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douglas, second earl of

James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton

James Douglas, jure uxoris 4th Earl of Morton (c. 1525 – June 2, 1581) was the last of the four regents of Scotland during the minority of King James VI. He was in some ways the most successful of the four, since he did manage to win the civil war which had been dragging on with the supporters of the exiled Mary, Queen of Scots. However he came to an unfortunate end: during his time as regent he introduced the maiden, a primitive guillotine, to Scotland, and he was eventually executed by it himself.

He was the second son of Sir George Douglas of Pittendriech. Before 1543 he married Elizabeth (d. 1574), daughter of James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Morton. In 1553 James Douglas succeeded to the title and estates of his father-in-law, including Dalkeith House in Midlothian, and Aberdour Castle in Fife. In 1563 he became Lord Chancellor of Scotland. Though his sympathies were with the reformers, he took no part in the combination of Protestant reformers in 1565, but he headed the armed force which took possession of Holyrood palace in, March 1566 to effect the assassination of David Rizzio, and it was to his house that the leading conspirators adjourned while a messenger was sent to obtain Queen Mary's signature to the "bond of security."

The queen, before complying with the request, escaped to Dunbar, and Morton and the other leaders fled to England. Having been pardoned, Morton returned to Scotland early in 1567, and with 600 men appeared before Borthwick Castle, where the queen after her marriage with Bothwell had taken refuge. He was present at the remarkable conference at Carberry Hill, and he also took an active part in obtaining the consent of the queen at Lochleven to an abdication. He led the army which defeated the queen's forces at the Battle of Langside in 1568, and he was the most valued privy counsellor of the Earl of Moray during the latter's brief term of office as regent. On the death of the Earl of Mar (October 28, 1572), Morton, who had been the most powerful noble during this regency, and also during that of the Earl of Lennox, at last reached the object of his ambition by being elected regent. In many respects Morton was an energetic and capable ruler. He effected at Perth, in February 1573, with the aid of Elizabeth of England's envoy, a pacification with George Gordon, 5th Earl of Huntly, the Hamiltons and the Catholic nobles who supported Mary. Only Edinburgh Castle held out, and this, aided by English artillery, he succeeded in taking after a brave resistance by Kirkcaldy of Grange and Maitland of Lethington.

The ensuing execution of these men put an end to the last chance of Mary's restoration by native support. But while all seemed to favour Morton, there were under-currents which combined to procure his fall. The Presbyterian clergy were alienated by his leaning to Episcopacy, and all parties in the divided Church by his seizure of its estates. Andrew Melville, who had taken over as leader from John Knox, was firmly against any departure from the Presbyterian model, and refused to be won by a place in Morton's household. As well as the pressure from the Presbyterians, Colin Campbell, 6th Earl of Argyll and John Stewart, 4th Earl of Atholl, both leading Roman Catholics and members of the Queen's party in league with Alexander Erskine, governor of Stirling Castle and the custodian of young King James, received such widespread support, that Morton had no option but to resign his Regency.

He surrendered Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, the Great Seal and the Honours of Scotland, retiring to Lochleven, where he busied himself in laying out gardens. But his ambition could not deny itself another stroke for power. Aided by the young earl of Mar, he got possession of Stirling Castle and the person of the king. Civil war was avoided only by the influence of Sir Robert Bowes, the English ambassador. A nominal reconciliation was effected, and a parliament at Stirling introduced a new government. Morton, who secured an indemnity, was president of the council, but Atholl remained a privy councillor in an enlarged council with the representatives of both parties. Shortly afterwards Atholl died of poison, it was said, and suspicion pointed to Morton. His return to power was brief, and the only important event was the prosecution of the two Hamiltons, who still supported Mary and saved their lives by flight to England. The final fall of Morton came from an opposite quarter.

In September 1579 Esmé Stuart, the king's cousin, came to Scotland from France, gained the favour of James by his courtly manners, and received the lands and earldom of Lennox, the custody of Dumbarton Castle, and the office of chamberlain. One of his dependants, Captain James Stuart, son of Lord Ochiltree and brother-in-law of Knox, had the daring to accuse Morton at a meeting of the council in Holyrood of complicity in the murder of Darnley, and he was at once committed to custody. Some months later Morton was condemned by an assize for having taken part in that crime, and the verdict was justified by his confession that Bothwell had revealed to him the design, although he denied participation in its execution. He was condemned to death by Hanging, drawing and quartering , a fate commuted to decapitation by King James. He was executed on the 2nd of June 1581. The method of his execution was the "maiden" — a guillotine he had himself brought from Halifax, England, having been "impressed by its clean work". His corpse remained on the Scaffold for the following day, until it was taken for burial in the Common grave at Greyfriars Kirkyard. His head however remained on a spike outside the Tolbooth of Edinburgh for eighteen months until it was ordered to be reunited with his body in December 1582. Morton's final resting place is marked with a small sandstone post incised only with the initials "J.E.M." for James Earl of Morton.

The attainted earldom of Morton passed by charter at his death to a grandson of the 3rd earl, John Maxwell, 7th Lord Maxwell (1553-1593), who had previously claimed the title. In 1586, however, the attainder was rescinded in favour of Archibald Douglas, 8th Earl of Angus, a nephew of the 4th earl.

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