Dumka is a city and a municipality in and headquarters of Dumka district in the state of Jharkhand, India.
Origin of name
Dumka derives its name from a Persian
, which means 'skirts (an edge, border or extreme part) of the hills'. The Mughals
assigned this name to this and nearby areas on account of presence of hillocks and undulating terrain
Dumka is located at . It has an average elevation of 137 metres (449 feet).
The Dumka district has an area of 3716.02 Sq. KM. and consists of only one sub division namely Dumka. Under the Dumka sub division, there are 10 blocks namely Dumka, Gopikander, Jama, Jarmundi, Kathikund, Maslia, Ramgarh, Raneshwar, Shikaripara and Saraiyahat.
Dumka has predominantly undulating terrain with hard rocks in the underground. The entire district has a topography with high ridges and valleys bounded by mountains and rivers. The fertility of soil is poor due to extensive erosion, acidic character and low retaining capacity.
Geographical Area Sub Divisions Blocks Municipality
Notified Area Committee Villages Gram Panchayats
3716.02 Sq. KM 01 10 01 01 2943 20
Stone-age: On the basis of tools unearthed the original inhabitants appear to be the Mon-khmers and the Mundas.
Early History: The earlier inhabitants of the present-day district of whom there is same record, it appears, were the Paharias (for example, the Maler and Sauria Paharias). The Greek traveler Megasthenes identified these people as Mallis. He referred to the Sauria Paharias as savars of Orisa.
Medieval History: Due to inaccessibility of the area caused by the cliffs of the Rajmahal Hills, it was a place of strategic economic importance, with a fort at Teliagarhi.
After the 1539 victory of Sher Shah Suri at Chousa, the area fell into the hands of the Afghans, but it was soon lost to the Mughals under Akbar when Hussain Quli Khan was made viceroy of Bengal.
British Period: The English representative, Dr. Gabriel Bokgliton, procured a farman from Shah Jahan.
1742-1751: The area of Dumka close to Rajmahal witnessed frequent inroads by the Marathas under Raghoji Bhosle and Peshwa Balaji Rao.
1745: Raghoji Bhosle entered Rajmahal via the hills and jungles of Santal Pargana. The early stay of the English was spent in subduing the Paharias.
1769: Dumka remained a Ghatwali police post under Birbhum District of Bengal.
1775: Dumka was transferred to Bhagalpur Division.
1865: Dumka was made an independent district after being carved out of Bhagalpur.
1872: Dumka was made headquarters of the whole district of Santal Pargana.
1902: The first municipality was established.
1920: Motor cars and buses were introduced.
1952: The Apostolic Prefecture of Malda was erected. In 1962, it was promoted to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dumka
1983: Dumka made divisional headquarters of Santal Pargana.
2000: Dumka became the sub-capital of Jharkhand.
As of 2001
, Dumka had a population of 44,917. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Dumka has an average literacy rate of 76%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80% and, female literacy is 71%. In Dumka, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age.but after 5 years its literacy rate is increase and now it became 82%,also literacy rate of female is grown and reached up to 79%.
Its first Chief Minister was Babulal Marandi, previously an MP from Dumka district. Sibu Soren is another familiar controversial leader. His political career has been mired in controversies, starting since Indira Gandhi's prime ministership. Recently, he has been sent to Dumka jail after being convicted of murdering his private secretary Shashinath Jha.
Sibu Soren is no longer in Dumka Jail. His luck has favoured him so much that he has become the Chief Minister of Jharkhand. yes... he is the Chief Minister of Jharkhand now!
The district is known for good educational fascilities. Zila School , National School, Govt. Girls School, Dumka Central School are the Schools which provide education to all the students till +2 level. Other schools of repute which provide education till secondary level are Sido Kanhu High School, St. Teresa High school (for girls) and Holy Child, N.E.L.C. Don Bosco School , St. Joseph's High School. They are known for good standard of education. The town also boasts of having Sido Kanhu Murmu University. S. P. College and A . N. College are the two colleges which run under the S.K.M. University . S. P. College offers undergraduate, graduate as well as Post graduate courses in various disciplines of science , Arts and commerce. In this College B.Ed. courses have also been introduced.It has IGNOU study Centre as well which provides for teaching of IGNOU courses.Another well known University is Birsa Agricultural University . It provides technical Education related to Agriculture.
The town has very good colleges and schools. S.P. College leads the pack and offers graduation and Post graduation in social science, pure science, economics, mathematics and other subjects. Dumka also has a polytechnic and an ITI but unfortunately no engineering, medical or dental college, so those who wish to pursue a career in these subjects have to move out of the city. A good number of schools are also there to provide the educational needs of the students of this locality.