: द्वापर युग) is the third out of four yugas
, or ages, described in the scriptures of Hinduism
. This yuga comes after Treta Yuga
and is followed by Kali Yuga
. According to the Puranas
this yuga ended at the moment when Krishna
returned to his eternal abode of Vaikuntha
There are only two pillars left of religion in the Dvapara Yuga. Bhagavan Vishnu assumes the yellow color and the Vedas are categorized into four parts that is Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva. During these times the Brahmins are knowledgeable of two, sometimes three Vedas, but rarely have studied all the four Vedas thoroughly. Accordingly, because of this categorization, different actions and activities come into existence. The average human lifespan was 1,000 years.
The roles of the castes
All people in the Dvapara Yuga are zealous, valiant, courageous and competitive by nature and are engaged only in penance and charity. They are kingly and pleasure-seeking. In this era, the divine intellect ceases to exist, and it is therefore seldom that anyone is wholly truthful. As a result of this life of deceit, people are plagued by ailments, diseases and various types of desires. After suffering from these ailments, people realize their misdeeds and perform penance. Some also organize Yagya
for material benefits as well as for divinity.
In this Yuga, the Brahmanas who are through a fallacy referred to as Brahmins
are involved in Yagya, self-study, donation and teaching activities. They attain celestial bliss by engaging in penance, religion, control of senses and restraint.
The duties of Kshatriyas
are the protection of their subjects. In this era, they are humble and perform their duties by controlling their senses. The Kshatriyas honestly execute all policies of law and order without being angry or cruel. They are devoid of greed and consequently attain bliss.
The king avails the advice of the learned scholars and accordingly maintains law and order in his empire. The king who is addicted to vices will definitely end up defeated. One or two or all from Sāma, Dāna, Danda, Bheda and Upeksha is/are brought into use and help attain the desired. Kings are diligent in maintaining public decorum and order.
A few of the kings, however, surreptitiously plan a conspiracy along with the scholars. Strong people execute work where execution of policies is involved. The king appoints priests, etc. to perform religious activities, economists and ministers to perform monetary activities, impotents to take care of women and cruel men to execute heinous activities.
There are two kshatriya dynasties, namely 'Surya Vansha' and 'Chandra Vansha'.
Vaishyas are mostly landowners and merchants. The duties of Vaishyas
are trade and agriculture. Vaishyas attain higher planes through charity and hospitality.
The duty of Shudras
is to perform tasks that demand highly physical work. Although their form of labour is different from the other three castes, the Shudras are not discriminated against. In fact Vidura, the famous Prime Minister of Hastinapura was born in the Shudra community and attained the status of a Brahmin due to his wisdom, righteousness and learning. All other three sections namely Brahmana, Kshatriya and Vaishya protected Shudras and contributed for their safety and happiness. Krishna
, eighth avatar
was brought up in a Vaishya family though he was a born Kshatriya.
The decline of life
The living and moral standard of the people overall in the Dvapara Yuga drops immensely from the Treta Yuga. The average life expectancy of humans begins to fall to only 1,000 years in this era because of neglect of the Varnashram
. The Vedas especially become less active.
Dvapara Yuga in fiction
, the wielder of the Kali Yuga
staff, also possess the mirror sash by the same name. In the end of the battle against Inferno
, he uses the mirror to extinguish the flames. In Soulcalibur II
, Soulcalibur III
, and Soulcalibur IV
he wears a necklace that includes a piece of the Dvapara Yuga used as a pendant for rituals.