Drake

Drake

[dreyk]
Drake, Alfred, 1914-92, American singer, actor, and director, b. New York City, originally named Alfred Capurro. Drake first appeared on stage in 1935 in The Mikado. The Broadway production of Oklahoma! (1943) brought him stardom, followed by leading roles in Kiss Me Kate (1948) and Kismet (1953). In 1964 he played the king in John Gielgud's production of Hamlet, and in 1973 he appeared in the musical Gigi, both on Broadway.
Drake, Edwin Laurentine, 1819-80, American oil well driller, b. Greene co., N.Y. In 1858 he was employed to conduct drilling operations and on Aug. 27, 1859, he struck oil near Titusville, Pa., at a depth of 69 ft (21.1 m). Drake's was the first producing oil well in the United States.
Drake, Sir Francis, 1540?-1596, English navigator and admiral, first Englishman to circumnavigate the world (1577-80).

Early Career

He was born in Devonshire, the son of a yeoman, and was at an early age apprenticed to a ship captain. He made voyages to Guinea and the West Indies and in 1567 commanded a ship in a slave-trading expedition of his kinsman, John Hawkins. On the voyage the Spanish attacked and destroyed all but three of the English vessels. In 1572, with two ships and 73 men, Drake set out on the first of his famous marauding expeditions. He took the town of Nombre de Dios on the Isthmus of Panama, captured a ship in the harbor of Cartagena, burned Portobelo, crossed and recrossed the isthmus, and captured three mule trains bearing 30 tons of silver. The voyage brought Drake wealth and fame. For the next few years he commanded the sea forces against rebellious Ireland.

Circumnavigation of the World

In Dec., 1577, he set out with five ships to raid Spanish holdings on the Pacific coast of the New World. He abandoned two ships in the Río de la Plata in South America, and, with the remaining three, navigated the Straits of Magellan, the first Englishman to make the passage. A storm drove them far southward; one ship and its crew were destroyed, and another, separated from Drake's vessel, returned to England.

Drake continued alone in the Golden Hind up the coast of South America, plundered Valparaiso and smaller settlements, cut loose the shipping at Callao, and captured a rich Spanish treasure ship. Armed now with Spanish charts, he continued north along the coast, looking for a possible passage to the Atlantic, feeling it would be unsafe to retrace his course. Sailing possibly as far north as the present state of Washington with no success, he determined to cross the Pacific.

He returned to San Francisco Bay to repair and provision his ship. He named the region New Albion and took possession of it in the name of Queen Elizabeth I. Then, crossing the Pacific, he visited the Moluccas, Sulawesi, and Java, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and arrived at Plymouth on Sept. 26, 1580, bearing treasure of extremely high value. Elizabeth endeavored for a time to justify Drake's conduct to Spain, but, failing to satisfy the Spanish, she finally abandoned all pretense and openly recognized Drake's exploits by knighting him aboard the Golden Hind.

Hostilities with Spain

In 1585, Drake commanded a fleet that sacked Vigo in Spain and burned São Tiago in the Cape Verde Islands. Proceeding across the Atlantic, he took Santo Domingo and Cartagena (which were subsequently ransomed), plundered the Florida coast, including the settlement of St. Augustine, and rescued Sir Walter Raleigh's Roanoke colony under Ralph Lane on the Carolina coast.

Meanwhile, Spain had begun to prepare for open war. In 1587, Drake entered the harbor of Cádiz with 26 ships and destroyed about 30 of the ships the Spanish were assembling. He had, he said, merely singed the king of Spain's beard and wished to carry out further expeditions against the Spanish ports, but Elizabeth would not sanction his plans. He was a vice admiral in the fleet that defeated the Armada in 1588. He was in joint command of an attempted invasion of Portugal in 1589 but failed to take Lisbon.

Drake's last expedition, in 1595, undertaken jointly with Hawkins, was directed against the West Indies. This time the Spanish were prepared, and the venture was a complete failure. Hawkins died off Puerto Rico, and Drake shortly afterward, of dysentery, off Portobelo, where he was buried at sea.

Bibliography

See biographies by Sir Julien Corbett (1890, repr. 1969) and G. M. Thomson (1972); see also Sir Julien Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy (2 vol., 1899, repr. 1970); G. Mattingly, The Armada (1959); K. R. Andrews, Drake's Voyages (1967); K. R. Andrews, ed., The Last Voyage of Drake and Hawkins (1972).

Drake, Francis Marion, 1830-1903, Union army officer in the Civil War, railroad president, and governor of Iowa (1896-98), b. Rushville, Ill. He helped defend St. Joseph, Mo., against Confederate forces under the command of Gen. Sterling Price. As lieutenant colonel of an Iowa regiment he fought with distinction in the Western campaigns, being brevetted brigadier general of volunteers in Feb., 1865. Admitted to the bar in 1866, Drake was president of the Iowa Southern RR for several years and later headed (1882-98) the Indiana, Illinois & Iowa, which became part of the Chicago & Alton. As governor he called a special session of the general assembly to revise the legal code of Iowa and substantially reformed the state's charitable and penal institutions. Drake Univ. was named for him.
Drake, Joseph Rodman, 1795-1820, American poet and satirist, b. New York City. Under the name "The Croakers," he and his friend Fitz-Greene Halleck wrote a series of light satirical verses for the New York Evening Post (1819, first complete ed. 1860). Drake's longest serious poem is "The Culprit Fay" (in The Culprit Fay and Other Poems, 1835); his poem "The American Flag" was long a standard patriotic declamation. Halleck's elegy beginning, "Green be the turf above thee," was written upon Drake's death.

See F. L. Pleadwell, ed., The Life and Works of Joseph Rodman Drake (1935).

Any insect of the order Ephemeroptera, found around streams and ponds. The approximately 2,000 species are up to 1.6 in. (4 cm) long, have triangular membranous forewings, smaller round hind wings, and two or three long, threadlike tails. Wings are held vertically when at rest. Chewing mouthparts in the aquatic larvae are vestigial in the adult, which lives just long enough to mate and reproduce. Males “dance” in large swarms to attract females. The adult's entire life span is usually only a few hours (though at least one species lives as long as two days), and poets have used the mayfly as a symbol of life's ephemeral nature.

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Sir Francis Drake, oil painting by an unknown artist; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born circa 1540–43, Devonshire, Eng.—died Jan. 28, 1596, at sea, off Puerto Bello, Pan.) English admiral, the most renowned seaman of the Elizabethan Age. Brought up by his wealthy Hawkins relatives (see John Hawkins) in Plymouth, Drake went to sea at about age 18. He gained a reputation as an outstanding navigator and became wealthy by raiding and plundering Spanish colonies. In 1577 he set sail with five ships, but ultimately only his flagship, the Golden Hind, made its way through the Strait of Magellan into the Pacific and up the coast of South and North America. He sailed at least as far north as what is now San Francisco, claiming the area for Elizabeth, and continued westward to the Philippines and around the Cape of Good Hope. Having circumnavigated the globe, he returned to Plymouth, Eng., in 1580 laden with treasure, the first captain ever to sail his own ship around the world. In 1581 he was knighted. Appointed vice admiral (1588), he destroyed ships and supplies destined for the Spanish Armada and delayed the Spanish attack for a year. But he is not known to have played any part in the battle that eventually occurred. In his lifetime, his reputation at home was equivocal, yet his legend grew. On his last voyage he succumbed to fever and was buried at sea.

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Sir Francis Drake, oil painting by an unknown artist; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born circa 1540–43, Devonshire, Eng.—died Jan. 28, 1596, at sea, off Puerto Bello, Pan.) English admiral, the most renowned seaman of the Elizabethan Age. Brought up by his wealthy Hawkins relatives (see John Hawkins) in Plymouth, Drake went to sea at about age 18. He gained a reputation as an outstanding navigator and became wealthy by raiding and plundering Spanish colonies. In 1577 he set sail with five ships, but ultimately only his flagship, the Golden Hind, made its way through the Strait of Magellan into the Pacific and up the coast of South and North America. He sailed at least as far north as what is now San Francisco, claiming the area for Elizabeth, and continued westward to the Philippines and around the Cape of Good Hope. Having circumnavigated the globe, he returned to Plymouth, Eng., in 1580 laden with treasure, the first captain ever to sail his own ship around the world. In 1581 he was knighted. Appointed vice admiral (1588), he destroyed ships and supplies destined for the Spanish Armada and delayed the Spanish attack for a year. But he is not known to have played any part in the battle that eventually occurred. In his lifetime, his reputation at home was equivocal, yet his legend grew. On his last voyage he succumbed to fever and was buried at sea.

Learn more about Drake, Sir Francis with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Drake is a city in McHenry County, North Dakota in the United States. The population was 322 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Minot Micropolitan Statistical Area. Drake was founded in 1902.

The town holds a Festival of Apples on September 20 of each year. The city is mentioned in Dr. Seuss's Horton Hatches the Egg as one of the towns visited by the traveling circus.

Geography

Drake is located at (47.923793, -100.371284).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles (5.2 km²), of which, 2.0 square miles (5.1 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (2.48%) is water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 322 people, 164 households, and 94 families residing in the city. The population density was 163.1 people per square mile (63.1/km²). There were 201 housing units at an average density of 101.8/sq mi (39.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.31% of the population.

There were 164 households out of which 18.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.1% were non-families. 38.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.96 and the average family size was 2.60.

In the city the population was spread out with 18.3% under the age of 18, 4.0% from 18 to 24, 19.3% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, and 35.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51 years. For every 100 females there were 97.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $22,813, and the median income for a family was $34,844. Males had a median income of $23,250 versus $17,083 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,023. About 8.2% of families and 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.3% of those under age 18 and 16.3% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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