave published other works by Johnson.
Gorey, Edward, 1925-2000, American illustrator and writer, b. Chicago, grad Harvard. He lived and worked in New York City and Cape Cod until 1986 when he moved permanently to the Cape. Gorey is celebrated for his more than 100 small volumes of gothic fables, meticulously hand-lettered and intricately illustrated, most of them in verse. His works are remarkable combinations of the eccentric, the witty, and the macabre and are illustrated lavishly and with superb technique in dark and abundant Edwardian detail. Odd, mysterious, cool, oblique, and very funny, Gorey's works have a completely unique appeal. Many of his early books, published in small editions, have become collector's items; they include The Unstrung Harp (1953) and The Object-Lesson (1958). His later single works include The Awdrey-Gore Legacy (1972), a spoof on English murder mysteries; The Lavender Leotard (1973), concerning ballet; Amphigorey (1975); Amphigorey Too (1980); Amphigorey Also (1983); and The Eclectic Abecedarium (1985).

See the interviews in Ascending Peculiarity: Edward Gorey on Edward Gorey (2001), ed. by K. Wilkin.

Braddock, Edward, 1695-1755, British general in the French and Indian War (see under French and Indian Wars). Although he had seen little active campaigning before 1754, Braddock was reputed to have a good knowledge of European military tactics and was noted as a stern disciplinarian. He was promoted to major general in 1754 and early in 1755 arrived in Virginia as commander in chief of the British forces in North America against the French. His immediate objective was the French stronghold at the forks of the Ohio (see Fort Duquesne). With some 700 colonial militiamen, whom he regarded disdainfully, and over 1,400 British regulars, he moved across the Alleghenies from Fort Cumberland (now Cumberland, Md.), building a road (the foundation of the National Road) as he went. The march was so slow, however, that he feared the French would reinforce Duquesne before he could reach there. Adopting the suggestion of one of his aides-de-camp, George Washington, he left the wagons behind him with one of the two British regiments and pushed ahead with about two thirds of his total force. While crossing the Monongahela River, Braddock was met (July 9, 1755) by a force of not more than 900 men (a few French, some Canadians, and many Native Americans) under Daniel Beaujeu, who had already learned of the advance. The British regulars, as unfamiliar with Native American-style fighting as their commander (although both had been given fair warning by the colonials), bolted from their column formation under the steady fire from a ubiquitous enemy safely concealed in ravines and behind trees. The affair turned into a bloody rout. Since the Native Americans paused to collect scalps and other trophies of war, the demoralized troops were able to rejoin the rear guard and both retreated safely to Fort Cumberland. Of the 1,459 actively engaged, 977 were killed or wounded, including 63 of the 89 officers, who—unlike the soldiers—fought bravely. Braddock himself had four horses shot from under him before he was mortally wounded. He died four days later at Great Meadows and was buried there, near the site of Uniontown, Pa.

See D. S. Freeman, George Washington, Vol. II (1948); biography by L. McCardell (1958).

Bransfield, Edward, 1795-1852, English sea captain and antarctic explorer. In 1820, Bransfield sailed from Chile to the South Shetland Islands off the N Antarctic Peninsula. After claiming King George Island for England, he ventured south, sighting and charting portions of the Antarctic continent. It is believed he may have been the first explorer to sight the Antarctic mainland.
Steichen, Edward, 1879-1973, American photographer, b. Luxembourg, reared in Hancock, Mich. Steichen is credited with the transformation of photography into an art form. At 16, while apprenticed as a lithographer, he taught himself photography and painted in his spare time. Studying art in Paris, he sought painterly effects in his photography, becoming an enormously successful portrait photographer. In New York City he was associated with Alfred Stieglitz in the founding of the "291" and Photo-Secession galleries. At "291" he brought works by Cézanne, Rodin, Picasso, and Matisse to American attention. Back in Paris, Steichen made botanical experiments, a lifelong passion; he was later to win added renown as a crossbreeder of flowers.

During World War I Steichen was instrumental in the development of aerial photography. Fascinated by the technical potential of the medium, he produced pictures remarkable for their clarity, detail, and expressive use of light. From 1923 to 1938 he worked as a portrait and fashion photographer for Condé Nast publications and opened a commercial studio. At this time he made superb photomurals, including those of the George Washington Bridge. During World War II, he was placed in command of naval combat photography.

Steichen was later director of the department of photography of the Museum of Modern Art (1947-62). In this capacity he organized the Family of Man exhibition (1955) to "mirror the essential oneness of mankind"; it is considered the greatest photographic exposition ever mounted. During his time at the museum, Steichen had virtually abandoned his own work; but in his last years he filmed the effect of the passing seasons on a flowering shadblow tree. Steichen's creative imagination and his extraordinarily powerful imagery forged for him and for his medium an honored place among the fine arts.

See his Life in Photography (1963, repr. 1985); Edward Steichen: The Portraits, with text by C. Peterson (1989); C. Sandburg (his brother-in-law) et al., Steichen the Photographer (1961); J. Steichen (his third wife), Steichen's Legacy: Photographs, 1895-1973 (2000); biography by P. Nivens (1997); J. Smith, Edward Steichen: The Early Years (1999).

Stillingfleet, Edward, 1635-99, English prelate and author. A fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, he became (1657) rector of Sutton, Bedfordshire. In 1661 he published Irenicum, a treatise on church government that sought to establish a compromise between episcopacy and the Presbyterian polity. In 1663 he issued Origines Sacrae and in 1664 A Rational Account of the Grounds of the Protestant Religion. In 1677 he became archdeacon of London and in 1678 dean of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. He was consecrated (1689) bishop of Worcester. Among his later works are Origines Britannicae; or, Antiquities of the British Church (1685) and The Bishop of Worcester's Answer to Mr. Locke's Letter (1697), in which he criticized John Locke for undermining the Trinity. An edition of his works, with a life by Richard Bentley, was published in six volumes in 1710.
Livingston, Edward: see under Livingston, family.
Irving, Edward, 1792-1834, Scottish preacher, under whose influence the Catholic Apostolic Church was founded; its members have sometimes been called Irvingites. He was tutor to Jane Welsh, later the wife of Thomas Carlyle, and became the friend of Carlyle. After serving as assistant (1819-22) to Thomas Chalmers in Glasgow, Irving was called to the Caledonian Church, London, where his oratory brought him great popularity; he and his congregation moved to the larger Regent Square Church in 1827. As his preaching began to emphasize the supernatural and the imminence of the second coming of Christ, criticism arose, especially over his views on the human nature of Christ. In 1832 he was debarred from the Regent Square Church; in 1833 he was deposed from the ministry of the Church of Scotland. Irving had, from 1826, been meeting with a group gathered together by Henry Drummond to study the prophecies of the Scriptures. From this "school of the prophets" was developed the Catholic Apostolic Church, of which Irving was an "angel," or bishop.

See biography by M. O. W. Oliphant (1864); H. C. Whitney, Blinded Eagle (1955).

Weston, Edward, 1886-1958, American photographer, b. Highland Park, Ill. Weston began to make photographs in Chicago parks in 1902, and his works were first exhibited in 1903 at the Art Institute of Chicago. Three years later he moved to California and opened a portrait studio in a Los Angeles suburb. The Western landscape soon became his principal subject matter. In the 1930s, Weston and several other photographers, including Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, and Willard van Dyke, formed the f/64 group, which greatly influenced the aesthetics of American photography (see photography, still). In 1937, Weston received the first Guggenheim Fellowship awarded to a photographer, which freed him from earning a living as a portraitist. The works for which he is famous—sharp, stark, brilliantly printed images of sand dunes, nudes, vegetables, rock formations, trees, cacti, shells, water, and human faces are among the finest of 20th-century photographs; their influence on modern art remains inestimable. Weston made his last photographs at his beloved Point Lobos, Calif., during the decade from 1938 to 1948, the year he was stricken with Parkinson's disease. His second son, Brett Weston, 1911-93, and his fourth son, Cole Weston, 1919-2003, were both photographers in their father's tradition.

See The Daybooks of Edward Weston, ed. by N. Newhall (2 vol., 1961-66), The Flame of Recognition, ed. by N. Newhall (1965), and My Camera on Point Lobos (1968); N. Newhall, The Photographs of Edward Weston (1946); C. Weston, Edward Weston: Fifty Years (1973); G. Mora, ed., Edward Weston: Forms of Passion (1996); D. Travis, Edward Weston: The Last Years in Carmel (2001).

Whalley, Edward, d. 1675?, English regicide. During the English civil war he served under his cousin Oliver Cromwell in the parliamentary army. He was given custody of Charles I for a time in 1647, served on the high court of justice that tried him, and signed the death warrant. After 1655, Whalley was one of the major generals who ruled the country until the restored Long Parliament withdrew his commission and those of other prominent Cromwellians. At the Restoration (1660), Whalley, with his son-in-law, William Goffe, fled to New England. He lived successively in Boston, New Haven, Milford (Conn.), and Hadley (Mass.), hunted by English agents but never betrayed.
Calvert, Edward, 1799-1883, English painter and engraver. A great admirer of William Blake, Calvert, along with several of his contemporaries, formed a group around Blake called the Brotherhood of the Ancients. Calvert's art celebrated the life of primitive society. In his later work he was deeply influenced by a visit in 1844 to Greece.

See L. Binyon, The Followers of William Blake (1925).

Dahlberg, Edward, 1900-1977, American novelist, critic, and essayist, b. Boston, grad. Columbia, 1925. The illegitimate son of an itinerant hairdresser, he spent much of his childhood in Kansas City. His childhood experiences were recreated in his first novel, Bottom Dogs (1930). Dahlberg lived mostly in Europe. His works include the novels Those Who Perish (1934) and The Olive of Minerva (1976); mystical literary criticism such as Do These Bones Live? (1941); studies of ancient societies such as The Carnal Myth (1968).

See his autobiographical Because I Was Flesh (1964) and The Confessions of Edward Dahlberg (1971); study by H. Billings, ed. (1968).

Śmigły-Rydz, Edward: see Rydz-Śmigły, Edward.
Dowden, Edward, 1843-1913, English critic, b. Ireland. He is best known as a Shakespearean scholar and as a biographer of Shelley (1886).
Kellogg, Edward, 1790-1858, American economist, b. Norwalk, Conn. He advocated a financial scheme to abolish interest, which was often usurious at the time he wrote. Kellogg devised a system of financial control whereby the government would issue legal tender notes and then lend them on the security of real estate at a low rate of interest. At the same time the government would issue, at the same rate of interest, bonds that could be exchanged freely for the notes. By that system Kellogg hoped to keep the interest rate close to the estimated rate of accumulation of wealth in the United States. His pamphlet Currency: The Evil and the Remedy (1844) was circulated with Horace Greeley's aid; it was revised under the title Labor and Other Capital (1849) and went into many editions after Kellogg's death as A New Monetary System; the 1883 edition includes a biographical sketch by his daughter. Kellogg's views were favored by agrarian and labor organizations and led to the formation of a number of political parties (e.g., the Greenbacks, the Populists) whose aim was a national economy and currency not manipulable by banking and financial interests.

(born May 31, 1863, Murree, India—died July 31, 1942, Lytchett Minster, Dorset, England) British army officer and explorer. He forced the conclusion of the Anglo-Tibetan Treaty (1904) that gained Britain long-sought trade concessions. His two initial attempts to negotiate trade and frontier issues with Tibet failed despite British military action; he then marched to Lhasa with British troops and forced the conclusion of a trade treaty, though the Dalai Lama, Tibet's leader, had fled. Seealso amban.

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(born Aug. 10, 1861, Middleton Tyas, Yorkshire, Eng.—died April 30, 1947, Farnham Common, Buckinghamshire) British bacteriologist and immunologist. While teaching at the Army Medical School in Netley (from 1892), he developed a typhoid immunization that used killed typhoid bacilli. It made Britain the only country with troops immunized against typhoid at the start of World War I, the first war in which fewer British soldiers died of infection than from trauma. He also developed vaccines against enteric tuberculosis and pneumonia. He was well known for advancing autogenous vaccines (vaccines prepared from a patient's own bacteria).

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(born Oct. 18, 1595, Droitwich, Worcestershire, Eng.—died May 8, 1655, at sea, near Jamaica, British West Indies) British-American colonist. In 1620 he sailed on the Mayflower to New England, where he was a founder of the Plymouth colony. He served on the governor's council (1624–47) and was governor of the colony (1633–34, 1636–37, 1644–45). He traded with the Wampanoag Indians and won the friendship of their chief, Massasoit. As a commissioner of the United Colonies of New England, he often went to England to represent the interests of the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies. In 1646 he returned to England and held minor offices under Oliver Cromwell. He died aboard a ship on an expedition to the West Indies.

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(born June 10, 1929, Birmingham, Ala., U.S.) U.S. biologist. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University, where he taught from 1956. Recognized as the world's leading authority on ants, he discovered their use of pheromone for communication. His The Insect Societies (1971) was the definitive treatment of the subject. In 1975 he published Sociobiology, a highly controversial and influential study of the genetic basis of social behaviour in which he claimed that even a characteristic such as unselfish generosity may be genetically based and may have evolved through natural selection, that preservation of the gene rather than the individual is the focus of evolutionary strategy, and that the essentially biological principles on which animal societies are based apply also to human social behaviour. In On Human Nature (1978, Pulitzer Prize) he explored sociobiology's implications in regard to human aggression, sexuality, and ethics. With Bert Hölldobler he wrote the major study The Ants (1990, Pulitzer Prize). In The Diversity of Life (1992) he examined how the world's species became diverse and the massive extinctions caused by 20th-century human activities. In Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (1998) he proposed that all of existence can be organized and understood in accordance with a few fundamental natural laws.

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(born Feb. 23, 1868, Great Barrington, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 27, 1963, Accra, Ghana) U.S. sociologist and civil-rights leader. He received a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1895. Two years later he accepted a professorship at Atlanta University, where he conducted empirical studies on the social situation of African Americans (1897–1910). He concluded that change could be attained only through agitation and protest, a view that clashed with that of Booker T. Washington. His famous book The Souls of Black Folk appeared in 1903. In 1905 Du Bois founded the Niagara Movement, the forerunner of the NAACP. In 1910 he left teaching to become the NAACP's director of research and editor of its magazine, Crisis (1910–34). He returned to Atlanta University in 1934 and devoted the next 10 years to teaching and scholarship. After a second research position with the NAACP (1944–48), he moved steadily leftward politically. In 1951 he was indicted as an unregistered agent of a foreign power (the Soviet Union); though a federal judge directed his acquittal, he was by then completely disillusioned with the U.S. In 1961 he joined the Communist Party, moved to Ghana, and renounced his U.S. citizenship.

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(born April 27, 1840, London, Eng.—died Sept. 16, 1911, Chamonix, Fr.) British mountaineer and artist. He became a mountaineer after making sketches for a book on the Alps. In 1865 he made the first ascent of the Matterhorn; an accident on the descent caused the death of four of his companions. His Scrambles Amongst the Alps (1871) and Travels Amongst the Great Andes (1892) describe his experiences and are illustrated with his own engravings.

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Edward Weston at Point Lobos, Carmel Bay, Calif., 1945

(born March 24, 1886, Highland Park, Ill., U.S.—died Jan. 1, 1958, Carmel, Calif.) U.S. photographer. A camera enthusiast from boyhood, Weston began his professional career by opening a portrait studio in Glendale, Calif. His early work was in the style of the Pictorialists, photographers who imitated Impressionist paintings. In 1915 Weston saw an exhibition of modern art that inspired him to renounce his former work: he began to create sharp and realistic pictures that convey the beauty of natural objects through skillful composition and subtleties of tone, light, and texture. After traveling and meeting luminaries such as Alfred Stieglitz and Diego Rivera, in 1927 Weston made a series of monumental close-ups of seashells, peppers, and halved cabbages, bringing out the rich textures of their sculpturelike forms. Two years later he made the first of many photographs of the rocks and trees on Point Lobos, Calif. In 1936 Weston began a series of photographs of nudes and sand dunes at Oceano, Calif., which are often considered his finest work. After being stricken by Parkinson disease, Weston realized he would soon be unable to work. He made his last photographs on Point Lobos in 1948. He is considered one of the most influential photographers of the 20th century.

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(born April 23, 1921, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 24, 2003, Broken Arrow, Okla.) U.S. baseball pitcher. Spahn spent most of his career with the Boston (later Milwaukee) Braves (1942, 1946–64). He amassed 2,583 career strikeouts, giving him the third highest total in baseball history when he retired. His feat of winning 20 or more games in each of 13 seasons was also a record, as was his striking out at least 100 batters each year for 17 consecutive seasons (1947–63). His total of 363 wins established a record for left-handers. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1973.

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(born Aug. 30, 1930, Omaha, Neb., U.S.) U.S. businessman and investor. He attended the University of Nebraska (B.S., 1950) and Columbia University (M.S., 1951), where he was influenced by professor Benjamin Graham's approach toward value investing—that is, purchasing shares of companies whose stocks are priced below their intrinsic value. Returning to his native Omaha, he turned $105,000 of initial investment in his Buffett Partnership (1956–69) into $105 million by the time of its dissolution. He then began investing in businesses, bought under the umbrella of the textile manufacturer Berkshire Hathaway. He is said to be the first person to have made $1 billion in the stock market. His financial reports are read eagerly by stock-market novices and experts alike for their pithy wisdom.

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(born March 20, 1796, London, Eng.—died May 16, 1862, Wellington, N.Z.) British colonizer of South Australia and New Zealand. After viewing the problems of the penal system, including the forcible removal of convicts to British colonies, he wrote A Letter from Sydney (1829) and proposed colonization by the sale of small landholdings to ordinary citizens. He influenced the founding of South Australia as a nonconvict settlement. As organizer and manager of the New Zealand Company (1838–58), he sent colonists to settle New Zealand and forced the British government to recognize the colony. As an adviser to the earl of Durham, he influenced the report that led to the union of Upper and Lower Canada. He founded a Church of England settlement at Canterbury, N.Z. (1847).

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Villella in The Prodigal Son.

(born Oct. 1, 1936, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. ballet dancer, choreographer, and director. He trained at the School of American Ballet and joined the New York City Ballet in 1957, becoming a principal dancer in 1960. He danced leading roles in many of George Balanchine's ballets, notably The Prodigal Son (1960), displaying a powerful technique. After retiring from dancing in 1983, he became artistic director of Ballet Oklahoma (1983–86). In 1986 he founded the Miami City Ballet, where he continues as artistic director.

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Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, detail of a chalk drawing by George Bonavia, 1860; in the National elipsis

(born Oct. 2, 1832, London, Eng.—died Jan. 2, 1917, Wellington, Somerset) British anthropologist, often called the founder of cultural anthropology. He taught at Oxford University (1884–1909), where he became the first professor of anthropology. His Primitive Culture, 2 vol. (1871), influenced by Charles Darwin, developed the theory of an evolutionary relationship between what he called primitive and modern cultures, stressing the cultural achievements that marked the progression of all humanity from a “savage” to a “civilized” state. At a time when there was still controversy over whether all human races belonged to a single species, Tylor was a powerful advocate of the unity of all humankind. He was instrumental in establishing anthropology as an academic discipline. Seealso animism; sociocultural evolution.

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(born April 14, 1886, West Newton, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 19, 1959, Berkeley, Calif.) U.S. psychologist. He taught at the University of California at Berkeley (1918–54). Although he was a behaviourist, he considered classical behaviourism too reductive, and he therefore emphasized behavioral wholes and unmeasurable “intervening variables” over a strict focus on isolated reflexes. He also advanced the concept of “latent learning” (implicit, indirect learning). His major work was Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men (1932).

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(born Jan. 11, 1867, Chichester, Sussex, Eng.—died Aug. 3, 1927, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.) British-U.S. psychologist. Trained in Leipzig under Wilhelm Wundt, he later taught at Cornell University (1892–1927). He helped establish experimental psychology in the U.S., and he also became the foremost proponent of structural psychology, a field concerned with the components and arrangement of mental states and processes. His principal work is Experimental Psychology (1901–05).

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(born Aug. 31, 1874, Williamsburg, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 9, 1949, Montrose, N.Y.) U.S. psychologist. He trained under William James and James McKeen Cattell and later taught at Columbia University (1904–40). A pioneer in the fields of animal learning and educational psychology, he developed a form of behaviourism known as connectionism, which holds that learning takes place through associative bonds. He contributed significantly to the development of quantitative experimental methods and to more efficient and scientifically based methods of teaching. Among his writings are Introduction to the Theory of Mental and Social Measurements (1904), Principles of Teaching Based on Psychology (1906), Animal Intelligence (1911), and The Psychology of Wants, Interests, and Attitudes (1935).

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byname Lawrence of Arabia

(born Aug. 15, 1888, Tremadoc, Caernarvonshire, Wales—died May 19, 1935, Clouds Hill, Dorset, Eng.) British scholar, military strategist, and author. He studied at Oxford, submitting a thesis on Crusader castles. He learned Arabic on an archaeological expedition (1911–14). During World War I (1914–18) he conceived the plan of supporting Arab rebellion against the Ottoman Empire as a way of undermining Germany's eastern ally, and he led Arab forces in a guerrilla campaign behind the lines, tying up many Ottoman troops. In 1917 his forces had their first major victory, capturing the port town of Al-aynAqabah. He was captured later that year, but he escaped. His troops reached Damascus in 1918, but Arab factionalism and Anglo-French decisions to divide the area into British- and French-controlled mandates prevented the Arabs from forming a unified nation despite their victory. Lawrence retired, declining royal decorations. Under the name Ross, and later Shaw, he enlisted in the Royal Air Force (and briefly the Royal Tank Corps). He finished his autobiography, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, in 1926. He was eventually posted to India; his experiences provided grist for his semifictional The Mint. He died in a motorcycle accident three months after his discharge.

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orig. Edward Teach

(born , Bristol?, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1718, Ocracoke Island, North Carolina) English pirate. He was probably a privateer in the West Indies until 1716. With his 40-gun warship, he preyed on shipping off the Virginia and Carolina coasts, sharing his prizes with the governor of the North Carolina colony in return for protection. He was eventually killed by a British naval force, and his head, with its great black beard, was affixed to the end of his bowsprit. According to legend, he left a great buried treasure; it has never been found and probably never existed.

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orig. Ede Teller

Edward Teller.

(born Jan. 15, 1908, Budapest, Hung., Austria-Hungary—died Sept. 9, 2003, Stanford, Calif.) Hungarian-born U.S. nuclear physicist. Born to a prosperous Jewish family, he earned a Ph.D. at the University of Leipzig (1930) before leaving Nazi Germany (1933) and settled in the U.S. in 1935. In 1941 he joined Enrico Fermi's team in the effort to produce the first self-sustaining nuclear reaction, and in 1943 J. Robert Oppenheimer recruited him for the Manhattan Project. At the war's end, Teller advocated development of a fusion bomb, and he won permission after initial government resistance. With Stanislaw Ulam he developed a workable hydrogen bomb in 1952. That same year he helped establish the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (Livermore, Calif.), which became the chief U.S. factory for nuclear weapons. In 1954 he joined the opposition to Oppenheimer's continued security clearance. A staunch anticommunist, he devoted much energy to his crusade to keep the U.S. ahead of the Soviet Union in nuclear arms; he opposed nuclear weapons treaties, and he was principally responsible for convincing Pres. Ronald Reagan of the need for the Strategic Defense Initiative. In 2003 Teller was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

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(born Dec. 14, 1909, Boulder, Colo., U.S.—died Nov. 5, 1975, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. biochemist. He worked with George Wells Beadle at Stanford University, where they confirmed that all biochemical processes in organisms are ultimately controlled by genes, that these processes can be broken down into a series of individual sequential chemical reactions, each controlled by a single gene, and that mutation of a single gene changes the cell's ability to carry out only a single chemical reaction. Each gene was found to determine the structure of a specific enzyme (the “one gene, one enzyme” hypothesis). With Joshua Lederberg, Tatum discovered the occurrence of genetic recombination, or “sex,” between certain bacteria. Largely because of their efforts, bacteria became the main source of information about genetic control of biochemical processes in the cell. Tatum, Beadle, and Lederberg shared the Nobel Prize in 1958.

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(born March 9, 1902, Fayetteville, Ark., U.S.—died Aug. 6, 1978, New York, N.Y.) U.S. architect. He earned architecture degrees and traveled in Europe before joining the New York City firm that designed Radio City Music Hall. In 1936 he organized his own architectural firm. A leading exponent of the International Style, he designed El Panamá Hotel in Panama City (1946), the U.S. embassy in New Delhi (1954), the U.S. pavilion at the Brussels World's Fair (1958), the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C. (1971), and the Aon Center in Chicago (1974). He also taught at Yale University (1946–52).

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(born Oct. 22, 1900, Chicago, Ill., U.S.—died Oct. 31, 1949, Greenwich, Conn.) U.S. industrialist and statesman. He worked for General Motors Corp., becoming a vice president in 1931. Joining U.S. Steel Corp. in 1934, he became chairman of the board in 1938. He was appointed chairman of the War Resources Board (1939–40) and administrator of lend-lease (1941–43). As U.S. secretary of state (1944–45), he advised Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference. He led the U.S. delegation to the UN organizing conference in San Francisco and was the first U.S. delegate to the UN (1945–46).

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orig. Édouard Jean Steichen

Edward Steichen, 1960.

(born March 27, 1879, Luxembourg—died March 25, 1973, West Redding, Conn., U.S.) Luxembourg-born U.S. photographer. His family immigrated to the U.S. in 1881. His early photographs were influenced by his training as a painter. He frequently used chemicals to achieve prints that resembled soft, fuzzy mezzotints or wash drawings. In 1902 he joined Alfred Stieglitz in forming the Photo-Secession, a group dedicated to promoting photography as a fine art. His style evolved from painterly Impressionism to sharp realism after World War I. His portraits of artists and celebrities from the 1920s and '30s are remarkable evocations of character. At the outbreak of World War II, Steichen was commissioned by the U.S. Navy to organize a department to photograph the war at sea. In 1955 he organized the Family of Man exhibition of 503 photographs (selected from over two million), which was seen by more than nine million people worldwide.

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(born April 23, 1921, Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 24, 2003, Broken Arrow, Okla.) U.S. baseball pitcher. Spahn spent most of his career with the Boston (later Milwaukee) Braves (1942, 1946–64). He amassed 2,583 career strikeouts, giving him the third highest total in baseball history when he retired. His feat of winning 20 or more games in each of 13 seasons was also a record, as was his striking out at least 100 batters each year for 17 consecutive seasons (1947–63). His total of 363 wins established a record for left-handers. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1973.

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(born May 31, 1863, Murree, India—died July 31, 1942, Lytchett Minster, Dorset, England) British army officer and explorer. He forced the conclusion of the Anglo-Tibetan Treaty (1904) that gained Britain long-sought trade concessions. His two initial attempts to negotiate trade and frontier issues with Tibet failed despite British military action; he then marched to Lhasa with British troops and forced the conclusion of a trade treaty, though the Dalai Lama, Tibet's leader, had fled. Seealso amban.

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Edward Elgar.

(born June 2, 1857, Broadheath, Worcestershire, Eng.—died Feb. 23, 1934, Worcester, Worcestershire) British composer. Son of a piano tuner, he became proficient on violin and organ. His Enigma Variations (1896) brought him fame; he followed it with the oratorio The Dream of Gerontius (1900), which many consider his masterpiece. He composed in the orchestral idiom of late 19th-century Romanticism—characterized by bold tunes, striking colour effects, and mastery of large forms—stimulating a renaissance of English music. His principal works include the five Pomp and Circumstance Marches (1901–07), two symphonies (1908, 1911), concertos for violin (1910) and cello (1919), and the tone poems Cockaigne (1901) and Falstaff (1913).

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(born July 9, 1916, Broadstairs, Kent, Eng.—died July 17, 2005, Salisbury, Wiltshire) British politician, prime minister of Britain (1970–74). He held various government positions after being elected to Parliament in 1950, and after the Conservative defeat in 1964 he became a major opposition figure. As prime minister, he faced the crisis of violent conflict in Northern Ireland, over which he imposed direct British rule in 1972, and won French acceptance of British entry into the European Economic Community. Unable to cope with Britain's mounting economic problems, chiefly rising inflation and unemployment and crippling labour strikes, he was succeeded as prime minister by Harold Wilson in 1974 and replaced as party leader by Margaret Thatcher in 1975. Heath, who was knighted in 1992, remained in the House of Commons until 2001.

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(born 1459, Southwark?, near London, Eng.—died October 1521, Westenhanger, Kent) English soldier and administrator. A supporter of Henry Tudor (later Henry VII), he served as the king's lord deputy of Ireland (1494–95), where he enacted legislative measures (“Poynings' Laws”) that applied all English public laws to Ireland and required every act of the Irish parliament to be approved by the king and privy council.

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(born Feb. 1, 1552, Mileham, Norfolk, Eng.—died Sept. 3, 1634, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire) British jurist and politician. He became a lawyer in 1578 and was made solicitor general in 1592. His advance to the position of attorney general (1594) frustrated his great rival, Francis Bacon. As attorney general, he conducted several famous treason trials, prosecuting Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex, and Henry Wriothesley, 3rd earl of Southampton (1600–01); Sir Walter Raleigh (1603); and the Gunpowder Plot conspirators (1605). Named chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas in 1606, Coke earned the ire of James I by declaring that the king's proclamation could not change the law (1610). He upset church leaders by limiting the jurisdiction of ecclesiastical courts. Appointed chief justice of the King's Bench by James I (1613), he remained unswayed; he hinted at scandal in high places and defied a royal injunction in a case involving ecclesiastical privileges. He was dismissed in 1616, partly through Bacon's efforts. In 1620 he reentered Parliament (he had served in 1589), where he denounced interference with Parliament's liberties (1621) until he was imprisoned. In 1628 he helped frame the Petition of Right, a charter of liberties; this defense of the supremacy of the common law over royal prerogative had a profound influence on the English law and constitution. On his death his papers were seized by Charles I. His Reports (1600–15), taken together, are a monumental compendium of English common law, and his Institutes of the Lawes of England (4 vol., 1628–44) is an important treatise.

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Sir Edward Burnett Tylor, detail of a chalk drawing by George Bonavia, 1860; in the National elipsis

(born Oct. 2, 1832, London, Eng.—died Jan. 2, 1917, Wellington, Somerset) British anthropologist, often called the founder of cultural anthropology. He taught at Oxford University (1884–1909), where he became the first professor of anthropology. His Primitive Culture, 2 vol. (1871), influenced by Charles Darwin, developed the theory of an evolutionary relationship between what he called primitive and modern cultures, stressing the cultural achievements that marked the progression of all humanity from a “savage” to a “civilized” state. At a time when there was still controversy over whether all human races belonged to a single species, Tylor was a powerful advocate of the unity of all humankind. He was instrumental in establishing anthropology as an academic discipline. Seealso animism; sociocultural evolution.

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(born Aug. 2, 1891, London, Eng.—died March 27, 1975, London) British composer. He studied with Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst. Though he was compositionally adventurous at first, he later adopted a conservative, Romantic style. His works include A Colour Symphony (1922), Pastoral (1928), the choral symphony Morning Heroes (1930), Music for Strings (1936), and the ballets Checkmate (1937) and Miracle in the Gorbals (1944).

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(born Nov. 8, 1883, London, Eng.—died Oct. 3, 1953, Cork, County Cork, Ire.) British composer. Born into a wealthy family, he was free to compose throughout his life and consequently wrote prolifically. His early works, influenced by the poetry of William Butler Yeats, frequently evoke Celtic legend. His compositions include seven symphonies, the orchestral works Spring Fire (1913), November Woods (1917), and Tintagel (1919), piano sonatas, string quartets, and numerous vocal works.

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(born Aug. 10, 1861, Middleton Tyas, Yorkshire, Eng.—died April 30, 1947, Farnham Common, Buckinghamshire) British bacteriologist and immunologist. While teaching at the Army Medical School in Netley (from 1892), he developed a typhoid immunization that used killed typhoid bacilli. It made Britain the only country with troops immunized against typhoid at the start of World War I, the first war in which fewer British soldiers died of infection than from trauma. He also developed vaccines against enteric tuberculosis and pneumonia. He was well known for advancing autogenous vaccines (vaccines prepared from a patient's own bacteria).

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(born Jan. 26, 1884, Lauenburg, Pomerania, Ger.—died Feb. 4, 1939, New Haven, Conn., U.S.) Polish-born U.S. linguist and anthropologist. He was a founder of ethnolinguistics, which considers the relationship of culture to language, and a principal developer of the American (descriptive) school of structural linguistics. He became widely known for his contributions to the study of American Indian languages. His best-known work is Language (1921).

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(born Oct. 28, 1914, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, Calif.) U.S. physician and researcher. He received his M.D. from New York University. Working with other scientists to classify poliovirus, he confirmed earlier studies that identified three strains. He showed that killed virus of each strain could induce antibody formation without producing disease. Salk's vaccine was released for use in the U.S. in 1955. From 1963 he directed the Salk Institute in La Jolla, Calif. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977.

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(born Oct. 23, 1845, Southampton, Hampshire, Eng.—died Jan. 28, 1933, Bath, Somerset) English literary historian and critic. When the school at which he was teaching failed in 1876, he decided to write for a living. He produced several successful volumes of criticism of French literature and extensive writings on English literature. Though he formulated no philosophy of criticism, his works were influential because they combined authoritative scholarship with the popular appeal of entertaining prose. They include A History of Criticism and Literary Taste in Europe from the Earliest Texts to the Present Day (1900–04), one of the first surveys of critical literary theory and practice.

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(born Nov. 1, 1935, Jerusalem—died Sept. 25, 2003, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Palestinian-born U.S. literary critic. Said was educated in Western schools in Jerusalem and Cairo before moving to the United States to attend Princeton and Harvard universities. He taught at Columbia University beginning in 1963. In Orientalism (1978), his best-known work, he examines Western stereotypes of the Islamic world and argues that Orientalist scholarship is based on Western imperialism. An outspoken proponent of Palestinian issues, he wrote on the Middle East in such works as The Question of Palestine (1979) and The Politics of Dispossession (1994). His more general concern was the complex interaction of literature and politics, which he treated in Beginnings (1975), The World, the Text, and the Critic (1983), and Culture and Imperialism (1993). Out of Place (1999) is a memoir.

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(born Nov. 9, 1934, Brooklyn, N.Y., N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 20, 1996, Seattle, Wash.) U.S. astronomer and science writer. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. At the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (1962–68), he focused on planetary astronomy and on SETI efforts to find extraterrestrial life. He gained prominence as a popular science writer and commentator noted for his clear writing and enthusiasm; his Dragons of Eden (1977) won a Pulitzer Prize. He coproduced and narrated the television series Cosmos (1980); its companion book became the best-selling English-language science book of all time. In the 1980s he studied the environmental effects of nuclear war and helped popularize the term nuclear winter.

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(born April 14, 1941, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. baseball player. Rose began playing organized baseball at age eight. He played for the Cincinnati Reds (1963–78, 1984–86), the Philadelphia Phillies (1979–83), and the Montreal Expos (1984). His 4,256 career hits and 3,562 games played both remain all-time records, and his career mark for runs (2,165) is exceeded only by Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, and Hank Aaron. In 1989, after being investigated for allegedly betting on baseball games, including those of his own Reds, Rose was banned from the sport for life by the commissioner of baseball.

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orig. Emmanuel Goldenberg

(born Dec. 12, 1893, Bucharest, Rom.—died Jan. 26, 1973, Hollywood, Calif., U.S.) Romanian-born U.S. film actor. He was raised in New York City's Lower East Side and won a scholarship to the American Academy of Dramatic Art. He was largely a stage actor until the advent of sound movies. He won fame playing a gangster boss in Little Caesar (1931). Short and chubby, with heavy features and a gruff voice, Robinson was content that his career would consist of rough-and-tumble roles and character parts. His later films include Barbary Coast (1935), Double Indemnity (1944), The Woman in the Window (1944), Scarlet Street (1945), All My Sons (1948), Key Largo (1948), and The Cincinnati Kid (1965). In 1973 he was posthumously awarded an honorary Academy Award.

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Robert E. Lee, 1865.

(born Jan. 19, 1807, Stratford, Westmoreland county, Va., U.S.—died Oct. 12, 1870, Lexington, Va.) U.S. and Confederate military leader. He was the son of Henry Lee. After graduating from West Point, he served in the engineering corps and in the Mexican War under Winfield Scott. He transferred to the cavalry in 1855 and commanded frontier forces in Texas (1856–57). In 1859 he led U.S. troops against the slave insurrection attempted by John Brown at Harpers Ferry. In 1861 he was offered command of a new army being formed to force the seceded Southern states back into the Union. Though opposed to secession, he refused. After his home state of Virginia seceded, he became commander of Virginia's forces in the American Civil War and adviser to Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy. Taking command of the Army of Northern Virginia (1862) after Joseph Johnston was wounded, Lee repulsed the Union forces in the Seven Days' Battles. He won victories at Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville. His attempts to draw Union forces out of Virginia by invading the North resulted in failures at Antietam and Gettysburg. In 1864–65 he conducted defensive campaigns against Union forces under Ulysses S. Grant that caused heavy Union casualties. Lee ended his retreat behind fortifications built at Petersburg and Richmond (see Petersburg Campaign). By April 1865 dwindling forces and supplies forced Lee, now general of all Confederate armies, to surrender at Appomattox Court House. After several months of recuperation, he accepted the post of president of Washington College (later Washington and Lee University), where he served until his death.

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orig. Edward Rickenbacher

(born Oct. 8, 1890, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.—died July 23, 1973, Zürich, Switz.) U.S. World War I ace and industrialist. He developed an early interest in automobiles, and by the time the U.S. entered the war in 1917 he was one of the country's top racing drivers. He began army service as a driver and soon became a fighter pilot. For shooting down 26 enemy airplanes in World War I, he was awarded the Medal of Honor. He later founded and directed his own automobile company, and from 1932 he was an executive with several airlines. As president of Eastern Air Lines from 1938 to 1959, he oversaw its growth into a major corporation.

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Province (pop., 2006 est.: 135,851), Canada. One of the Maritime Provinces and Canada's smallest province, it is an island in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, separated from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick by the Northumberland Strait. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by Jacques Cartier in 1534, it was used by Mi'kmaq (Micmac) Indians for fishing and hunting. It was colonized by the French in 1720, then ceded to the British in 1763. Known as the “Cradle of Confederation,” it was the site of the Charlottetown Conference of 1864, which led to the federation of Canada. It became a province in 1873. It has good natural harbours on its eastern and southern sides. There has been little industrial development, and more than half of the island is used for agriculture. Fishing and tourism are also of economic importance. In 1997 a bridge opened between Prince Edward Island and the mainland.

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(born 1459, Southwark?, near London, Eng.—died October 1521, Westenhanger, Kent) English soldier and administrator. A supporter of Henry Tudor (later Henry VII), he served as the king's lord deputy of Ireland (1494–95), where he enacted legislative measures (“Poynings' Laws”) that applied all English public laws to Ireland and required every act of the Irish parliament to be approved by the king and privy council.

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(born Jan. 25, 1825, Richmond, Va., U.S.—died July 30, 1875, Norfolk, Va.) U.S. and Confederate army officer. He graduated from West Point and served in the Mexican War. In 1861 he resigned his commission to enter the Confederate army. He rose to major general and commanded a division at the Battle of Fredericksburg. At the Battle of Gettysburg, he led the climactic attack known as Pickett's Charge, in which 4,300 men of his division constituted almost half the attacking force under James Longstreet. The attempt to breach the Union lines on Cemetery Ridge was repulsed with the loss of about 60percnt of his men. Though criticized for his leadership, he retained his command.

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(born April 14, 1941, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. baseball player. Rose began playing organized baseball at age eight. He played for the Cincinnati Reds (1963–78, 1984–86), the Philadelphia Phillies (1979–83), and the Montreal Expos (1984). His 4,256 career hits and 3,562 games played both remain all-time records, and his career mark for runs (2,165) is exceeded only by Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, and Hank Aaron. In 1989, after being investigated for allegedly betting on baseball games, including those of his own Reds, Rose was banned from the sport for life by the commissioner of baseball.

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orig. Edward de Vere

(born April 12, 1550, Castle Hedingham, Essex, Eng.—died June 24, 1604, Newington, Middlesex) English lyric poet. A brilliantly gifted linguist and one of the most dashing figures of his time, Oxford was also reckless, hot-tempered, and disastrously spendthrift. He was the patron of an acting company, Oxford's Men, and possibly later of the Lord Chamberlain's Men (as hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain of England), as well as of such writers as John Lyly and Edmund Spenser. He wrote highly praised poems and plays in his earlier years, though none of the plays are known to have survived. A 1920 book by J. Thomas Looney made Oxford the leading candidate, next to William Shakespeare himself, for the authorship of Shakespeare's plays, a theory supported by the coincidence that Oxford's literary output apparently ceased just before Shakespeare's work began to appear. A major difficulty in the Oxfordian theory, however, is his death date (1604), because, according to standard chronology, 14 of Shakespeare's plays, including many of the most important ones, were apparently written after that time. The debate, however, remained lively into the 21st century.

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(born Dec. 22, 1696, London, Eng.—died June 30/July 1, 1785, Cranham Hall, Essex, Eng.) English army officer. After serving in the British army from 1712 to 1722, he entered Parliament, where he became interested in prison reform. In 1732 he secured a charter for a colony in what became Georgia, where debtors could start a new life and persecuted Protestants could practice freely. He accompanied the first settlers to found Savannah (1733) and led the defense of the territory against attacks by Spain (1739, 1742). He returned to England in 1743.

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(born Sept. 22, 1903, Toronto, Ont., Can.—died Aug. 25, 1990, Toronto) Canadian novelist and short-story writer. Callaghan received a law degree in 1928 but never practiced. He won acclaim for the short-story collection A Native Argosy (1929). His first novel, Strange Fugitive (1928), describes the destruction of a social misfit, a type that recurs in his fiction. Subsequent novels, including They Shall Inherit the Earth (1935) and The Loved and the Lost (1951, Governor General's Award), emphasize Christian love as an answer to social injustice. That Summer in Paris (1963) describes Callaghan's friendship with F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway. Later works include A Fine and Private Place (1975) and A Time for Judas (1983).

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(born Nov. 4, 1873, London, Eng.—died Oct. 24, 1958, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) British philosopher, one of the founders of analytic philosophy. While a fellow at the University of Cambridge (1898–1904), he published two influential papers, “The Nature of Judgment” (1899) and “The Refutation of Idealism” (1903), that did much to break the hold of absolute idealism on British philosophy. Also published during this period was his major ethical work, Principia Ethica (1903), in which he argued that “good” is a simple and unanalyzable quality that is knowable by direct apprehension. His intuitionism was the dominant metaethical position in Britain for the next 30 years, and it exerted considerable influence within the Bloomsbury group of artists and intellectuals. In epistemology, Moore is remembered for his “common sense” philosophy, according to which human beings know to be true many propositions about themselves and the world that are inconsistent with idealist and skeptical doctrines (e.g., “The Earth has existed for many years”). His general position was that, because no argument for idealism or skepticism is as certain as the commonsense view, idealism and skepticism can be rejected out of hand. He was professor of philosophy at Cambridge from 1925 to 1939. From 1921 to 1947 he edited the journal Mind.

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known as Cardinal Manning

(born July 15, 1808, Totteridge, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died Jan. 14, 1892, London) British Roman Catholic cardinal. The son of a banker and member of Parliament, he was ordained a priest of the Church of England in 1833. A member of the Oxford movement, he became a Catholic in 1851 and was ordained a priest later that year. He rose rapidly in rank, being appointed archbishop of Westminster in 1865 and cardinal in 1875. He favoured the centralization of authority in the church (Ultramontanism) and supported stronger wording on papal infallibility than was eventually adopted by the First Vatican Council. He established many schools and was highly regarded for his concern for social welfare.

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orig. Edward Alexander McDowell

(born Dec. 18, 1860, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 1908, New York City) U.S. composer. He started piano lessons at age eight. While in Germany for further study, he impressed the composer Joachim Raff (1822–82), who urged him to write a piano concerto (1882), then introduced him to Franz Liszt, who assisted MacDowell with performances and publication. In 1888 he returned to the U.S. with his wife, and in 1896 he became Columbia University's first professor of music. Paresis made him unable to perform or compose after 1904, and he lapsed into insanity and died at age 47. His farm in Peterborough, N.H., became the MacDowell Colony for artists after his death. His most popular works are the Second Piano Concerto in D Minor (1886), the Second Orchestral (“Indian”) Suite (1895), and piano sets such as Woodland Sketches (1896) and Sea Pieces (1898).

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(born May 4, 1907, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 5, 1996, New York, N.Y.) U.S. dance authority, impresario, and writer. He graduated from Harvard, where he founded the literary magazine Hound & Horn. Financially independent, he focused his artistic interests on ballet and in 1933 persuaded the choreographer George Balanchine to move to the U.S. to found a ballet school and company. The School of American Ballet opened in 1934; Kirstein was its director from 1940 to 1989. He and Balanchine jointly established a series of ballet companies, culminating in the New York City Ballet (1948), of which he served as general director until 1989. He wrote seven books on ballet, including the classic history Dance (1935).

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(born May 20, 1918, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., U.S.—died July 21, 2004, Pasadena, Calif.) U.S. geneticist. He received a Ph.D. (1942) in genetics from the California Institute of Technology, where he taught from 1946 to 1988. By crossbreeding thousands of fruit flies, he discovered that genes are arranged on the chromosome in the order corresponding to body segments, an orderliness now known as the colinearity principle. Lewis's work helped explain mechanisms of general biological development, including the causes of deformities present at birth in humans. With Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus, he was awarded a 1995 Nobel Prize.

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Edward Lear, drawing by William Holman Hunt, 1857; in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool

(born May 12, 1812, Highgate, near London, Eng.—died Jan. 29, 1888, San Remo, Italy) English painter and comic poet. From age 15 he earned his living by drawing. Employed to illustrate the earl of Derby's private menagerie in the 1830s, he later produced Book of Nonsense (1846) for the earl's grandchildren. His other works include Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany and Alphabets (1871), containing “The Owl and the Pussy-Cat,” and Laughable Lyrics (1877). He is best known for popularizing the limerick. He also published volumes of bird and animal drawings and seven illustrated travel books. Epileptic and depressive, he lived mainly abroad after 1837.

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Lake, eastern Africa. One of the great lakes of the western Great Rift Valley, it lies on the border of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda and is 48 mi (77 km) long and 26 mi (42 km) wide. On the northeast it is connected to the smaller Lake George. Lake Edward empties north through the Semliki River to Lake Albert. The lake abounds in fish; wildlife on its shores is protected within Virunga National Park and Queen Elizabeth National Park. It was named by Henry Morton Stanley, who visited the lake in 1888–89.

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(born May 4, 1907, Rochester, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 5, 1996, New York, N.Y.) U.S. dance authority, impresario, and writer. He graduated from Harvard, where he founded the literary magazine Hound & Horn. Financially independent, he focused his artistic interests on ballet and in 1933 persuaded the choreographer George Balanchine to move to the U.S. to found a ballet school and company. The School of American Ballet opened in 1934; Kirstein was its director from 1940 to 1989. He and Balanchine jointly established a series of ballet companies, culminating in the New York City Ballet (1948), of which he served as general director until 1989. He wrote seven books on ballet, including the classic history Dance (1935).

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known as Ted Kennedy

(born Feb. 22, 1932, Brookline, Mass., U.S.) U.S. senator. He is the youngest son of Joseph P. Kennedy and the brother of John F. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy. He graduated from Harvard University in 1956 and received a law degree from the University of Virginia in 1959. In 1962 he was elected to the former U.S. Senate seat of his brother John, who became president in 1960. Elected Democratic majority whip in 1969, he was considered a front-runner for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination. In 1970 he was involved in a car accident on Chappaquiddick Island, near Martha's Vineyard, Mass., in which a companion in his car was drowned. Kennedy was found guilty of leaving the scene of an accident. Though he was reelected to the Senate in 1970, he decided against seeking the presidency in 1972. He won a third full term in 1976 and was again a serious contender for the Democratic nomination in 1980, but he withdrew during the convention. In subsequent years his presidential prospects were limited by memories of the Chappaquiddick incident and by his somewhat raffish personal life. In the 1980s and '90s he continued to represent Massachusetts in the Senate, where he was a forceful spokesman for liberal causes, including civil rights, consumer protection, and national health insurance.

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(born Oct. 28, 1914, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, Calif.) U.S. physician and researcher. He received his M.D. from New York University. Working with other scientists to classify poliovirus, he confirmed earlier studies that identified three strains. He showed that killed virus of each strain could induce antibody formation without producing disease. Salk's vaccine was released for use in the U.S. in 1955. From 1963 he directed the Salk Institute in La Jolla, Calif. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977.

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Edward Jenner, detail of an oil painting by James Northcote, 1803; in the National Portrait elipsis

(born May 17, 1749, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Jan. 26, 1823, Berkeley) English surgeon, discoverer of the smallpox vaccine. He was apprenticed to a surgeon at 13, and at 21 he became the house pupil of John Hunter, who gave him further training and stressed the need for experimentation and observation. Jenner had noticed as a youth that people who had been sick with the relatively harmless disease cowpox did not contract smallpox. In 1796 he inoculated a young boy with matter taken from a dairymaid's fresh cowpox lesions. The boy caught cowpox and, when subsequently inoculated with smallpox, did not contract it. Despite early difficulties, the procedure spread and the death rate from smallpox fell. Jenner received worldwide recognition (though he was also subject to attacks and slander). He retired from public life in 1815 after the death of his wife.

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orig. James Francis Edward Stuart

(born June 10, 1688, London, Eng.—died Jan. 1, 1766, Rome, Papal States) Claimant to the English and Scottish thrones. Son of the exiled James II of England, he was raised in France as a Catholic. On the death of his father (1701), he was proclaimed king of England by the French king Louis XIV, but the English Parliament passed a bill of attainder against him. He served with the French army in the War of the Spanish Succession. In the Jacobite uprising (1715), James landed in Scotland, but within two months the uprising collapsed and he returned to France. He lived thereafter in Rome under the pope's patronage. He became known as the “Old Pretender” to distinguish him from his son, Charles Edward, the Young Pretender.

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(born Dec. 22, 1696, London, Eng.—died June 30/July 1, 1785, Cranham Hall, Essex, Eng.) English army officer. After serving in the British army from 1712 to 1722, he entered Parliament, where he became interested in prison reform. In 1732 he secured a charter for a colony in what became Georgia, where debtors could start a new life and persecuted Protestants could practice freely. He accompanied the first settlers to found Savannah (1733) and led the defense of the territory against attacks by Spain (1739, 1742). He returned to England in 1743.

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House, 1920

(born July 26, 1858, Houston, Texas, U.S.—died March 28, 1938, New York, N.Y.) U.S. diplomat. An independently wealthy businessman, he served as an adviser to Texas governors (1892–1904), one of whom gave him the honorary h1 of colonel. He was active in the presidential campaign of Woodrow Wilson, later becoming his adviser (1912–19). He was the president's chief liaison with the Allies during World War I, and he helped draft the Fourteen Points, which Wilson proposed as the basis for peace at the end of the war. He was a member of the U.S. delegation to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, and he worked closely with Wilson in drafting the covenant of the League of Nations.

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(b. July 22, 1882, Nyack, N.Y., U.S.—d. May 15, 1967, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He was initially trained as an illustrator but later studied painting with Robert Henri. In 1913 he exhibited in the Armory Show but spent much of his time on advertising art and illustrative etchings. In the mid 1920s he turned to watercolours and oil paintings of urban life. His House by the Railroad (1925) and Room in Brooklyn (1932) depict still, anonymous figures within geometric building forms, producing the haunting sense of isolation that was to be his hallmark. He used light to isolate figures and objects, as in Early Sunday Morning (1930) and Nighthawks (1942). His mature style was already formed in the 1920s; his later development showed constant refinement and an even greater mastery of light.

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The Cornell Farm, oil on canvas by Edward Hicks, 1848; in the National Gallery of Art, elipsis

(born April 4, 1780, Attleboro, Pa., U.S.—died Aug. 23, 1849, Newtown, Pa.) U.S. painter. He was a coach and sign painter from an early age. In middle age he began to produce paintings of farm scenes and landscapes in a naive, or folk, style. Fearing that art was contrary to his Quaker religion but believing that it might bring meaning to life, he often framed his pictures with edifying verse. He painted his best-known subject, The Peaceable Kingdom, about 100 times; some 25 versions survive. In this charming Quaker pageant, William Penn appears on the left making his treaty with the Native Americans, while beasts are gathered on the right with little children playing among them.

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known as Cardinal Manning

(born July 15, 1808, Totteridge, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died Jan. 14, 1892, London) British Roman Catholic cardinal. The son of a banker and member of Parliament, he was ordained a priest of the Church of England in 1833. A member of the Oxford movement, he became a Catholic in 1851 and was ordained a priest later that year. He rose rapidly in rank, being appointed archbishop of Westminster in 1865 and cardinal in 1875. He favoured the centralization of authority in the church (Ultramontanism) and supported stronger wording on papal infallibility than was eventually adopted by the First Vatican Council. He established many schools and was highly regarded for his concern for social welfare.

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(born July 9, 1916, Broadstairs, Kent, Eng.—died July 17, 2005, Salisbury, Wiltshire) British politician, prime minister of Britain (1970–74). He held various government positions after being elected to Parliament in 1950, and after the Conservative defeat in 1964 he became a major opposition figure. As prime minister, he faced the crisis of violent conflict in Northern Ireland, over which he imposed direct British rule in 1972, and won French acceptance of British entry into the European Economic Community. Unable to cope with Britain's mounting economic problems, chiefly rising inflation and unemployment and crippling labour strikes, he was succeeded as prime minister by Harold Wilson in 1974 and replaced as party leader by Margaret Thatcher in 1975. Heath, who was knighted in 1992, remained in the House of Commons until 2001.

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(born , Feb. 25, 1848, Hempstead, N.Y., U.S.—died Sept. 9, 1909, near Turner, N.Y.) U.S. financier and railroad magnate. After working as an office boy and then a stockbroker on Wall Street, he began his career in railroad management as an executive with the Illinois Central. In 1898 he organized a syndicate to acquire the bankrupt Union Pacific Railroad Co., which he soon brought into prosperity. Using unpopular business methods, he acquired several other lines, notably the Southern Pacific. His abortive 1901 contest with James J. Hill for control of the Northern Pacific led to one of Wall Street's most serious financial crises. The railway trust Harriman formed with J.P. Morgan was dissolved by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1904. His son W. Averell Harriman joined the company in 1915 (chairman 1932–46) and was active in politics; he was elected governor of New York (1954–58) and served the U.S. government as a representative and diplomat in Europe, the Far East, and the Soviet Union.

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(born April 16, 1881, Powderham Castle, Devonshire, Eng.—died Dec. 23, 1959, Garroby Hall, near York, Yorkshire) British statesman. He was elected to Parliament in 1910. As viceroy of India (1925–31), he worked on terms of understanding with Mohandas K. Gandhi and accelerated constitutional advances. His tenure as foreign secretary (1938–40) in Neville Chamberlain's government was controversial because of Chamberlain's policy of appeasement toward Adolf Hitler, but Halifax kept the post into Winston Churchill's ministry. As ambassador to the U.S. (1941–46), he greatly served the Allied cause in World War II, for which he was created earl of Halifax in 1944.

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(born Feb. 22, 1925, Chicago, Ill., U.S.—died April 15, 2000, Hyannis, Mass.) U.S. writer, illustrator, and designer. He studied at Harvard University and worked as an illustrator before publishing his first children's book, The Doubtful Guest, in 1957. In this and later books such as The Hapless Child (1961) and The Gashlycrumb Tinies (1962), his arch nonsense verse and mock-Victorian prose accompany pen-and-ink drawings of beady-eyed, blank-faced individuals in Edwardian costume whose dignified demeanour is undercut by silly, often macabre events. His work has been anthologized in Amphigorey (1972), Amphigorey Too (1975), and Amphigorey Also (1983).

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(born May 8, 1737, Putney, Surrey, Eng.—died Jan. 16, 1794, London) British historian. Educated at the University of Oxford and in Switzerland, Gibbon wrote his early works in French. In London he became a member of Samuel Johnson's brilliant intellectual circle. On a trip to Rome he was inspired to write the history of the city. His Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 6 vol. (1776–88), is a continuous narrative from the 2nd century AD to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Though Gibbon's conclusions have been modified by later scholars, his acumen, historical perspective, and superb literary style have given his work its lasting reputation as one of the greatest historical works.

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(born Jan. 25, 1825, Richmond, Va., U.S.—died July 30, 1875, Norfolk, Va.) U.S. and Confederate army officer. He graduated from West Point and served in the Mexican War. In 1861 he resigned his commission to enter the Confederate army. He rose to major general and commanded a division at the Battle of Fredericksburg. At the Battle of Gettysburg, he led the climactic attack known as Pickett's Charge, in which 4,300 men of his division constituted almost half the attacking force under James Longstreet. The attempt to breach the Union lines on Cemetery Ridge was repulsed with the loss of about 60percnt of his men. Though criticized for his leadership, he retained his command.

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(born Nov. 4, 1873, London, Eng.—died Oct. 24, 1958, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) British philosopher, one of the founders of analytic philosophy. While a fellow at the University of Cambridge (1898–1904), he published two influential papers, “The Nature of Judgment” (1899) and “The Refutation of Idealism” (1903), that did much to break the hold of absolute idealism on British philosophy. Also published during this period was his major ethical work, Principia Ethica (1903), in which he argued that “good” is a simple and unanalyzable quality that is knowable by direct apprehension. His intuitionism was the dominant metaethical position in Britain for the next 30 years, and it exerted considerable influence within the Bloomsbury group of artists and intellectuals. In epistemology, Moore is remembered for his “common sense” philosophy, according to which human beings know to be true many propositions about themselves and the world that are inconsistent with idealist and skeptical doctrines (e.g., “The Earth has existed for many years”). His general position was that, because no argument for idealism or skepticism is as certain as the commonsense view, idealism and skepticism can be rejected out of hand. He was professor of philosophy at Cambridge from 1925 to 1939. From 1921 to 1947 he edited the journal Mind.

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(born Oct. 23, 1845, Southampton, Hampshire, Eng.—died Jan. 28, 1933, Bath, Somerset) English literary historian and critic. When the school at which he was teaching failed in 1876, he decided to write for a living. He produced several successful volumes of criticism of French literature and extensive writings on English literature. Though he formulated no philosophy of criticism, his works were influential because they combined authoritative scholarship with the popular appeal of entertaining prose. They include A History of Criticism and Literary Taste in Europe from the Earliest Texts to the Present Day (1900–04), one of the first surveys of critical literary theory and practice.

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(born March 31, 1809, Bredfield, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, Eng.—died June 14, 1883, Merton, Norfolk) British writer. After graduating from Cambridge University, he lived chiefly in seclusion. He is best known for The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám (1859), a free adaptation from Omar Khayyam's verses that is itself a classic of English literature. Many of its images, such as “A jug of wine, a loaf of bread, and thou” and “The moving finger writes, and, having writ, moves on” have passed into common currency. He also freely translated Six Dramas of Calderón (1853).

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Edward Elgar.

(born June 2, 1857, Broadheath, Worcestershire, Eng.—died Feb. 23, 1934, Worcester, Worcestershire) British composer. Son of a piano tuner, he became proficient on violin and organ. His Enigma Variations (1896) brought him fame; he followed it with the oratorio The Dream of Gerontius (1900), which many consider his masterpiece. He composed in the orchestral idiom of late 19th-century Romanticism—characterized by bold tunes, striking colour effects, and mastery of large forms—stimulating a renaissance of English music. His principal works include the five Pomp and Circumstance Marches (1901–07), two symphonies (1908, 1911), concertos for violin (1910) and cello (1919), and the tone poems Cockaigne (1901) and Falstaff (1913).

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(born Dec. 10, 1837, Vevay, Ind., U.S.—died Sept. 4, 1902, Lake George, N.Y.) U.S. novelist and historian. He became an itinerant preacher at age 19; he later held various pastorates and edited several periodicals. He realistically portrayed backwoods Indiana in The Hoosier School-Master (1871). His other novels include The End of the World (1872), The Circuit Rider (1874), Roxy (1878), and The Graysons (1888). He then turned to writing history; his Beginners of a Nation (1896) and Transit of Civilization from England to America (1900) contributed to the growth of the study of social history.

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Lake, eastern Africa. One of the great lakes of the western Great Rift Valley, it lies on the border of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda and is 48 mi (77 km) long and 26 mi (42 km) wide. On the northeast it is connected to the smaller Lake George. Lake Edward empties north through the Semliki River to Lake Albert. The lake abounds in fish; wildlife on its shores is protected within Virunga National Park and Queen Elizabeth National Park. It was named by Henry Morton Stanley, who visited the lake in 1888–89.

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(born June 15, 1330, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died June 8, 1376, Westminster, near London) Prince of Wales (1343–76). Son of Edward III, he apparently received his sobriquet because he wore black armour. He was one of the outstanding commanders of the Hundred Years' War, winning a major victory at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. He was prince of Aquitaine 1362–72; his rule there was a failure, for which he was largely to blame. He returned sick and broken to England and formally surrendered his principality to his father. He had no successor as prince of Aquitaine. Though the heir apparent, he never became king; his son became Richard II.

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orig. Edward de Vere

(born April 12, 1550, Castle Hedingham, Essex, Eng.—died June 24, 1604, Newington, Middlesex) English lyric poet. A brilliantly gifted linguist and one of the most dashing figures of his time, Oxford was also reckless, hot-tempered, and disastrously spendthrift. He was the patron of an acting company, Oxford's Men, and possibly later of the Lord Chamberlain's Men (as hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain of England), as well as of such writers as John Lyly and Edmund Spenser. He wrote highly praised poems and plays in his earlier years, though none of the plays are known to have survived. A 1920 book by J. Thomas Looney made Oxford the leading candidate, next to William Shakespeare himself, for the authorship of Shakespeare's plays, a theory supported by the coincidence that Oxford's literary output apparently ceased just before Shakespeare's work began to appear. A major difficulty in the Oxfordian theory, however, is his death date (1604), because, according to standard chronology, 14 of Shakespeare's plays, including many of the most important ones, were apparently written after that time. The debate, however, remained lively into the 21st century.

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(born Oct. 18, 1595, Droitwich, Worcestershire, Eng.—died May 8, 1655, at sea, near Jamaica, British West Indies) British-American colonist. In 1620 he sailed on the Mayflower to New England, where he was a founder of the Plymouth colony. He served on the governor's council (1624–47) and was governor of the colony (1633–34, 1636–37, 1644–45). He traded with the Wampanoag Indians and won the friendship of their chief, Massasoit. As a commissioner of the United Colonies of New England, he often went to England to represent the interests of the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies. In 1646 he returned to England and held minor offices under Oliver Cromwell. He died aboard a ship on an expedition to the West Indies.

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Edward Bok, photograph by Pirie MacDonald, 1909.

(born Oct. 9, 1863, Den Helder, Neth.—died Jan. 9, 1930, Lake Wales, Fla., U.S.) Dutch-born U.S. editor. Raised in a poor immigrant family in Brooklyn, N.Y., Bok pursued a career in book and magazine publishing. As editor of the Ladies' Home Journal (1889–1919) he devised departments to inform women on diverse subjects and led campaigns for public health and beautification. His decision to stop accepting patent-medicine advertising helped bring about the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906). He also broke the taboo against the printed mention of venereal disease. His last years were devoted to working for civic improvement and world peace. He wrote a notable autobiography, The Americanization of Edward Bok (1920, Pulitzer Prize).

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(born April 27, 1840, London, Eng.—died Sept. 16, 1911, Chamonix, Fr.) British mountaineer and artist. He became a mountaineer after making sketches for a book on the Alps. In 1865 he made the first ascent of the Matterhorn; an accident on the descent caused the death of four of his companions. His Scrambles Amongst the Alps (1871) and Travels Amongst the Great Andes (1892) describe his experiences and are illustrated with his own engravings.

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Edward Weston at Point Lobos, Carmel Bay, Calif., 1945

(born March 24, 1886, Highland Park, Ill., U.S.—died Jan. 1, 1958, Carmel, Calif.) U.S. photographer. A camera enthusiast from boyhood, Weston began his professional career by opening a portrait studio in Glendale, Calif. His early work was in the style of the Pictorialists, photographers who imitated Impressionist paintings. In 1915 Weston saw an exhibition of modern art that inspired him to renounce his former work: he began to create sharp and realistic pictures that convey the beauty of natural objects through skillful composition and subtleties of tone, light, and texture. After traveling and meeting luminaries such as Alfred Stieglitz and Diego Rivera, in 1927 Weston made a series of monumental close-ups of seashells, peppers, and halved cabbages, bringing out the rich textures of their sculpturelike forms. Two years later he made the first of many photographs of the rocks and trees on Point Lobos, Calif. In 1936 Weston began a series of photographs of nudes and sand dunes at Oceano, Calif., which are often considered his finest work. After being stricken by Parkinson disease, Weston realized he would soon be unable to work. He made his last photographs on Point Lobos in 1948. He is considered one of the most influential photographers of the 20th century.

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(born Nov. 1, 1935, Jerusalem—died Sept. 25, 2003, New York, N.Y., U.S.) Palestinian-born U.S. literary critic. Said was educated in Western schools in Jerusalem and Cairo before moving to the United States to attend Princeton and Harvard universities. He taught at Columbia University beginning in 1963. In Orientalism (1978), his best-known work, he examines Western stereotypes of the Islamic world and argues that Orientalist scholarship is based on Western imperialism. An outspoken proponent of Palestinian issues, he wrote on the Middle East in such works as The Question of Palestine (1979) and The Politics of Dispossession (1994). His more general concern was the complex interaction of literature and politics, which he treated in Beginnings (1975), The World, the Text, and the Critic (1983), and Culture and Imperialism (1993). Out of Place (1999) is a memoir.

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Villella in The Prodigal Son.

(born Oct. 1, 1936, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. ballet dancer, choreographer, and director. He trained at the School of American Ballet and joined the New York City Ballet in 1957, becoming a principal dancer in 1960. He danced leading roles in many of George Balanchine's ballets, notably The Prodigal Son (1960), displaying a powerful technique. After retiring from dancing in 1983, he became artistic director of Ballet Oklahoma (1983–86). In 1986 he founded the Miami City Ballet, where he continues as artistic director.

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The duke of Windsor (formerly Edward VIII) and duchess of Windsor on their wedding day, June 3, elipsis

(born June 23, 1894, Richmond, Surrey, Eng.—died May 28, 1972, Paris, France) King of the United Kingdom (1936) who abdicated voluntarily. Son of George V, he served as a staff officer in World War I. After the war he made extensive goodwill tours of the British Empire and became very popular with the British people. In 1930 he became friends with Wallis Simpson and her husband and by 1934 had fallen in love with her. In January 1936 he succeeded to the throne on his father's death. Unable to gain social and political acceptance for his proposed marriage to Simpson, he abdicated in December, becoming the only British sovereign to resign the crown voluntarily. He was created duke of Windsor and in 1937 married Simpson, who became the duchess of Windsor. At Winston Churchill's invitation, he served as governor of the Bahamas during World War II, and after 1945 the couple lived in Paris. Though they were counted among the social elite, not until 1967 were they invited to attend an official public ceremony with other members of the royal family.

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orig. Albert Edward

Edward VII

(born Nov. 9, 1841, London, Eng.—died May 6, 1910, London) King of the United Kingdom (1901–10). Son of Queen Victoria, he attended Oxford and Cambridge and in 1863 married Alexandra (1844–1925), daughter of Christian IX. Noted for his interest in racing and yachting and his sometimes scandalous personal behavior, he was excluded by Victoria from most affairs of state until he was over 50 years old. He succeeded to the throne on her death, and his reign helped restore luster to the monarchy after her long seclusion as a widow. An immensely popular sovereign, he helped pave the way for the Entente Cordiale with his state visit to Paris in 1903.

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(born Oct. 12, 1537, London, Eng.—died July 6, 1553, London) King of England and Ireland (1547–53). Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward succeeded to the throne after Henry's death. During the young king's reign, power was wielded first by his uncle the duke of Somerset (1547–49) and then by the duke of Northumberland. Facing death from tuberculosis, Edward was persuaded to exclude his two half sisters (later queens) Mary I and Elizabeth I from the succession and to put Northumberland's daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, in line for the throne.

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orig. Ede Teller

Edward Teller.

(born Jan. 15, 1908, Budapest, Hung., Austria-Hungary—died Sept. 9, 2003, Stanford, Calif.) Hungarian-born U.S. nuclear physicist. Born to a prosperous Jewish family, he earned a Ph.D. at the University of Leipzig (1930) before leaving Nazi Germany (1933) and settled in the U.S. in 1935. In 1941 he joined Enrico Fermi's team in the effort to produce the first self-sustaining nuclear reaction, and in 1943 J. Robert Oppenheimer recruited him for the Manhattan Project. At the war's end, Teller advocated development of a fusion bomb, and he won permission after initial government resistance. With Stanislaw Ulam he developed a workable hydrogen bomb in 1952. That same year he helped establish the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (Livermore, Calif.), which became the chief U.S. factory for nuclear weapons. In 1954 he joined the opposition to Oppenheimer's continued security clearance. A staunch anticommunist, he devoted much energy to his crusade to keep the U.S. ahead of the Soviet Union in nuclear arms; he opposed nuclear weapons treaties, and he was principally responsible for convincing Pres. Ronald Reagan of the need for the Strategic Defense Initiative. In 2003 Teller was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

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(born Feb. 22, 1925, Chicago, Ill., U.S.—died April 15, 2000, Hyannis, Mass.) U.S. writer, illustrator, and designer. He studied at Harvard University and worked as an illustrator before publishing his first children's book, The Doubtful Guest, in 1957. In this and later books such as The Hapless Child (1961) and The Gashlycrumb Tinies (1962), his arch nonsense verse and mock-Victorian prose accompany pen-and-ink drawings of beady-eyed, blank-faced individuals in Edwardian costume whose dignified demeanour is undercut by silly, often macabre events. His work has been anthologized in Amphigorey (1972), Amphigorey Too (1975), and Amphigorey Also (1983).

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(born Jan. 26, 1884, Lauenburg, Pomerania, Ger.—died Feb. 4, 1939, New Haven, Conn., U.S.) Polish-born U.S. linguist and anthropologist. He was a founder of ethnolinguistics, which considers the relationship of culture to language, and a principal developer of the American (descriptive) school of structural linguistics. He became widely known for his contributions to the study of American Indian languages. His best-known work is Language (1921).

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(born Oct. 22, 1900, Chicago, Ill., U.S.—died Oct. 31, 1949, Greenwich, Conn.) U.S. industrialist and statesman. He worked for General Motors Corp., becoming a vice president in 1931. Joining U.S. Steel Corp. in 1934, he became chairman of the board in 1938. He was appointed chairman of the War Resources Board (1939–40) and administrator of lend-lease (1941–43). As U.S. secretary of state (1944–45), he advised Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt at the Yalta Conference. He led the U.S. delegation to the UN organizing conference in San Francisco and was the first U.S. delegate to the UN (1945–46).

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(born June 10, 1929, Birmingham, Ala., U.S.) U.S. biologist. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University, where he taught from 1956. Recognized as the world's leading authority on ants, he discovered their use of pheromone for communication. His The Insect Societies (1971) was the definitive treatment of the subject. In 1975 he published Sociobiology, a highly controversial and influential study of the genetic basis of social behaviour in which he claimed that even a characteristic such as unselfish generosity may be genetically based and may have evolved through natural selection, that preservation of the gene rather than the individual is the focus of evolutionary strategy, and that the essentially biological principles on which animal societies are based apply also to human social behaviour. In On Human Nature (1978, Pulitzer Prize) he explored sociobiology's implications in regard to human aggression, sexuality, and ethics. With Bert Hölldobler he wrote the major study The Ants (1990, Pulitzer Prize). In The Diversity of Life (1992) he examined how the world's species became diverse and the massive extinctions caused by 20th-century human activities. In Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (1998) he proposed that all of existence can be organized and understood in accordance with a few fundamental natural laws.

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(born Oct. 4, 1879, Du Quoin, Ill., U.S.—died Nov. 9, 1938, Boston, Mass.) U.S. plant geneticist, agronomist, and chemist. He finished high school at age 15 and received an M.S. in 1904. He was particularly interested in determining and controlling the protein and fat content of corn, both of which significantly influence its value as animal feed. His research, with that of George Harrison Shull, led to the development of modern-day hybrid corn. Commercial production of hybrid seed corn was made possible by the work of his student Donald F. Jones (1890–1963). East's work helped make possible studies in the field of population genetics.

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E.M. Forster

(born Jan. 1, 1879, London, Eng.—died June 7, 1970, Coventry, Warwickshire) British writer. Forster was born into an upper-middle-class family. He attended the University of Cambridge and from roughly 1907 was a member of the informal Bloomsbury group. His early works include Where Angels Fear to Tread (1905), The Longest Journey (1907), A Room with a View (1908), and his first major success, Howards End (1910), novels that show his acute observation of middle-class life and its values. After periods in India and Alexandria, he wrote his finest novel, A Passage to India (1924), examining the failure of human understanding between ethnic and social groups under British rule. Maurice, a novel with a homosexual theme written in 1913, appeared posthumously. Aspects of the Novel (1927) is a classic discussion of aesthetics and the creative process. Awarded an honorary fellowship in 1946 at Cambridge, he lived there until his death.

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known as Ted Kennedy

(born Feb. 22, 1932, Brookline, Mass., U.S.) U.S. senator. He is the youngest son of Joseph P. Kennedy and the brother of John F. Kennedy and Robert F. Kennedy. He graduated from Harvard University in 1956 and received a law degree from the University of Virginia in 1959. In 1962 he was elected to the former U.S. Senate seat of his brother John, who became president in 1960. Elected Democratic majority whip in 1969, he was considered a front-runner for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination. In 1970 he was involved in a car accident on Chappaquiddick Island, near Martha's Vineyard, Mass., in which a companion in his car was drowned. Kennedy was found guilty of leaving the scene of an accident. Though he was reelected to the Senate in 1970, he decided against seeking the presidency in 1972. He won a third full term in 1976 and was again a serious contender for the Democratic nomination in 1980, but he withdrew during the convention. In subsequent years his presidential prospects were limited by memories of the Chappaquiddick incident and by his somewhat raffish personal life. In the 1980s and '90s he continued to represent Massachusetts in the Senate, where he was a forceful spokesman for liberal causes, including civil rights, consumer protection, and national health insurance.

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House, 1920

(born July 26, 1858, Houston, Texas, U.S.—died March 28, 1938, New York, N.Y.) U.S. diplomat. An independently wealthy businessman, he served as an adviser to Texas governors (1892–1904), one of whom gave him the honorary h1 of colonel. He was active in the presidential campaign of Woodrow Wilson, later becoming his adviser (1912–19). He was the president's chief liaison with the Allies during World War I, and he helped draft the Fourteen Points, which Wilson proposed as the basis for peace at the end of the war. He was a member of the U.S. delegation to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, and he worked closely with Wilson in drafting the covenant of the League of Nations.

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(born Aug. 31, 1874, Williamsburg, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 9, 1949, Montrose, N.Y.) U.S. psychologist. He trained under William James and James McKeen Cattell and later taught at Columbia University (1904–40). A pioneer in the fields of animal learning and educational psychology, he developed a form of behaviourism known as connectionism, which holds that learning takes place through associative bonds. He contributed significantly to the development of quantitative experimental methods and to more efficient and scientifically based methods of teaching. Among his writings are Introduction to the Theory of Mental and Social Measurements (1904), Principles of Teaching Based on Psychology (1906), Animal Intelligence (1911), and The Psychology of Wants, Interests, and Attitudes (1935).

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Edward Lear, drawing by William Holman Hunt, 1857; in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool

(born May 12, 1812, Highgate, near London, Eng.—died Jan. 29, 1888, San Remo, Italy) English painter and comic poet. From age 15 he earned his living by drawing. Employed to illustrate the earl of Derby's private menagerie in the 1830s, he later produced Book of Nonsense (1846) for the earl's grandchildren. His other works include Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany and Alphabets (1871), containing “The Owl and the Pussy-Cat,” and Laughable Lyrics (1877). He is best known for popularizing the limerick. He also published volumes of bird and animal drawings and seven illustrated travel books. Epileptic and depressive, he lived mainly abroad after 1837.

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(born Dec. 14, 1909, Boulder, Colo., U.S.—died Nov. 5, 1975, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. biochemist. He worked with George Wells Beadle at Stanford University, where they confirmed that all biochemical processes in organisms are ultimately controlled by genes, that these processes can be broken down into a series of individual sequential chemical reactions, each controlled by a single gene, and that mutation of a single gene changes the cell's ability to carry out only a single chemical reaction. Each gene was found to determine the structure of a specific enzyme (the “one gene, one enzyme” hypothesis). With Joshua Lederberg, Tatum discovered the occurrence of genetic recombination, or “sex,” between certain bacteria. Largely because of their efforts, bacteria became the main source of information about genetic control of biochemical processes in the cell. Tatum, Beadle, and Lederberg shared the Nobel Prize in 1958.

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Edward Jenner, detail of an oil painting by James Northcote, 1803; in the National Portrait elipsis

(born May 17, 1749, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, Eng.—died Jan. 26, 1823, Berkeley) English surgeon, discoverer of the smallpox vaccine. He was apprenticed to a surgeon at 13, and at 21 he became the house pupil of John Hunter, who gave him further training and stressed the need for experimentation and observation. Jenner had noticed as a youth that people who had been sick with the relatively harmless disease cowpox did not contract smallpox. In 1796 he inoculated a young boy with matter taken from a dairymaid's fresh cowpox lesions. The boy caught cowpox and, when subsequently inoculated with smallpox, did not contract it. Despite early difficulties, the procedure spread and the death rate from smallpox fell. Jenner received worldwide recognition (though he was also subject to attacks and slander). He retired from public life in 1815 after the death of his wife.

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orig. Édouard Jean Steichen

Edward Steichen, 1960.

(born March 27, 1879, Luxembourg—died March 25, 1973, West Redding, Conn., U.S.) Luxembourg-born U.S. photographer. His family immigrated to the U.S. in 1881. His early photographs were influenced by his training as a painter. He frequently used chemicals to achieve prints that resembled soft, fuzzy mezzotints or wash drawings. In 1902 he joined Alfred Stieglitz in forming the Photo-Secession, a group dedicated to promoting photography as a fine art. His style evolved from painterly Impressionism to sharp realism after World War I. His portraits of artists and celebrities from the 1920s and '30s are remarkable evocations of character. At the outbreak of World War II, Steichen was commissioned by the U.S. Navy to organize a department to photograph the war at sea. In 1955 he organized the Family of Man exhibition of 503 photographs (selected from over two million), which was seen by more than nine million people worldwide.

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Edward IV, portrait by an unknown artist; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born April 28, 1442, Rouen, France—died April 9, 1483, Westminster, Eng.) King of England (1461–70, 1471–83). His father, a claimant to the throne, was killed in 1461, and Edward was crowned, thanks largely to his cousin the earl of Warwick. This alliance did not last, and, after much intrigue and fighting, Edward was deposed and fled in 1470. The next year he returned to become a leading participant in the Wars of the Roses, defeating and killing Warwick and nearly all the remaining Lancastrian leaders. After murdering Henry VI and repelling an attack on London, Edward remained secure as king for the rest of his life. He invaded France, which Henry had inherited but largely lost; though the attempt was unsuccessful, Edward made an excellent financial settlement by treaty. His administrative achievements made his reign a time of prosperity and success. Seven children survived him; his two sons were probably murdered in the Tower of London, and his eldest daughter married Henry VII.

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known as Edward of Windsor

(born Nov. 13, 1312, Windsor, Berkshire, Eng.—died June 21, 1377, Sheen, Surrey) King of England (1327–77). His mother, Isabella of France, deposed his father, Edward II, and crowned the 15-year-old Edward in his place. Isabella and her lover, Roger de Mortimer, governed in Edward's name for four years and persuaded him to grant the Scots their independence (1328). After having Mortimer executed in 1330, Edward became the sole ruler of England. By asserting his right to the French crown, he began the Hundred Years' War. He instituted the Order of the Garter in 1342. He defeated the French at the Battle of Crécy (1346) and captured Calais (1347), though lack of funds forced him to sign a truce. The Black Death hit England in 1348, but fighting continued. The Scots surrendered to Edward in 1356, and the same year his son Edward the Black Prince won a major victory for the English at the Battle of Poitiers. In 1360 Edward gave up his claim to the French crown in return for Aquitaine. The war later resumed when Charles V repudiated the Treaty of Calais; Edward lost Aquitaine, and he signed a new truce in 1375. In his later years he fell under the influence of his greedy mistress, Alice Perrers, and his son John of Gaunt.

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known as Edward of Caernarfon

(born April 25, 1284, Caernarfon, Caernarfonshire, Wales—died September 1327, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, Eng.) King of England (1307–27). He was the son of Edward I. He angered the barons by granting the earldom of Cornwall to his favourite, Piers Gaveston; the barons then drew up the Ordinances (1311), a document limiting the king's power over finances and appointments, and executed the arrogant Gaveston (1312). The English defeat by Robert I at the Battle of Bannockburn (1314) ensured Scottish independence and left Edward at the mercy of powerful barons, notably Thomas of Lancaster. Edward defeated and executed Lancaster in 1322, freeing himself from baronial control and revoking the Ordinances. His queen, Isabella, helped her lover, Roger de Mortimer, invade England with other dissatisfied nobles and depose Edward in favour of his son, Edward III. Edward II was imprisoned and probably murdered.

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known as Edward Longshanks

(born June 17, 1239, Westminster, Middlesex, Eng.—died July 7, 1307, Burgh by Sands, near Carlisle, Cumberland) King of England (1272–1307). The eldest son of Henry III, he supported his father in a civil war with the barons, but his violent temper contributed to Henry's defeat at the Battle of Lewes (1264). Edward triumphed over the rebels in the following year when he defeated them and slew their leader at Evesham. Edward joined the abortive Crusade of Louis IX of France (the Eighth Crusade) in 1271–72, then returned to England to succeed his father. His reign was a time of rising national consciousness, in which he strengthened the crown against the nobility. He fostered the development of Parliament and played an important role in defining English common law. He conquered Wales (1277) and crushed Welsh uprisings against English rule, but his conquest of Scotland (1296), including the defeat of William Wallace, was undone by later revolts. He expelled the Jews from England in 1290; they would not be readmitted until 1655. He died on a campaign against Robert I, who had proclaimed himself king of Scotland the previous year.

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(b. July 22, 1882, Nyack, N.Y., U.S.—d. May 15, 1967, New York, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He was initially trained as an illustrator but later studied painting with Robert Henri. In 1913 he exhibited in the Armory Show but spent much of his time on advertising art and illustrative etchings. In the mid 1920s he turned to watercolours and oil paintings of urban life. His House by the Railroad (1925) and Room in Brooklyn (1932) depict still, anonymous figures within geometric building forms, producing the haunting sense of isolation that was to be his hallmark. He used light to isolate figures and objects, as in Early Sunday Morning (1930) and Nighthawks (1942). His mature style was already formed in the 1920s; his later development showed constant refinement and an even greater mastery of light.

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The Cornell Farm, oil on canvas by Edward Hicks, 1848; in the National Gallery of Art, elipsis

(born April 4, 1780, Attleboro, Pa., U.S.—died Aug. 23, 1849, Newtown, Pa.) U.S. painter. He was a coach and sign painter from an early age. In middle age he began to produce paintings of farm scenes and landscapes in a naive, or folk, style. Fearing that art was contrary to his Quaker religion but believing that it might bring meaning to life, he often framed his pictures with edifying verse. He painted his best-known subject, The Peaceable Kingdom, about 100 times; some 25 versions survive. In this charming Quaker pageant, William Penn appears on the left making his treaty with the Native Americans, while beasts are gathered on the right with little children playing among them.

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(born , Feb. 25, 1848, Hempstead, N.Y., U.S.—died Sept. 9, 1909, near Turner, N.Y.) U.S. financier and railroad magnate. After working as an office boy and then a stockbroker on Wall Street, he began his career in railroad management as an executive with the Illinois Central. In 1898 he organized a syndicate to acquire the bankrupt Union Pacific Railroad Co., which he soon brought into prosperity. Using unpopular business methods, he acquired several other lines, notably the Southern Pacific. His abortive 1901 contest with James J. Hill for control of the Northern Pacific led to one of Wall Street's most serious financial crises. The railway trust Harriman formed with J.P. Morgan was dissolved by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1904. His son W. Averell Harriman joined the company in 1915 (chairman 1932–46) and was active in politics; he was elected governor of New York (1954–58) and served the U.S. government as a representative and diplomat in Europe, the Far East, and the Soviet Union.

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(born Jan. 16, 1872, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died July 29, 1966, Vence, France) British actor, stage designer, and drama theorist. He was the son of Ellen Terry. He acted with Henry Irving's company (1889–97) and then turned to designing stage sets, decor, and costumes. He moved to Florence (1906), where he opened the School for the Art of the Theatre (1913). His international journal The Mask (1908–29) made his theatrical ideas widely known. His books On the Art of the Theatre (1911), Towards a New Theatre (1913), and Scene (1923) outlined innovations in stage design based on the use of portable screens and changing patterns of light; his theories influenced the antinaturalist trends of the modern theatre.

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(born March 20, 1796, London, Eng.—died May 16, 1862, Wellington, N.Z.) British colonizer of South Australia and New Zealand. After viewing the problems of the penal system, including the forcible removal of convicts to British colonies, he wrote A Letter from Sydney (1829) and proposed colonization by the sale of small landholdings to ordinary citizens. He influenced the founding of South Australia as a nonconvict settlement. As organizer and manager of the New Zealand Company (1838–58), he sent colonists to settle New Zealand and forced the British government to recognize the colony. As an adviser to the earl of Durham, he influenced the report that led to the union of Upper and Lower Canada. He founded a Church of England settlement at Canterbury, N.Z. (1847).

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(born May 8, 1737, Putney, Surrey, Eng.—died Jan. 16, 1794, London) British historian. Educated at the University of Oxford and in Switzerland, Gibbon wrote his early works in French. In London he became a member of Samuel Johnson's brilliant intellectual circle. On a trip to Rome he was inspired to write the history of the city. His Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 6 vol. (1776–88), is a continuous narrative from the 2nd century AD to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Though Gibbon's conclusions have been modified by later scholars, his acumen, historical perspective, and superb literary style have given his work its lasting reputation as one of the greatest historical works.

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(born March 29, 1799, Knowsley Park, Lancashire, Eng.—died Oct. 23, 1869, London) English statesman. Having entered Parliament as a Whig in 1820, he later joined the Conservatives and became leader of the Conservative Party (1846–68) and prime minister (1852, 1858, and 1866–68). Legislation adopted during his tenure included the removal of Jewish discrimination in Parliament membership, the transfer of India's administration from the East India Company to the crown, and the Reform Bill of 1867. He is remembered as one of England's greatest parliamentary orators.

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orig. Emmanuel Goldenberg

(born Dec. 12, 1893, Bucharest, Rom.—died Jan. 26, 1973, Hollywood, Calif., U.S.) Romanian-born U.S. film actor. He was raised in New York City's Lower East Side and won a scholarship to the American Academy of Dramatic Art. He was largely a stage actor until the advent of sound movies. He won fame playing a gangster boss in Little Caesar (1931). Short and chubby, with heavy features and a gruff voice, Robinson was content that his career would consist of rough-and-tumble roles and character parts. His later films include Barbary Coast (1935), Double Indemnity (1944), The Woman in the Window (1944), Scarlet Street (1945), All My Sons (1948), Key Largo (1948), and The Cincinnati Kid (1965). In 1973 he was posthumously awarded an honorary Academy Award.

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(born April 16, 1881, Powderham Castle, Devonshire, Eng.—died Dec. 23, 1959, Garroby Hall, near York, Yorkshire) British statesman. He was elected to Parliament in 1910. As viceroy of India (1925–31), he worked on terms of understanding with Mohandas K. Gandhi and accelerated constitutional advances. His tenure as foreign secretary (1938–40) in Neville Chamberlain's government was controversial because of Chamberlain's policy of appeasement toward Adolf Hitler, but Halifax kept the post into Winston Churchill's ministry. As ambassador to the U.S. (1941–46), he greatly served the Allied cause in World War II, for which he was created earl of Halifax in 1944.

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(born March 12, 1928, Washington, D.C., U.S.) U.S. playwright. He was the adopted grandson and namesake of a well-known vaudeville theatre manager. Among his early one-act plays, The Zoo Story (1959), The Sandbox (1959), and The American Dream (1961) established him as an astute critic of American values. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf (1962; film, 1966), his first full-length play, was widely acclaimed. Albee won Pulitzer Prizes for A Delicate Balance (1966), Seascape (1975), and Three Tall Women (1994). He also adapted other writers' works for the stage, including Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita (1981).

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(born March 31, 1809, Bredfield, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, Eng.—died June 14, 1883, Merton, Norfolk) British writer. After graduating from Cambridge University, he lived chiefly in seclusion. He is best known for The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám (1859), a free adaptation from Omar Khayyam's verses that is itself a classic of English literature. Many of its images, such as “A jug of wine, a loaf of bread, and thou” and “The moving finger writes, and, having writ, moves on” have passed into common currency. He also freely translated Six Dramas of Calderón (1853).

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(born Oct. 14, 1894, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.—died Sept. 3, 1962, North Conway, N.H.) U.S. poet and painter. Cummings attended Harvard University. His experience in World War I of being held in a detention camp because of a censor's error gave rise to his first prose book, The Enormous Room (1922). His first book of poems, Tulips and Chimneys (1923), was followed by 11 more. Cummings's poetry, rooted in New England traditions of dissent and self-reliance, attracted attention for its lack of capitalization, eccentric punctuation and phrasing, and often childlike playfulness, which won it a wide readership. His Norton lectures at Harvard were published as i: six nonlectures (1953).

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(born Dec. 10, 1837, Vevay, Ind., U.S.—died Sept. 4, 1902, Lake George, N.Y.) U.S. novelist and historian. He became an itinerant preacher at age 19; he later held various pastorates and edited several periodicals. He realistically portrayed backwoods Indiana in The Hoosier School-Master (1871). His other novels include The End of the World (1872), The Circuit Rider (1874), Roxy (1878), and The Graysons (1888). He then turned to writing history; his Beginners of a Nation (1896) and Transit of Civilization from England to America (1900) contributed to the growth of the study of social history.

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(born March 9, 1902, Fayetteville, Ark., U.S.—died Aug. 6, 1978, New York, N.Y.) U.S. architect. He earned architecture degrees and traveled in Europe before joining the New York City firm that designed Radio City Music Hall. In 1936 he organized his own architectural firm. A leading exponent of the International Style, he designed El Panamá Hotel in Panama City (1946), the U.S. embassy in New Delhi (1954), the U.S. pavilion at the Brussels World's Fair (1958), the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C. (1971), and the Aon Center in Chicago (1974). He also taught at Yale University (1946–52).

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(born , July 28, 1840, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died April 12, 1897, Philadelphia) U.S. paleontologist. He devoted 22 years to exploration and research, especially in the description of extinct fishes, reptiles, and mammals of the western U.S. He discovered about 1,000 species of extinct vertebrates and developed the evolutionary histories of the horse and of mammalian teeth. His theory of kinetogenesis, stating that the natural movements of animals aided in the alteration and development of moving parts, led him to support Lamarck's theory of evolution. He engaged in a bitter, long-running feud with O.C. Marsh. Among his 1,200 books and papers are Reptilia and Aves of North America (1869–70) and Relation of Man to Tertiary Mammalia (1875).

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(born April 14, 1886, West Newton, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 19, 1959, Berkeley, Calif.) U.S. psychologist. He taught at the University of California at Berkeley (1918–54). Although he was a behaviourist, he considered classical behaviourism too reductive, and he therefore emphasized behavioral wholes and unmeasurable “intervening variables” over a strict focus on isolated reflexes. He also advanced the concept of “latent learning” (implicit, indirect learning). His major work was Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men (1932).

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(born Jan. 11, 1867, Chichester, Sussex, Eng.—died Aug. 3, 1927, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.) British-U.S. psychologist. Trained in Leipzig under Wilhelm Wundt, he later taught at Cornell University (1892–1927). He helped establish experimental psychology in the U.S., and he also became the foremost proponent of structural psychology, a field concerned with the components and arrangement of mental states and processes. His principal work is Experimental Psychology (1901–05).

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(born 1695, Perthshire, Scot.—died July 13, 1755, Great Meadows, Pa.) British army commander in the French and Indian War. After service in Europe, he arrived in Virginia in 1755 to command British forces in North America against the French. He undertook an expedition to attack the French-held Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh, Pa.); his force, which included British regulars and provincial militiamen such as George Washington, cut the first road across the Allegheny Mountains and reached a point on the Monongahela River near the fort. There his army of over 1,400 men was ambushed and defeated by a group of 254 French and 600 Indians, and he was mortally wounded in the ensuing rout.

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(born Oct. 13, 1833, Adelaide, Upper Canada—died March 1, 1912, Toronto, Ont., Can.) Canadian politician. Blake was called to the bar in 1856 and created a queen's counsel in 1864. In 1867 he was elected to the Canadian House of Commons. He served as premier of Ontario (1871–72) and minister of justice (1875–77) in Alexander Mackenzie's cabinet, helping draft the constitution. He was leader of the Liberal Party (1880–87). In 1890 he withdrew from Canadian politics and moved to Ireland, where he served in the British House of Commons (1892–1907).

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Bellamy

(born March 26, 1850, Chicopee Falls, Mass., U.S.—died May 22, 1898, Chicopee Falls) U.S. writer. Bellamy first became aware of the plight of the urban poor at age 18 while studying in Germany. He engaged throughout his life in progressive causes and wrote several books reflecting his concerns, but he is known chiefly for his utopian novel Looking Backward (1888), which describes the U.S. in the year 2000 as an ideal socialist state featuring cooperation, brotherhood, and industry geared to human need. It sold more than a million copies; a sequel, Equality (1897), was less successful.

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(born May 20, 1918, Wilkes-Barre, Pa., U.S.—died July 21, 2004, Pasadena, Calif.) U.S. geneticist. He received a Ph.D. (1942) in genetics from the California Institute of Technology, where he taught from 1946 to 1988. By crossbreeding thousands of fruit flies, he discovered that genes are arranged on the chromosome in the order corresponding to body segments, an orderliness now known as the colinearity principle. Lewis's work helped explain mechanisms of general biological development, including the causes of deformities present at birth in humans. With Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus, he was awarded a 1995 Nobel Prize.

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orig. Edward Alexander McDowell

(born Dec. 18, 1860, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 23, 1908, New York City) U.S. composer. He started piano lessons at age eight. While in Germany for further study, he impressed the composer Joachim Raff (1822–82), who urged him to write a piano concerto (1882), then introduced him to Franz Liszt, who assisted MacDowell with performances and publication. In 1888 he returned to the U.S. with his wife, and in 1896 he became Columbia University's first professor of music. Paresis made him unable to perform or compose after 1904, and he lapsed into insanity and died at age 47. His farm in Peterborough, N.H., became the MacDowell Colony for artists after his death. His most popular works are the Second Piano Concerto in D Minor (1886), the Second Orchestral (“Indian”) Suite (1895), and piano sets such as Woodland Sketches (1896) and Sea Pieces (1898).

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(born March 12, 1928, Washington, D.C., U.S.) U.S. playwright. He was the adopted grandson and namesake of a well-known vaudeville theatre manager. Among his early one-act plays, The Zoo Story (1959), The Sandbox (1959), and The American Dream (1961) established him as an astute critic of American values. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf (1962; film, 1966), his first full-length play, was widely acclaimed. Albee won Pulitzer Prizes for A Delicate Balance (1966), Seascape (1975), and Three Tall Women (1994). He also adapted other writers' works for the stage, including Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita (1981).

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(born Oct. 4, 1879, Du Quoin, Ill., U.S.—died Nov. 9, 1938, Boston, Mass.) U.S. plant geneticist, agronomist, and chemist. He finished high school at age 15 and received an M.S. in 1904. He was particularly interested in determining and controlling the protein and fat content of corn, both of which significantly influence its value as animal feed. His research, with that of George Harrison Shull, led to the development of modern-day hybrid corn. Commercial production of hybrid seed corn was made possible by the work of his student Donald F. Jones (1890–1963). East's work helped make possible studies in the field of population genetics.

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(born March 29, 1799, Knowsley Park, Lancashire, Eng.—died Oct. 23, 1869, London) English statesman. Having entered Parliament as a Whig in 1820, he later joined the Conservatives and became leader of the Conservative Party (1846–68) and prime minister (1852, 1858, and 1866–68). Legislation adopted during his tenure included the removal of Jewish discrimination in Parliament membership, the transfer of India's administration from the East India Company to the crown, and the Reform Bill of 1867. He is remembered as one of England's greatest parliamentary orators.

Learn more about Derby, Edward (George Geoffrey Smith) Stanley, 14th earl of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Father Coughlin

(born Oct. 25, 1891, Hamilton, Ont., Can.—died Oct. 27, 1979, Bloomfield Hills, Mich., U.S.) Canadian-born U.S. clergyman. Ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1923, he became pastor of a Michigan church. In 1930 he began radio broadcasts of his sermons, into which he gradually injected reactionary political statements and anti-Semitic rhetoric. His sermons attracted one of the first deeply loyal mass audiences in broadcast history. He attacked Herbert Hoover and later turned on Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal. His magazine, Social Justice, targeted Wall Street, communism, and Jews. It was banned from the mails and ceased publication in 1942, the same year the Catholic hierarchy ordered Coughlin to stop broadcasting.

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(born , July 28, 1840, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died April 12, 1897, Philadelphia) U.S. paleontologist. He devoted 22 years to exploration and research, especially in the description of extinct fishes, reptiles, and mammals of the western U.S. He discovered about 1,000 species of extinct vertebrates and developed the evolutionary histories of the horse and of mammalian teeth. His theory of kinetogenesis, stating that the natural movements of animals aided in the alteration and development of moving parts, led him to support Lamarck's theory of evolution. He engaged in a bitter, long-running feud with O.C. Marsh. Among his 1,200 books and papers are Reptilia and Aves of North America (1869–70) and Relation of Man to Tertiary Mammalia (1875).

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(born Feb. 1, 1552, Mileham, Norfolk, Eng.—died Sept. 3, 1634, Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire) British jurist and politician. He became a lawyer in 1578 and was made solicitor general in 1592. His advance to the position of attorney general (1594) frustrated his great rival, Francis Bacon. As attorney general, he conducted several famous treason trials, prosecuting Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex, and Henry Wriothesley, 3rd earl of Southampton (1600–01); Sir Walter Raleigh (1603); and the Gunpowder Plot conspirators (1605). Named chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas in 1606, Coke earned the ire of James I by declaring that the king's proclamation could not change the law (1610). He upset church leaders by limiting the jurisdiction of ecclesiastical courts. Appointed chief justice of the King's Bench by James I (1613), he remained unswayed; he hinted at scandal in high places and defied a royal injunction in a case involving ecclesiastical privileges. He was dismissed in 1616, partly through Bacon's efforts. In 1620 he reentered Parliament (he had served in 1589), where he denounced interference with Parliament's liberties (1621) until he was imprisoned. In 1628 he helped frame the Petition of Right, a charter of liberties; this defense of the supremacy of the common law over royal prerogative had a profound influence on the English law and constitution. On his death his papers were seized by Charles I. His Reports (1600–15), taken together, are a monumental compendium of English common law, and his Institutes of the Lawes of England (4 vol., 1628–44) is an important treatise.

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orig. Charles Edward Louis Philip Casimir Stuart known as Bonnie Prince Charlie

(born Dec. 31, 1720, Rome—died Jan. 31, 1788, Rome) Claimant to the British throne. He was the son of the royal pretender James Edward and grandson of the exiled James II of England. Seeking to regain the throne, in 1745 the “Young Pretender” landed in Scotland, where he raised an army of 2,400 among the clans. After taking Edinburgh and routing the English at Prestonpans, he crossed the English border and reached Derby, but a lack of strong support from the Jacobites and the French forced his retreat into Scotland. He was decisively defeated at the Battle of Culloden (1746) and, aided by Flora Macdonald (1722–90) and disguised as her maid, escaped to France. He wandered about Europe trying to revive his cause, but his debauched behaviour alienated his friends. He settled in Italy in 1766. He later became romanticized in ballads and legends.

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or Father Coughlin

(born Oct. 25, 1891, Hamilton, Ont., Can.—died Oct. 27, 1979, Bloomfield Hills, Mich., U.S.) Canadian-born U.S. clergyman. Ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1923, he became pastor of a Michigan church. In 1930 he began radio broadcasts of his sermons, into which he gradually injected reactionary political statements and anti-Semitic rhetoric. His sermons attracted one of the first deeply loyal mass audiences in broadcast history. He attacked Herbert Hoover and later turned on Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal. His magazine, Social Justice, targeted Wall Street, communism, and Jews. It was banned from the mails and ceased publication in 1942, the same year the Catholic hierarchy ordered Coughlin to stop broadcasting.

Learn more about Coughlin, Charles E(dward) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 9, 1854, Dublin, Ire.—died Oct. 22, 1935, Minster, Kent, Eng.) Irish lawyer and politician. In 1892 he was elected to the British House of Commons and was appointed Irish solicitor general. He served as British solicitor general (1900–05), attorney general (1915), first lord of the Admiralty (1916–17), and lord of appeal (1921–29). Known as the “uncrowned king of Ulster,” he successfully led Northern Irish resistance to the British government's attempts to introduce Home Rule for all of Ireland.

Learn more about Carson (of Duncairn), Edward Henry, Baron with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 9, 1934, Brooklyn, N.Y., N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 20, 1996, Seattle, Wash.) U.S. astronomer and science writer. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. At the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (1962–68), he focused on planetary astronomy and on SETI efforts to find extraterrestrial life. He gained prominence as a popular science writer and commentator noted for his clear writing and enthusiasm; his Dragons of Eden (1977) won a Pulitzer Prize. He coproduced and narrated the television series Cosmos (1980); its companion book became the best-selling English-language science book of all time. In the 1980s he studied the environmental effects of nuclear war and helped popularize the term nuclear winter.

Learn more about Sagan, Carl (Edward) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 22, 1903, Toronto, Ont., Can.—died Aug. 25, 1990, Toronto) Canadian novelist and short-story writer. Callaghan received a law degree in 1928 but never practiced. He won acclaim for the short-story collection A Native Argosy (1929). His first novel, Strange Fugitive (1928), describes the destruction of a social misfit, a type that recurs in his fiction. Subsequent novels, including They Shall Inherit the Earth (1935) and The Loved and the Lost (1951, Governor General's Award), emphasize Christian love as an answer to social injustice. That Summer in Paris (1963) describes Callaghan's friendship with F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway. Later works include A Fine and Private Place (1975) and A Time for Judas (1983).

Learn more about Callaghan, Morley (Edward) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born 1695, Perthshire, Scot.—died July 13, 1755, Great Meadows, Pa.) British army commander in the French and Indian War. After service in Europe, he arrived in Virginia in 1755 to command British forces in North America against the French. He undertook an expedition to attack the French-held Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh, Pa.); his force, which included British regulars and provincial militiamen such as George Washington, cut the first road across the Allegheny Mountains and reached a point on the Monongahela River near the fort. There his army of over 1,400 men was ambushed and defeated by a group of 254 French and 600 Indians, and he was mortally wounded in the ensuing rout.

Learn more about Braddock, Edward with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Edward Bok, photograph by Pirie MacDonald, 1909.

(born Oct. 9, 1863, Den Helder, Neth.—died Jan. 9, 1930, Lake Wales, Fla., U.S.) Dutch-born U.S. editor. Raised in a poor immigrant family in Brooklyn, N.Y., Bok pursued a career in book and magazine publishing. As editor of the Ladies' Home Journal (1889–1919) he devised departments to inform women on diverse subjects and led campaigns for public health and beautification. His decision to stop accepting patent-medicine advertising helped bring about the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906). He also broke the taboo against the printed mention of venereal disease. His last years were devoted to working for civic improvement and world peace. He wrote a notable autobiography, The Americanization of Edward Bok (1920, Pulitzer Prize).

Learn more about Bok, Edward (William) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 2, 1891, London, Eng.—died March 27, 1975, London) British composer. He studied with Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst. Though he was compositionally adventurous at first, he later adopted a conservative, Romantic style. His works include A Colour Symphony (1922), Pastoral (1928), the choral symphony Morning Heroes (1930), Music for Strings (1936), and the ballets Checkmate (1937) and Miracle in the Gorbals (1944).

Learn more about Bliss, Sir Arthur (Edward Drummond) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 13, 1833, Adelaide, Upper Canada—died March 1, 1912, Toronto, Ont., Can.) Canadian politician. Blake was called to the bar in 1856 and created a queen's counsel in 1864. In 1867 he was elected to the Canadian House of Commons. He served as premier of Ontario (1871–72) and minister of justice (1875–77) in Alexander Mackenzie's cabinet, helping draft the constitution. He was leader of the Liberal Party (1880–87). In 1890 he withdrew from Canadian politics and moved to Ireland, where he served in the British House of Commons (1892–1907).

Learn more about Blake, Edward with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Bellamy

(born March 26, 1850, Chicopee Falls, Mass., U.S.—died May 22, 1898, Chicopee Falls) U.S. writer. Bellamy first became aware of the plight of the urban poor at age 18 while studying in Germany. He engaged throughout his life in progressive causes and wrote several books reflecting his concerns, but he is known chiefly for his utopian novel Looking Backward (1888), which describes the U.S. in the year 2000 as an ideal socialist state featuring cooperation, brotherhood, and industry geared to human need. It sold more than a million copies; a sequel, Equality (1897), was less successful.

Learn more about Bellamy, Edward with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 8, 1883, London, Eng.—died Oct. 3, 1953, Cork, County Cork, Ire.) British composer. Born into a wealthy family, he was free to compose throughout his life and consequently wrote prolifically. His early works, influenced by the poetry of William Butler Yeats, frequently evoke Celtic legend. His compositions include seven symphonies, the orchestral works Spring Fire (1913), November Woods (1917), and Tintagel (1919), piano sonatas, string quartets, and numerous vocal works.

Learn more about Bax, Sir Arnold (Edward Trevor) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 9, 1854, Dublin, Ire.—died Oct. 22, 1935, Minster, Kent, Eng.) Irish lawyer and politician. In 1892 he was elected to the British House of Commons and was appointed Irish solicitor general. He served as British solicitor general (1900–05), attorney general (1915), first lord of the Admiralty (1916–17), and lord of appeal (1921–29). Known as the “uncrowned king of Ulster,” he successfully led Northern Irish resistance to the British government's attempts to introduce Home Rule for all of Ireland.

Learn more about Carson (of Duncairn), Edward Henry, Baron with a free trial on Britannica.com.

A.E. Housman, detail of a drawing by William Rothenstein, 1906; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born March 26, 1859, Fockbury, Worcestershire, Eng.—died April 30, 1936, Cambridge) English scholar and poet. While working as a Patent Office clerk, he studied Latin texts and wrote journal articles that led to his appointment as a professor at University College, London, and later at Cambridge. His major scholarly effort was an annotated edition (1903–30) of Marcus Manilius (fl.1st century AD). His first poetry volume, A Shropshire Lad (1896)—with its much-anthologized “When I was One-and Twenty”—was based on Classical and traditional models; its lyrics express a Romantic pessimism in a spare, simple style. It gradually grew popular, and his second volume, Last Poems (1922), was extremely successful. Other works include the lecture The Name and Nature of Poetry (1933) and the posthumous collection More Poems (1936). His brother is the novelist and playwright Laurence Housman (1865–1959).

Learn more about Housman, A(lfred) E(dward) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), popularly known as The Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. Edward, an exceptional military leader and popular during his life, died one year before his father and thus never ruled as king (becoming the first English Prince of Wales to suffer that fate). The throne passed instead to his son Richard, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.

Life

Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. Edward was created Earl of Chester in 1333, Duke of Cornwall in 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and finally invested as Prince of Wales in 1343. In England Edward served as a symbolic regent for periods in 1339, 1340, and 1342 while Edward III was on campaign. He was expected to attend all council meetings, and he performed the negotiations with the papacy about the war in 1337.

Edward had been raised with his cousin Joan, "The Fair Maid of Kent." Edward gained Innocent VI's papal permission and absolution for this marriage to a blood-relative (as had Edward III when marrying Philippa of Hainaut, being her second cousin) and married Joan in 10 October 1361 at Windsor Castle, prompting some controversy, mainly because of Joan's chequered marital history and the fact that marriage to an Englishwoman wasted an opportunity to form an alliance with a foreign power.

When in England, Edward's chief residence was at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire).

He served as the king's representative in Aquitaine, where he and Joan kept a court which was considered among the most brilliant of the time. It was the resort of exiled kings, like James of Majorca and Pedro of Castile.

Pedro, thrust from his throne by his illegitimate brother, Henry of Trastámara, offered Edward the lordship of Biscay in 1367, in return for the Black Prince's aid in recovering his throne. Edward was successful in the Battle of Nájera in which he soundly defeated the combined French and Spanish forces led by Bertrand du Guesclin.

During this period, he fathered two sons: Edward (27 January 1365 – 1372), who died at the age of 6; and Richard, born in 1367 and often called Richard of Bordeaux for his place of birth, who would later rule as Richard II of England.

The Black Prince returned to England in January 1371 and died a few years later after a long wasting illness that may have been cancer.

Emblem

Edward and chivalry

Edward lived in a century of decline for the knightly ideal of chivalry. The formation of the Order of the Garter, an English royal order of which Edward was a founding member, signified a shift towards patriotism and away from the crusader mentality that characterized England in the previous two centuries. Edward's stance in this evolution is seemingly somewhat divided. Edward displayed obedience to typical chivalric obligations through his pious contributions to Canterbury Cathedral throughout his life.

On one hand, after capturing John the Good, king of France, and his youngest son at Poitiers, he treated them with great respect, at one point giving John leave to return home, and reportedly praying with John at Canterbury Cathedral. Notably, he also allowed a day for preparations before the Battle of Poitiers so that the two sides could discuss the coming battle with one another, and so that the Cardinal of Perigord could plead for peace. Though not agreeing with knightly charges on the battlefield, he also was devoted to tournament jousting.

On the other hand, his chivalric tendencies were overridden by pragmatism on many occasions. The Black Prince's repeated use of the chevauchée strategy (burning and pillaging towns and farms) was not in keeping with contemporary notions of chivalry, but it was quite effective in accomplishing the goals of his campaigns and weakening the unity and economy of France. On the battlefield, pragmatism over chivalry is also demonstrated via the massed use of infantry strongholds, dismounted men at arms, longbowmen, and flank attacks (a revolutionary practice in such a chivalric age). Moreover, he was exceptionally harsh toward and contemptuous of lower classes in society, as indicated by the heavy taxes he levied as Prince of Aquitaine and by the massacres he perpetrated at Limoges and Caen. Edward's behaviour was typical of an increasing number of English knights and nobles during the late Middle Ages who paid less and less attention to the high ideal of chivalry, which would soon influence other countries.

List of major campaigns and their significance

  • The 1345 Flanders Campaign on the Northern Front, which was of little significance and ended after three weeks when one of Edward's allies was murdered.
  • The Crécy Campaign on the Northern Front, which crippled the French army for 10 years, allowing the siege of Calais to occur with little conventional resistance before the plague set in. Even when France's army did recover, the forces they deployed were about a quarter of that deployed at Crecy (as shown at Poitiers). Normandy came virtually under English control, but a decision was made to focus on northern France, leaving Normandy under the control of England's vassal allies instead.
  • The Siege of Calais on the Northern Front, during which the inhabitants suffered worst and were reduced to eating dogs and rats. The siege gave the English personal and vassal control over northern France before the temporary peace due to the Black Death.
  • The Calais counter-offensive on the Northern Front, after which Calais remained in English hands.
  • Les Espagnols sur Mer or the Battle of Winchelsea on the English Channel Front, which was a Pyrrhic victory of little significance beyond preventing Spanish raids on Essex.
  • The Great Raid of 1355 on the Aquitaine–Languedoc Front, which crippled southern France economically, and provoked resentment of the French throne among French peasantry. The raid also 'cushioned' the area for conquest, opened up alliances with neighbours in Aquitaine of which that with Charles the Bad of Navarre is most notable, and caused many regions to move towards autonomy from France, as France was not as united as England.
  • The Aquitaine Conquests on the Aquitaine Front, which brought much firmer control in Aquitaine, much land for resources and many people to fight for Edward.
  • The Poitiers Campaign on the Aquitaine-Loire Front, which crippled the French Army for the next 13 years, causing the anarchy and chaos which would inevitably cause the Treaty of Bretigney to be signed in 1360. Following this campaign, there was no French Army leader, there were challenges towards Charles the Wise, and more aristocrats were killed at Crécy and Poitiers than those lost to the Black Death.
  • The Reims Campaign, following which peace was finally achieved with the Treaty of Bretigny. But, on the same terms, England was left with about a third of France rather than a little under half which they would have received through the Treaty of London. This is due to the failure to take Reims which led to the need for a safe passage out of France. As a result, a lesser treaty was agreed to and Edward III was obliged to drop his claims to the French throne. France was still forced to pay a huge ransom of around four times France's gross annual domestic product for John the Good. The ransom paid was, however, a little short of that demanded by the English, and John the Good was not returned to the French. Thus, this campaign yielded mixed results, but was mostly positive for Edward. One must also remember Edward III never actually dropped his claim to the throne, and that about half of France was controlled by the English anyway through many vassals.
  • The Najera Campaign on the Castilian Front, during which Pedro the Cruel was temporarily saved from a coup, thus confirming Castilian Spanish dedication to the Prince's cause. Later, however, Pedro was murdered. As a result of Pedro's murder, the money the prince put into the war effort became pointless, and Edward was effectively bankrupt. This forced heavy taxes to be levied in Aquitaine to relieve Edward's financial troubles, leading to a vicious cycle of resentment in Aquitaine and vicious repression of this resentment by Edward. Charles the Wise, king of France, was able to take advantage of the resentment against Edward in Aquitaine. However, the prince temporarily became the Lord of Biscay.
  • The Siege of Limoges in 1370 on the Aquitaine Front, after which the Black Prince was obliged to leave his post for his sickness and financial issues, but also because of the cruelty of the siege, which saw the massacre of some 3,000 residents according to the chronicler Froissart. Without the Prince, the English war effort against Charles the Wise and Bertrand Du Guesclin was doomed. The Prince's brother John of Gaunt was not interested with the war in France, being more interested in the war of succession in Spain.
  • King Edward III and the prince sail from Sandwich with 400 ships, carrying 4,000 men at arms and 10,000 archers for France, but after six weeks of bad weather and being blown off course they are driven back to England.

Burial

He requested to be buried in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral rather than next to the shrine, and a chapel was prepared there as a chantry for him and his wife Joan (this is now the French Protestant Chapel, and contains ceiling bosses of her face and of their coats of arms). However, this was overruled after his death and he was buried on the south side of the shrine of Thomas Becket behind the quire. His tomb consists of a bronze effigy beneath a tester depicting the Holy Trinity, with his heraldic achievements hung over the tester. The achievements have now been replaced by replicas, though the originals can still be seen nearby, and the tester was restored in 2006.

The name "Black Prince"

Although Edward is almost always now called the "Black Prince", there is no record of this name being used during his lifetime. He was instead known as Edward of Woodstock, after his place of birth. The "Black Prince" sobriquet "is first found in writing in Richard Grafton's "Chronicle of England" (1568). Its origin is uncertain; it is usually considered to be derived from an ornate black cuirass presented to the young prince by Edward III at the Battle of Crécy.

In fact, this nickname comes more than probably from his "shield of peace", his coat of arms used during tournaments, which is represented around his effigy at Canterbury. This coat of arms is black with three white ostrich feathers.

It is possible that the name was first coined by French chroniclers in reference to the ruinous military defeats he had inflicted on France or his cruelty in these. Also possible is the idea that Edward garnered the nickname from his explosive temper; the legendary Angevin temper being associated with his family's line since Geoffrey d'Anjou.

Cultural references

Plays

Edward is referenced in William Shakespeare's Henry V in Act 2, Scene 4 KING OF FRANCE
And he is bred out of that bloody strain
That haunted us in our familiar paths:
Witness our too much memorable shame
When Cressy battle fatally was struck,
And all our princes captiv'd by the hand
Of that black name, Edward, Black Prince of Wales

and again later in Act 4, Scene 7 FLUELLEN

Your grandfather of famous memory, an't please your
majesty, and your great-uncle Edward the Black
Prince of Wales, as I have read in the chronicles,
fought a most prave pattle here in France.

The Black Prince is also prominently referred to in George Bernard Shaw's Saint Joan. From Scene 1: ROBERT

Have you heard no tales of their Black Prince who was blacker than the devil himself, or of the English King's father?
… JOAN
I have heard tales of the Black Prince. The moment he touched the soil of our country the devil entered into him, and made him a black fiend. But at home, in the place made for him by God, he was good. It is always so.

Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery devoted his 1667 play ''The Black Prince to Edward.

Novels

Sculpture

A large 1903 equestrian sculpture of the Prince by Thomas Brock can be seen in Leeds City Square. It was a gift from Colonel Thomas Walter Harding, Lord Mayor of Leeds between 1898 and 1899. The choice was probably also a tribute to the future Edward VII, then Prince of Wales, who opened Leeds Infirmary in 1867 and the Yorkshire College buildings (now the University of Leeds) in 1885. The statue is the centrepiece of an array of statues in the square, including more local people such as Joseph Priestley.

Films

  • Edward, Prince of Wales is the main role played by Errol Flynn in the The Dark Avenger (1955). The film was also known as The Warriors in the USA, and The Black Prince in the UK although the latter seems to have been a working title. In Greece it was aired on TV as The Black Knight.
  • Edward, The Black Prince of Wales, was portrayed by James Purefoy in the 2001 film A Knight's Tale. Though never intending to be a historically accurate tale, the film puts an odd spin on Edward as he is portrayed as a kind and benevolent prince who enjoys sneaking into jousting tournaments to compete, and is very kind to the protagonist who is of poor commoner ancestry, even knighting him. This in spite of Edward's known distaste for the lower classes.

Games

  • Edward is portrayed in the 2007 PlayStation3 and Xbox 360 video game Bladestorm: The Hundred Years' War by Koei. Within this video game, he is seen as the primary source of backing for the forces of England, aspiring to conquer the oppositionary country of France, no matter what must be sacrificed in the process.
  • Edward appears under the name of Black Prince in the game Empire Earth in the English campaign in the fourth and fifth scenario.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Arms

As Prince of Wales, Edward's coat of arms were those of the kingdom, differentiated by a label argent of three points.

See also

Notes

Further reading

  • Richard Barber, The Life and Campaigns of the Black Prince, ISBN 0-85115-469-7
  • Barbara Tuchman, A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century, Alfred A. Knopf, New York City, 1978.
  • Life of the Black Prince by the Herald of Sir John Chandos.
  • Royal Berkshire History: Edward the Black Prince including images in both civilian and military dress
  • Guilhem Pepin, 'Towards a new assessment of the Black Prince's principality of Aquitaine: a study of the last years (1369-1372)', Nottingham Medieval Studies, Vol. L, 2006, pp. 59-114.
  • R P Dunn Pattison The Black Prince 1910 Methuen
  • David Green, "Edward, The Black Prince: Power in Medieval Europe", ISBN 978-0-582-78481-9

External links

Ancestry

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