Wilhelm Leube is remembered for his work with gastric and intestinal disorders, and his pioneer research of "nervous dyspepsia". He believed that gastric irritation was often caused by the effects of food on the sensory nerves of the stomach, and performed extensive studies on digestion. In 1871 he introduced a procedure known as intubation in order to retrieve contents of the stomach for analysis. Later he introduced "test meals" of different types of food, which would be served to patients, and afterwards retrieved via Leube's "gastric tube" at scheduled times. Through these procedures, Leube researched the degree of digestion of the test meal, as well as the quantity and concentration of acid and pepsin in the patients' stomach.
Among Leube's written works was an influential 1875 treatise of gastro-enterological diseases called Die Krankheiten des Magens und Darms, which was included in Hugo Wilhelm von Ziemssen's Handbuch der spediellen Pathologie und Therapie.