Dumplings are "piece[s] of dough, sometimes filled, that [are] cooked in liquid such as water or soup" or "sweetened dough wrapped around fruit, such as an apple, baked and served as a dessert.
British and Irish Cuisine
dumplings made from balls of dough are part of traditional British and Irish cuisine
. The simplest dumplings are made from twice the weight of self raising flour
, bound together by cold water to form a dough. Balls of this dough are dropped into a bubbling pot of stew
, or into a casserole
. They sit, partly submerged in the stew, and expand as they are half-boiled half-steamed for ten minutes or so. The cooked dumplings are airy on the inside and moist on the outside. The dough may be simply flavoured with salt, pepper and herbs
, or the dough balls may have a filling such as cheese
pressed into their centre.
The Norfolk dumpling is not made with fat, but from flour and raising agent. Cotswold dumplings call for the addition of breadcrumbs and cheese, and the balls of dough may be rolled in breadcrumbs and fried, rather than cooked in a soup or stew.
These sour-dough dumplings, when sweetened and made with dried fruit and spices can be boiled in water to make a dessert. In Scotland, this is called a clootie dumpling, after the cloth.
Cuisine of the United States
Several types of dumplings are popular in the United States. The baked dumpling is popular in American cuisine
. These sweet dumplings are made by wrapping fruit
, frequently a whole tart apple
, in pastry, then baking until the pastry is browned and the filling is tender. As an alternative to simply baking them, these dumplings are surrounded by a sweet sauce
in the baking dish, and may be basted during cooking. Popular flavours for apple dumplings include brown sugar
, or cinnamon
Boiled dumplings are made from flour to form a dough. A pot of boiling chicken or turkey broth is used to cook this dough. The thickness and the size of the dumplings is at the cook's discretion. The size does not affect the taste but the thickness does. It is optional to serve with the meat in the dish or on the side. Chicken and Dumplings is a popular soul food dish that many African Amercians cook. It usually served with black pepper on top.
Dumplings can be made with eggs, milk, baking powder or even yeast or just from flour and water. Rolled dumplings are rolled thin and cut into small pieces for cooking, while dropped dumplings are formed into small balls.
Having gained popularity in Alabama (particularly in the central regions) over the last few years is the concept of making boiled dumplings from sliced or torn pieces of flour tortilla. These slices of tortilla are then added to the boiling pot of stock to make dumplings. Popular varieties of Southern dumplings include chicken dumplings, turkey dumplings, strawberry dumplings, apple dumplings, ham dumplings, and even butter-bean dumplings.
In Kentucky, bite-sized, hand-torn pieces of dough are dumped into boiling chicken broth along with a variety of vegetables. It is locally dubbed "chicken-and-dumplins." In common with other Southern savory dumplings, Kentuckian dumplins are not stuffed with anything. They are merely pieces of dough. Some of the flour detaches from the dumpling surface and works as a thickening agent, which makes the signature stew texture of "chicken-and-dumplins" without using another thickener such as corn starch. This is often used as part of locally popular Burgoo (stew).
Other similar foods from around the world are classified as dumplings. They may be any of a wide variety of dishes, both sweet and savoury. They are either made from balls of dough
or are small parcels of food
encased in pastry
, dough, batter
, or leaves
. After being encased in pastry, dough or leaves, they usually undergo a further treatment by steaming them, frying them or submerging them in boiling oil.
Central and South American Cuisine
The Jamaicans created the first Caribbean dumplings, which were English-influenced. A simple recipe including self-raising flour, Water
was made into a thick dough before frying on a pan until golden brown. These are usually rounded or rolled into balls and are served with Ackee
and Saltfish or Chicken
as a side dish. Like English dumplings, they have a soft and fluffy texture. Eventually the recipe spread across the Caribbean as it reached the Lesser Antilles
such as Barbados
and also the eastern section of the Dominican Republic
, where the dish is known as "domplin"; it was introduced to the island by immigrants from the British lesser Antilles who came to work in the sugar industry.There is also a type of dumpling that you put in chicken stew and you mix the flour and water and put it in boiling water with the meat. In Haiti there is a similar dumpling dish that is rolled into a ball or log shaped, which is then boiled in various soups, some which are known as bouillion.
Dumplings or, as Jamaicans say, "dumplin," come in two forms in Jamaica. There are fry dumplin and bwoil (boiled) dumplin. Both types of dumplins are made with flour
, either white or wheat
, and the white-floured dumplins are often mixed with a bit of cornmeal. These foods are often served with a variety of dishes like Ackee and saltfish
etc. and are often taste better when refried. A refried Dumplin is usually prepared a day after the boiled dumplin is first made. The boil dumplin is thinly sliced and then fried, which gives it a slightly crispy outer layer and a tender middle. A purely fried white flour dumplin is golden brown and looks a lot like a roll, often used to substitute the bwoil dumplin, but it is mostly consumed as part of breakfast
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In Peru there are a number of dishes that may be classified as dumplings. "Papas Rellenas" or stuffed potatoes consist of a handful of mashed potatoes (without the milk and butter) flattened in the palm of the hand and stuffed with a savoury combination of ingredients. The stuffing usually consists of sautéed meat (could be beef, pork or chicken), onions and garlic. They are all seasoned with cumin, South American chillies called aji, raisins, peanuts, olives and sliced or chopped hard boiled eggs. After stuffing a ball is formed, rolled over flour and deep fried in hot oil. The stuffed potatoes are usually accompanied by onion sauce consisting of sliced onions, lime juice, olive oil, salt, pepper and slices of fresh chilli peppers. The same dish may also be made with seafood. In some countries yuca purée is used as the starch component of these Latin American dumplings.
Central European Cuisine
, Hungary Austria
, Czech Republic
boast a large variety of dumplings, both sweet and savoury. A dumpling is called Klöße
in Northern Germany, Spätzle, Knöpfle or Knödel in Southern Germany and Austria.
These are flour dumplings, the most common dumplings, thin or thick, made with eggs and semolina
flour, boiled in water. Meat dumplings (called Klopse or Klöpse in North-Eastern Germany, Knöpfe and Nocken are in Southern Germany) contain meat or liver. Liver dumplings are frequent additions to soup. The most famous German meat dumplings are Königsberger Klopse
which contain anchovy
or salted herring
and are eaten with caper sauce
Thüringer Klöße are made from raw or boiled potatoes
, or a mixture of both, and are often filled with croutons
dumplings are made with white bread and are sometimes shaped like a loaf of bread, and boiled in a napkin
, in which case they are known as napkin dumplings
(Serviettenknödel). In the Hungarian cuisine
the dumplings are called galuska
- small dumplings made from a thick flour and egg batter which is cut into small pieces, and thrown into boiling water, similar to Spätzle or Knödel.
Sweet dumplings are made with flour & potato batter, by wrapping the potato dough around whole plums
, boiled and rolled in hot buttered bread crumbs. Shlishkes
or “Krumplinudli” are small boiled potato dumplings made of the same potatoe doug and the same ocasion like the sweet plum dumplings, also rolled in hot buttered bread crumbs.
dumplings are called Kluski
, knedlík in the Czech lands and knedličky in Slovakia. They are enjoyed along with a related, stuffed version called Pierogi
most commonly filled with quark cheese, potatoes, onion, cabbage, mushrooms or meat.
Bryndzove halusky, the Slovak national dish, are small dumplings which are served with salty sheep's cheese.
Potato Dumpling Museum
In Germany, near Weimar, there is the only potato dumpling museum in the world.
Gnocchi (Spanish: ñoquis, Portuguese: nhoque) is an Italian dumpling which literally means "lumps". They can be made of potato, semolina (durum wheat), flour, or ricotta cheese (with or without spinach). Certain varieties of filled ravioli may also resemble dumplings.
Eastern European Cuisine
Pierogi of Poland or pyrohy in Ukraine are ravioli-like dumplings filled with savoury or sweet filling. They are usually boiled, sometimes then fried when served. Often served with plenty of sour cream.
Pirozhki, "little perogies", are tiny filled buns, similar to pasties. Another bun of this sort is rasstegai, filled usually with fish and rice.
Lithuanian dumplings are called Koldūnai and Virtiniai. There are also popular potato dumplings called Cepelinai, or Didžkukuliai.
In Ukrainian cuisine, vushka ("little ears") are folded triangular perogies stuffed with mushrooms. Dumplings with meat are known as meat dumplings. The word dumpling refers to the flour and when chicken is added they become chicken dumplings. They are traditionally served in the borshch at Christmas Eve dinner. They are equivalent to pelmeni in Russia and uszka in Poland.
In Siberia, especially popular with the Buryat peoples are dumplings called pozi (buuz in Mongolian, from ). They are usually made with an unleavened dough, but are often encountered leavened. The traditional filling is meat, but the kind of meat and how it is processed varies. In Mongolia, mutton is favored, and is chopped rather than ground; pork and beef mixes are more popular in Russia. Unlike most other European dumplings, a poza is cooked over steam, not boiled.
Samsa (related to the Indian samosa), cheburiki, and belyashi are all popular imported dumplings.
Boraki (Բորակի) are Armenian dumplings. The main difference between Boraki and dumplings in other national cuisines is that the minced meat is preliminarily fried in oil and only then boraki are formed as small cylinders with an open top. After that boraki are lightly boiled in water and fried.
) are Georgian
dumplings filled with various fillings, but usually spiced meat. They are eaten plain, or with coarse black pepper
. The top, where the pleats meet, is tough and sometimes not eaten, but discarded to the plate so that those eating can count how many they have consumed.
In Norway, dumplings have a vast variety of names, as the dialects differ a lot. Names include potetball, klubb, kløbb, raspeball, komle, kumle, kompe, kumpe, kodla, kudle, klot, kams, ball, baill, komperdøse, kumperdøse, kompadøs, ruter, ruta, raskekako, risk, klotremat, krumme and kromme. It is usually made from potatoes and various types of flour and boiled. Occasionally they contain pork meat like bacon in the middle. In some areas it is common to use syrup along with the dumplings.
Potato dumplings in Sweden mainly have two names. In the northern parts they are usually called Palt, or Pitepalt
, filled with salted pork and eaten with melted butter and lingonberry jam. In southern Sweden, and Öland, the potato dumpling is called Kroppkaka
, and is usually filled with smoked pork, raw onions and coarsely ground pepper, usually served with cream and lingonberry jam. On Öland, the south-eastern coast and in the north the dumplings are made mainly from raw potatoes, whereas in the southern mainland boiled potatoes are mainly in use.
The jiaozi 饺子 is a common Chinese dumpling which generally consists of minced meat and chopped vegetables wrapped into a piece of dough. Popular meat fillings include ground pork, ground beef, ground chicken, shrimp, and even fish. Popular mixtures are pork with Chinese cabbage, lamb with spring onion, leeks with eggs, etc. Jiaozi are usually boiled or steamed. Jiaozi is a traditional dish for Chinese New Year's Eve. Family members gather together to make dumplings.
The other version of Chinese dumpling was made by rice. Most of them are putting the meat and some vegetables into the rice ball. Then, it will be steamed of boiled after use the leaves to wrapped the rice ball. Mostly, the shapes of this rice dumpling 粽子 [or called dumpling directly] are triangle or cone shape.It will be use when the season of duanwujie.
If they are fried in a small amount of oil, they are called guotie 锅贴 or potstickers. Compared to wonton 云吞s (dumplings served boiled in a soup), jiaozi have a thicker skin and are bigger, wontons also are traditionally wrapped in rectangular dough while jiaozi are wrapped in round dough.
Chinese cuisine includes sweet dumplings. Also commonly found are tangyuan. These are smaller dumplings made with glutinous rice flour and filled with sweet sesame, peanut or red bean paste, or they can be unfilled. There are also other kinds of dumplings such as har kao, siew mai, small cage-steamed bun (xiaolongbao), pork bun and crystal dumpling.
See also: dim sum 点心 for descriptions of several other kinds of dumplings such as gau and taro root dumplings.
Versions of Chinese dumplings can be found in The Philippines.
, steamed dumplings known as momos
are a popular snack. They are similar to the Chinese jiaozi. The dish itself is native to Tibet and was probably brought along with the influx of Tibetan refugees into Nepal during the 1950s. Many different fillings, both meat-based and vegetarian, are common.
It is also very famous in Newar Communities which has adopted the dish and is one of the mostly eaten snacks and meal in Kathmandu Valley. The people there have adopted the dish calling it MO:MOcha (mo mo) in newari.
cuisine features several dishes which could be characterised as dumplings:
- "Karanji" are fried sweet dumplings made of wheat flour and stuffed with dry coconut delicacies, and are a popular dish among the Maharastrians and the South Indians.
- Another dumpling popular among Maharashtrians is the 'Modak' where the filling is made of fresh coconut and jaggery or sugar while the covering is made of steamed rice dough. It is eaten hot with ghee
- "Kozhukottai" (Tamil) or "Modagam" or "Kajjikayi" (Telugu), are another south Indian dish which can be either sweet, salty or spicy. But the outer shell remains the same: steamed sticky rice dough. In the sweet version, a form of sweet filling made with coconuts, boiled lentils and jaggery is used, whereas in the salty version, a mixture of steamed cracked lentils, chillies and some mild spices are used.
Fried Japanese dumplings made from eggs and eaten with dashi are known as akashi no tamagoyaki. Similarly shaped dumplings, but with octopus (or sometimes konnyaku) and flavoured with pickled ginger, negi (welsh onion) and other ingredients, are a Kansai dish known as takoyaki.
The gyōza is the Japanese version of the Chinese jiaozi 饺子.
Dango is a Japanese dumpling made from rice flour that is often served with green tea.
is a steamed dumpling in Kazakh cuisine
. It is a spiced mixture of ground lamb (or beef) spiced with black pepper, enclosed in a dough wrapper. Mänti is cooked in a multi-level steamer and served topped with butter, sour cream, or onion sauce.
dumplings are called "mandu"(만두), and are very similar to the Chinese and Japanese variants. They are typically filled with a mixture of ingredients, including ground pork
, kimchi, vegetables, cellophane noodles
, but there are very many variations. Mandu can be steamed, fried, or boiled. The dumplings can also be used to make a soup called mandu guk(soup).
See matzah ball