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Eddington

Eddington

[ed-ing-tuhn]
Eddington, Sir Arthur Stanley, 1882-1944, British astronomer and physicist. He was chief assistant (1906-13) at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and was from 1913 Plumian professor of astronomy at Cambridge, where he was director of the observatory from 1914. Eddington was one of the first physicists to grasp the theory of relativity, of which he became a leading exponent. He organized the expedition to view a total solar eclipse in 1919; his observations of bright objects near the sun confirmed the prediction of general relativity that light rays are bent when subjected to a strong gravitational field. He made important contributions to the study of the evolution, motion, and internal constitution of stars, but rejected the idea that gravitional collapse could produce a black hole. His theory that stars shine from the energy of nuclear reactions is considered the start of modern astrophysics. One of the foremost contemporary expositors of scientific subjects, he was also concerned with the relation of physics to philosophy. He was knighted in 1930. His writings include Mathematical Theory of Relativity (1923), The Internal Constitution of the Stars (1926; his most famous book), and Stars and Atoms (1928).

See biographies by A. V. Douglas (1956) and C. W. Kilmister (1966); study by Sir E. Whittaker (1951); A. I. Miller, Empire of the Stars: Obsession, Friendship, and Betrayal in the Quest for Black Holes (2005).

Arthur Stanley Eddington.

(born Dec. 28, 1882, Kendal, Westmorland, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1944, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) British astronomer, physicist, and mathematician. At the University of Cambridge he won every mathematical honour. He was chief assistant at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich (1906–13); in 1914 he became director of the Cambridge observatory. Religious and pacifistic, he declared that the world's meaning could not be discovered by science. His greatest contributions were in astrophysics, where his studies included stellar structure, subatomic sources of stellar energy, white dwarf stars, and diffuse matter in interstellar space. His philosophical ideas led him to believe that unifying quantum theory and general relativity would permit the calculation of certain universal constants.

Learn more about Eddington, Sir Arthur Stanley with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Arthur Stanley Eddington.

(born Dec. 28, 1882, Kendal, Westmorland, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1944, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) British astronomer, physicist, and mathematician. At the University of Cambridge he won every mathematical honour. He was chief assistant at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich (1906–13); in 1914 he became director of the Cambridge observatory. Religious and pacifistic, he declared that the world's meaning could not be discovered by science. His greatest contributions were in astrophysics, where his studies included stellar structure, subatomic sources of stellar energy, white dwarf stars, and diffuse matter in interstellar space. His philosophical ideas led him to believe that unifying quantum theory and general relativity would permit the calculation of certain universal constants.

Learn more about Eddington, Sir Arthur Stanley with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Eddington is a town located on the eastern side of the Penobscot River in Penobscot County, Maine. It is named after Jonathan Eddy, a captain in the French and Indian Wars, a colonel in American Revolutionary War, and the first magistrate in the area. Eddy and most of the town's other original settlers were from Nova Scotia, where they had supported George Washington and the Rebels against the majority British Loyalist population. Failing in their attempt make Nova Scotia the 14th Colony to join the Revolution, they emigrated to Maine and were given land grants in present-day Eddington.

As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 2,052.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.5 square miles (68.7 km²), of which, 25.1 square miles (65.0 km²) of it is land and 1.4 square miles (3.7 km²) of it is water. The total area is 5.32% water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,052 people, 825 households, and 595 families residing in the town. The population density was 81.7 people per square mile (31.6/km²). There were 920 housing units at an average density of 36.6/sq mi (14.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.95% White, 0.15% African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, and 0.83% from two or more races. 0.39% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 825 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.8% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.84.

In the town the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, and 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $40,250, and the median income for a family was $45,966. Males had a median income of $31,105 versus $22,445 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,113. 6.7% of the population and 3.2% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 5.5% of those under the age of 18 and 4.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

References

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