Dust sometimes settles quickly on surfaces, but vast quantities are carried to the upper layers of the air and suspended there for long periods of time. The effects of a volcanic eruption such as that of Krakatoa in Indonesia have been observed three years after its occurrence. Large seasonal dust storms occur in the Sahara and neighboring W Africa and in the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts and neighboring NE Asia; Beijing is annually affected by such storms. Dust from large storms in Africa often travels as far as the S United States and the Caribbean, where it can affect air quality, and dust from the Gobi Desert in Asia has been carried as far east as Minnesota. Such dust storms, which are aggravated by desertification, can have negative health and economic effects; in addition to potentially harmful mineral particles, the dust may include bacteria, fungi, viruses, and various pollutants.
Hygroscopic dust particles (those to which water adheres) are the nuclei of condensation in free air; the nucleus of each droplet in a fog or cloud and of each raindrop and snowflake is one of these invisible particles of inorganic or organic dust. John Aitken, a Scottish physicist who in 1880 invented a device for counting particles in air, first correlated dust particles and condensation. Dust is also chiefly responsible, through its scattering effect upon light (diffusion), for one type of haze and for sunrise and sunset colors.
See also Dust Bowl.
Section of the U.S. Great Plains that extended over southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma, and northeastern New Mexico. The term originated after World War I, when the area's grasslands were converted to agricultural fields. In the naturally dry climate, overcultivation added to the effect of a severe drought in the early 1930s, when heavy winds blew the loose topsoil in “black blizzards” that blocked out the sun and piled dirt in drifts. Many farmers and ranchers left the region for California and elsewhere. The planting of windbreaks and grassland enabled the area to recover by the early 1940s.
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Dust is a general name for minute solid particles with diameters less than 500 micrometers. Dust occurs in the atmosphere from various sources such as soil dust lifted up by wind, volcanic eruptions, and pollution. Dust in homes, offices, and other human environments consists of human skin cells, plant pollen, human and animal hairs, textile fibers, paper fibers, minerals from outdoor soil, and many other materials which may be found in the local environment.
The quantity and composition of house dust varies greatly with seasonal and environmental factors such as the surroundings, exchange of outside air, age of the house, building materials and their condition, and the quantity of furniture and carpets, as well as their state of preservation. It varies further with ventilation and heating systems, cleaning habits, activities of the occupants or users of a room, etc. House dust consists of inorganic and organic matter, yet the relative proportions of these components may vary considerably. "House dust" from kindergartens often consists almost completely of inorganic materials such as sand, loam, and clay from sand pits. On the other hand, house dust from residences of animal owners with worn out carpets may consist nearly completely of organic material. The proportion of organic matter in 318 house dust samples was found to vary between <5% and >95% (Butte and Walker, 1994). Fergusson et al. (1986) reported the organic content of house dust from 11 homes in Christchurch, New Zealand, to be within the range from 25.7% to 56.5%. Floor dust from seven Danish offices had a mean organic fraction of 33% (Mølhave et al., 2000).
According to the German Environmental Survey, approximately 6 mg/m²/day of house dust is formed in private households, depending primarily on the amount of time spent at home. Nearly 1000 dust particles per square centimeter settle on domestic surfaces every hour. Some dust consists of human skin; it is estimated that the entire outer layer of skin is shed every day or two at a rate of 7 million skin flakes per minute, which corresponds to a mass emission rate of about 20 mg/minute. "Dust bunnies" are little clumps of fluff that form when sufficient dust accumulates.
House dust mites are on all surfaces and even suspended in air. Dust mites feed on minute particles of organic matter, the main constituent of house dust. They excrete enzymes to digest dust particles; these enzymes and their feces, in turn, become part of house dust and can provoke allergic reactions in humans. Dust mites flourish in the fibres of bedding, furniture, and carpets.
On the other hand the hygiene hypothesis suggests that the modern obsession with cleanliness may be counterproductive; that it may in fact encourage the development of health conditions including hay fever and asthma.
Coal dust is responsible for the lung disease known as Pneumoconiosis, including black lung disease, which occurs among coal miners. This danger has resulted in a number of laws (only some being passed) regulating environmental standards for working conditions.
The particles that make up house dust can easily become airborne, so care must be exercised when removing dust, as the activity intended to sanitize or remove dust may make it airborne. The device being used traps the dust; however, some may become airborne and come to settle in the cleaner's lungs, thus making the activity somewhat hazardous. Another way to repel dust is with some kind of electrical charge .
Dust samples returned from outer space could provide information about conditions in the early solar system. Several spacecraft have been launched in an attempt to gather samples of dust and other materials. Among these was Stardust, which flew past Comet Wild 2 in 2004 and returned a capsule of the comet's remains to Earth in January 2006. The Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft is currently on a mission to collect samples of dust from the surface of an asteroid.