Dwight

Dwight

[dwahyt]
Macdonald, Dwight, 1906-82, American author and editor, b. New York City. As an associate editor (1928-36) of the business magazine Fortune he acquired a distaste for capitalism, and in 1937 he became editor of the radical Partisan Review. In the left-wing factionalism of the 1930s and 40s, Macdonald moved from Stalinism to Trotskyism and then to pacifism and to anarchism. In 1943 he left Partisan Review, protesting its support of World War II. As a vehicle for his wry and intensely personal essays he founded Politics (monthly 1944-47; quarterly 1947-49). His works include Henry Wallace (1948), The Root Is Man (1953), and The Ford Foundation (1956). His Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1957) traces his philosophy through his articles. Against the American Grain (1962) comprises his essays deploring the effects of mass culture on the arts, a subject that dominated his later articles. Other collections of his essays and reviews include Dwight Macdonald on Movies (1969), Politics Past (1970), and Discriminations (1974).

See M. Wreszin, ed., A Moral Temper: The Letters of Dwight Macdonald (2001); S. Whitfield, A Critical American (1984); M. Wreszin, A Rebel in Defense of Tradition (1994).

Dwight, Harrison Gray Otis, 1803-62, American Congregational missionary to the Armenians, b. Conway, Mass. He served the Armenian population of Constantinople for 30 years. His travels with Eli Smith were recorded in Researches of Rev. Eli Smith and Rev. H. G. O. Dwight in Armenia (1833).
Dwight, Henry Otis, 1843-1917, American missionary in Turkey, b. Constantinople, studied at Ohio Wesleyan Univ.; son of Harrison Gray Otis Dwight. In 1867 he returned to Constantinople as secular agent for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. From 1872 to 1899 he was editor of the board's Turkish publications. In 1880, Dwight was ordained a Congregational minister. He wrote a number of books and articles on Turkish affairs and edited the Turkish and English Lexicon (1890).
Dwight, John, fl. 1671-98, English potter, reputed founder of the Chelsea porcelain factory. The registration in 1671 of his patent for the "Mistery of transparent earthenware …" is the first certain recorded event of his life. He is considered to have laid the foundation of the pottery industry in England and to have set a standard not excelled elsewhere. There are examples of his work at the Victoria and Albert Museum and the British Museum.
Dwight, Theodore, 1764-1846, American author, b. Northampton, Mass.; brother of Timothy Dwight and grandson of Jonathan Edwards. A leader of the Federalist party in New England, he became famous for his political pamphlets and articles. As one of the younger Connecticut Wits he proved himself a highly capable satirist. He served in Congress (1806-7), in the Connecticut state council (1809-15), and as secretary of the Hartford Convention. He later wrote the journal of the convention (1833).
Dwight, Theodore William, 1822-92, American lawyer, b. Catskill, N.Y., grad. Hamilton College, 1840. He studied at Yale law school and was admitted to the bar in 1845. He was professor of law and later head of the law school at Hamilton. In 1858 he became the sole member of the faculty of the newly established Columbia school of law. Until 1873, when the faculty was enlarged, he taught all private-law subjects and lectured elsewhere extensively. From 1873 until his retirement in 1891 he headed the law faculty. Dwight was particularly interested in prison reform; he collaborated on A Report on Prisons and Reformatories in the United States and Canada (1867), served as president of the New York Prison Association, and was (1878) a delegate to the International Prison Congress at Stockholm.
Dwight, Timothy, 1752-1817, American clergyman, author, educator, b. Northampton, Mass., grad. Yale, 1769. He renounced legal for theological studies and after 1783 was pastor for 12 years of a Congregational church at Greenfield Hill, Conn. During his pastorate he became famous throughout New England for his preaching and for the excellent private school he established near his church. One of the leaders of the Connecticut Wits, he tried to modernize the curriculum at Yale. At the death of Ezra Stiles, Dwight was named president of Yale, and from 1795 to 1817 he presided over the college. A great leader and teacher in his day and a strong believer in theocracy and Federalism, he vigorously opposed the rising Republicanism of Connecticut and the nation. His theology owed much to that of his grandfather, Jonathan Edwards.

See his Theology, Explained and Defended (5 vol., 1818-19) and Conquest of Canäan (1788, repr. 1970); biographies by C. E. Cunningham (1942) and K. Silverman (1969).

Dwight, Timothy, 1828-1916, American educator, b. Norwich, Conn., grad. Yale, 1849; grandson of Timothy Dwight (1752-1817). Appointed professor of sacred literature at Yale, he assisted in the reorganization of the divinity school, edited the New Englander (1866-74), and served on the American committee on the revision of the Bible (1873-85). In 1886 he succeeded Noah Porter as president of Yale. He expanded the institution, securing the legislative charter that authorized the title university instead of college, and retired in 1898. He is the author of Thoughts of and for the Inner Life (1899) and Memories of Yale Life and Men (1903).

See F. Parsons, Six Men of Yale (1936, repr. 1971).

(born Nov. 23, 1803, Hampton, Conn., U.S.—died Feb. 3, 1895, Hyde Park, Mass.) U.S. reformer. He left divinity studies to become an agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society (1834). His pamphlets The Bible Against Slavery (1837) and Slavery as It Is (1839) helped convert figures such as James Birney, Henry Ward Beecher, and Harriet Beecher Stowe to the antislavery cause. He married his coworker Angelina Grimké (1838), and they directed schools and taught in New Jersey and Massachusetts. In 1841–43 Weld organized an antislavery reference bureau in Washington, D.C., to assist congressmen seeking to repeal the gag rule restricting the consideration of antislavery petitions in Congress.

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(born Nov. 23, 1803, Hampton, Conn., U.S.—died Feb. 3, 1895, Hyde Park, Mass.) U.S. reformer. He left divinity studies to become an agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society (1834). His pamphlets The Bible Against Slavery (1837) and Slavery as It Is (1839) helped convert figures such as James Birney, Henry Ward Beecher, and Harriet Beecher Stowe to the antislavery cause. He married his coworker Angelina Grimké (1838), and they directed schools and taught in New Jersey and Massachusetts. In 1841–43 Weld organized an antislavery reference bureau in Washington, D.C., to assist congressmen seeking to repeal the gag rule restricting the consideration of antislavery petitions in Congress.

Learn more about Weld, Theodore Dwight with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 11, 1873, Huntington, W.Va., U.S.—died Oct. 5, 1931, Englewood, N.J.) U.S. lawyer and diplomat. He practiced law in New York City (1905–14), helping draft a workers' compensation law (1911). He became a partner in J.P. Morgan & Co. (1914–27) and organized the Kennecott Copper Corp. During World War I he was an adviser to the Allied Maritime Transport Council, and after the war he helped devise a national aviation policy. He served as ambassador to Mexico (1927–30). He briefly served in the U.S. Senate (1931) before his death. His daughter Anne married Charles A. Lindbergh.

Learn more about Morrow, Dwight W(hitney) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 5, 1837, East Northfield, Mass., U.S.—died Dec. 22, 1899, Northfield, Mass.) U.S. Protestant evangelist. Raised on a farm in Massachusetts, he moved first to Boston, where he converted to evangelical Christianity in 1856, and then to Chicago, where he prospered in business. He gave up business in 1860 and engaged in missionary work with the YMCA (1861–73). He founded Moody Church and preached in the slums, emphasizing literal interpretation of the Bible and the need to prepare for the Second Coming. In 1870 he teamed up with the hymn writer Ira D. Sankey (1840–1908), and they began a series of highly popular revival tours in Britain and the U.S. Moody founded the Northfield School (1879), the Mount Hermon School (1881), and the Chicago Bible Institute (1889; now the Moody Bible Institute).

Learn more about Moody, Dwight L(yman) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 12, 1813, Utica, N.Y., U.S.—died April 14, 1895, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. geologist, mineralogist, and naturalist. He graduated from Yale University in 1833. He joined a U.S. exploring expedition to the South Seas (1838–42), acting as a geologist and zoologist. His contributions to the American Journal of Science stimulated U.S. geologic inquiry. His research into the formation of the Earth's continents and oceans led him to believe in the progressive evolution of the Earth's physical features over time. By the end of his life he also came to accept the evolution of living things, as articulated by Charles Darwin. During his lifetime, and largely under his leadership, U.S. geology grew from a collection and classification of unrelated facts into a mature science.

Learn more about Dana, James D(wight) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1952.

(born Oct. 14, 1890, Denison, Texas, U.S.—died March 28, 1969, Washington, D.C.) 34th president of the U.S. (1953–61). He graduated from West Point (1915), then served in the Panama Canal Zone (1922–24) and in the Philippines under Douglas MacArthur (1935–39). In World War II Gen. George Marshall appointed him to the army's war-plans division (1941), then chose him to command U.S. forces in Europe (1942). After planning the invasions of North Africa, Sicily, and Italy, he was appointed supreme commander of Allied forces (1943). He planned the Normandy Campaign (1944) and the conduct of the war in Europe until the German surrender (1945). He was promoted to five-star general (1944) and was named army chief of staff in 1945. He served as president of Columbia University from 1948 until being appointed supreme commander of NATO in 1951. Both Democrats and Republicans courted Eisenhower as a presidential candidate; in 1952, as the Republican candidate, he defeated Adlai Stevenson with the largest popular vote to that time. He defeated Stevenson again in 1956 in an even larger landslide. His policy of support for Middle Eastern countries facing communist aggression, enunciated in the Eisenhower Doctrine, was a continuation of the containment policy adopted by the Harry Truman administration (see Truman Doctrine). He sent federal troops to Little Rock, Ark., to enforce integration of a city high school (1957). When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I (1957), he was criticized for failing to develop the U.S. space program; he responded by creating NASA (1958). In his last weeks in office the U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Cuba.

Learn more about Eisenhower, Dwight D(avid) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 11, 1873, Huntington, W.Va., U.S.—died Oct. 5, 1931, Englewood, N.J.) U.S. lawyer and diplomat. He practiced law in New York City (1905–14), helping draft a workers' compensation law (1911). He became a partner in J.P. Morgan & Co. (1914–27) and organized the Kennecott Copper Corp. During World War I he was an adviser to the Allied Maritime Transport Council, and after the war he helped devise a national aviation policy. He served as ambassador to Mexico (1927–30). He briefly served in the U.S. Senate (1931) before his death. His daughter Anne married Charles A. Lindbergh.

Learn more about Morrow, Dwight W(hitney) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 5, 1837, East Northfield, Mass., U.S.—died Dec. 22, 1899, Northfield, Mass.) U.S. Protestant evangelist. Raised on a farm in Massachusetts, he moved first to Boston, where he converted to evangelical Christianity in 1856, and then to Chicago, where he prospered in business. He gave up business in 1860 and engaged in missionary work with the YMCA (1861–73). He founded Moody Church and preached in the slums, emphasizing literal interpretation of the Bible and the need to prepare for the Second Coming. In 1870 he teamed up with the hymn writer Ira D. Sankey (1840–1908), and they began a series of highly popular revival tours in Britain and the U.S. Moody founded the Northfield School (1879), the Mount Hermon School (1881), and the Chicago Bible Institute (1889; now the Moody Bible Institute).

Learn more about Moody, Dwight L(yman) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1952.

(born Oct. 14, 1890, Denison, Texas, U.S.—died March 28, 1969, Washington, D.C.) 34th president of the U.S. (1953–61). He graduated from West Point (1915), then served in the Panama Canal Zone (1922–24) and in the Philippines under Douglas MacArthur (1935–39). In World War II Gen. George Marshall appointed him to the army's war-plans division (1941), then chose him to command U.S. forces in Europe (1942). After planning the invasions of North Africa, Sicily, and Italy, he was appointed supreme commander of Allied forces (1943). He planned the Normandy Campaign (1944) and the conduct of the war in Europe until the German surrender (1945). He was promoted to five-star general (1944) and was named army chief of staff in 1945. He served as president of Columbia University from 1948 until being appointed supreme commander of NATO in 1951. Both Democrats and Republicans courted Eisenhower as a presidential candidate; in 1952, as the Republican candidate, he defeated Adlai Stevenson with the largest popular vote to that time. He defeated Stevenson again in 1956 in an even larger landslide. His policy of support for Middle Eastern countries facing communist aggression, enunciated in the Eisenhower Doctrine, was a continuation of the containment policy adopted by the Harry Truman administration (see Truman Doctrine). He sent federal troops to Little Rock, Ark., to enforce integration of a city high school (1957). When the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I (1957), he was criticized for failing to develop the U.S. space program; he responded by creating NASA (1958). In his last weeks in office the U.S. broke diplomatic relations with Cuba.

Learn more about Eisenhower, Dwight D(avid) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 12, 1813, Utica, N.Y., U.S.—died April 14, 1895, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. geologist, mineralogist, and naturalist. He graduated from Yale University in 1833. He joined a U.S. exploring expedition to the South Seas (1838–42), acting as a geologist and zoologist. His contributions to the American Journal of Science stimulated U.S. geologic inquiry. His research into the formation of the Earth's continents and oceans led him to believe in the progressive evolution of the Earth's physical features over time. By the end of his life he also came to accept the evolution of living things, as articulated by Charles Darwin. During his lifetime, and largely under his leadership, U.S. geology grew from a collection and classification of unrelated facts into a mature science.

Learn more about Dana, James D(wight) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Dwight is a village in located mainly in Livingston County, Illinois. The population was 4,363 at the 2000 census. Dwight contains an original stretch of the famous U.S. Route 66, and uses a railroad station designed in 1891 by Henry Ives Cobb. Its about southwest of Chicago. I-55 bypasses the village to the north and west.

Geography

Dwight is located at (41.092975, -88.427273).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.6 square miles (6.7 km²), of which, 2.6 square miles (6.7 km²) of it is land and 0.39% is water.

Dwight is mostly located in Livingston County, but a small portion extends northward into Grundy County to include the commercial area near the northern I-55 interstate exit.

Monuments

Dwight is home to one of only three banks designed by the famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright, the First National Bank of Dwight, as well as an historic U.S. Route 66 Texaco gas station, Ambler's Texaco Gas Station, and a 1891 railway station. Two of the buildings, the gas station and the train station, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. See also John R. Oughton House. The 1857 Dwight Pioneer Gothic Church is a rare example of wooden Carpenter Gothic church building.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 4,363 people, 1,667 households, and 1,096 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,694.8 people per square mile (655.5/km²). There were 1,803 housing units at an average density of 700.4/sq mi (270.9/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 96.72% White, 0.92% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 1.17% from other races, and 0.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.80% of the population.

There were 1,667 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the village the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.3 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $40,071, and the median income for a family was $44,813. Males had a median income of $37,429 versus $27,813 for females. The per capita income for the village was $20,928. About 5.0% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.8% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over.

Other Sites

Dwight is also home of the first Keeley Institute, the John R. Oughton House, the Ambler's Texaco Gas Station, Frank L. Smith Bank, and the Pioneer Gothic Church.

Dwight (Amtrak station) is also located in Dwight.

Sadie planned a trip to Dwight in the "Sadie's Trip To Dwight" episode of the radio serial Vic and Sade, originally aired on June 4, 1937. The series, set in a vaguely fictionalized Bloomington, Illinois, often used towns near Bloomington in its scripts.

References

External links

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