Nonalcoholic beverage, usually carbonated, consisting of water (soda water), flavouring, and a sweet syrup or artificial sweetener. Attempts to reproduce the natural effervescence of certain spring waters for presumed health benefits began before 1700. Joseph Priestley's experiments with “fixed air” (carbon dioxide) led in the late 1790s to the successful preparation of carbonated “mineral water” by Jacob Schweppe of Geneva; by the early 1800s it was being bottled and sold commercially. Today there are hundreds of varieties of flavoured soft drinks. Some of the world's largest corporations (including Coca-Cola Co. and PepsiCo) founded their businesses on soft-drink manufacturing.
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Any fermented liquor, such as wine, beer, or distilled liquor, that contains ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, as an intoxicating agent. When an alcoholic beverage is ingested, the alcohol is rapidly absorbed in the stomach and intestines because it does not undergo any digestive processes. It is distributed to the rest of the body through the blood and has a pronounced depressant action on the brain. Under the influence of alcohol, the drinker is less alert, less able to discern objects in the environment, slower in reacting to stimuli, and generally prone to sleep.
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Essential to the survival of all organisms, water has historically been an important and life-sustaining drink to humans. Excluding fat, water composes approximately 70% of the human body by mass. It is a crucial component of metabolic processes and serves as a solvent for many bodily solutes. Health authorities have historically suggested at least eight glasses, eight fluid ounces each, of water per day (64 fluid ounces, or 1.89 litres), and the British Dietetic Association recommends 1.8 litres. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has determined that the average adult actually ingests 2.0 litres per day.
Distilled (pure) water is rarely found in nature. Spring water, a natural resource from which much bottled water comes, is generally imbued with minerals. Tap water, delivered by domestic water systems in developed nations, refers to water piped to homes through a tap. All of these forms of water are commonly drunk, often purified through filtration.
|Unit||fl. oz (UK)||ml||fl. oz (US)||ml|
|fluid ounce or pony||1||28.413||1||29.574|
|shot, bar glass or jigger||3/2||42.6||3/2||44.4|
|can of Coke||11.6||330||12||330|
|bottle of spirits||24.6||700||25.3||750|
|bottle of wine||26.4||750||25.3||750|