A drum roll (or roll for short) is a technique the percussionist employs to produce a sustained sound on a percussion instrument. Rolls are used by composers to sustain the sound and create other effects, the most common of which is using a roll to build anticipation.
Snare drum roll
The most common snare drum
roll is the closed (or "buzz") roll. The open roll (or "double-stroke roll") is played with double strokes alternating between the left and right hands; the closed roll or multiple-bounce roll is produced by applying slightly more pressure to the fulcrum
upon impact which allows for the stick to bounce many times on the drum head. One stick hits the head slightly before the other bouncing stick is pulled up from the head. This produces a near continual sound when the technique is mastered.
Other than the open, double-stroke roll there are many other rolls and rudiments that sound like rolls when they are played fast enough (like the freehand technique or single paradiddle). In the table below, lower-case letters represent grace notes (drags, flams etc) and hyphens represent rests.
||Sticking pattern |
|| RLRLRLRLRL |
|| RRLLRRLL |
|Triple-stroke roll (or French Roll)
|| RRRLLLRRRLLL |
|| RLRR LRLL |
|| RLRLRR LRLRLL |
|| RRLLR-LLRRL |
|| RRLLRRL- LLRRLLR |
Also, the six-stroke roll, perhaps a misleading name, is often used in snare solo and marching percussion situations. It has four variations; each is a quarter note in length and consists of two double strokes (RRLL) and two singles (R L). Doubles:
|Six-stroke rolls |
| R L RRLL(paradiddle-diddle)
|| L R LLRR(paradiddle-diddle left hand based) |
| R LLRR L
|| L RRLL R |
| RRLL R L
|| LLRR L R |
| RR L R LL
|| LL R L RR |
Rolls on timpani
are almost exclusively single-stroked. Due to the instruments' resonance, a fairly open roll is usually used, although the exact rate at which a roll is played depends greatly on the acoustic conditions, the size of the drum, the pitch to which is it tuned and the sticks
being used. Higher pitches
on timpani require a faster roll to maintain a sustained sound; some timpanists choose to use a buzz roll on higher notes at lower volumes; although there is no definite rule, most timpanists who employ this technique do so on a high "G", and above. In the end, it often comes down to the discretion of the timpanist.
These are similar to the timpani rolls in that they are done nearly the same way and are both single-stroked. Yarn mallets usually can be rolled much more easily on a marimba than plastic ones can be on a xylophone, because the extra reverberation of a marimba will mask the silent gaps between strokes. For this reason, the rolls can be much slower and still effective. But for xylophone and orchestra bells
a much swifter roll is required, especially for rubber or plastic mallets. A brass mallet used with orchestra bells will add extra vibration to aid in the smoothing of the sound.
To get these faster rolls, percussionists (keyboard, snare and timpani) all often use the muscles of their fingers instead of those of the wrists. The fingers have a shorter rotation length and can move faster with less effort than the wrist. Finger muscles are usually not as well developed, so percussionists, especially of the middle or high school age, will be seen twirling or rolling their sticks and mallets through their fingers rapidly. This differs in some way from the twirling majorettes perform.
Fulcrum roll/one handed roll
The fulcrum roll is a roll in which the rim of the snare is used as a fulcrum for the drummers stick. To perform a consistent fulcrum roll the stick must come in contact with the head and rim at the exact same time and then tip down towards the drummer. The drummer must then raise the stick to produce an up stroke. The wrist of the drummer also must stay straight, as if shaking someone's hand. This is one of the easier and more commonly used forms of a "one handed roll". The second common, albeit more difficult form consists of the drummer bouncing the stick alternately off of the middle and ring fingers.
In most recent music, all three types of rolls are notated as tremolos
, with slashes through the note stem. However, in some older pieces, as well as some recent timpani
music, timpani and keyboard rolls are notated as trills
. Several composers, including Berlioz
are specific in noting the different between a tremolo and a "trill" style roll; timpanists performing works with both of these composition techniques must note the differences and perform accordingly.