The new school of hip hop
was a second wave of recorded hip hop music
starting 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D.M.C.
and LL Cool J
. Like the hip hop preceding it, it came predominately from New York City
. The new school was initially characterized in form by drum machine
led minimalism, often tinged with elements of rock. It was notable for taunts and boasts about rapping, and socio-political commentary, both delivered in an aggressive, self-assertive style. In image as in song its artists projected a tough, cool, street b-boy
attitude. These elements contrasted sharply with the P-funk
- and disco-influenced outfits, novelty hits, live bands, synthesizers and party rhymes of artists prevalent in 1984, and rendered them old school
. New school artists made shorter songs that could more easily gain radio play, and more cohesive LPs than their old school counterparts. By 1986 their releases began to establish the hip hop album as a fixture of the mainstream.
The innovations of Run-D.M.C., LL, and new school producer Rick Rubin of Def Jam were quickly advanced on by producer Marley Marl and his Juice Crew MCs, and acts like Boogie Down Productions, Public Enemy and Eric B. & Rakim. The production became denser, the rhymes and beats faster, the music admitting more possibilities as the drum machine was augmented with the sampler. Rakim took rapping about rapping to new heights, while the MCs of the former two groups, KRS-One and Chuck D, pushed "message rap" towards black activism and beyond. Developments in the New York new school continuum in the face of factors like the rise of a new, West Coast underground—gangsta rap—were represented by Native Tongues artists whose inclusive, sample-crowded music accompanied their positivity, Afrocentricity and playful energy. With the eventual commercial dominance of gangsta rap, particularly following the emergence of the relaxed sounds of g-funk in the early nineties, hip hop can be said to have moved into a new period.
Note: The terms "old school" and "new school" have fallen more and more into the common vernacular as synonyms for "old" and "new" (witness the current Urban Dictionary entry for new school which reads, "Anything contemporary") and are often applied in this conversational way to hip hop, to the confusion and occasional exasperation of writers who use the terms historically. The phrase "leader of the new school", coined in hip hop by Chuck D in 1988, and presumably given further currency by the group Leaders of the New School (named by Chuck D prior to signing with Elektra in 1989), remains popular, and has been applied to artists ranging from Jay-Z to Lupe Fiasco.
Elements which new school acts made central to commercially recorded hip hop had existed in some form in the culture since its birth. The first MCs
rapped over DJs
swapping back and forth between two copies of the same record playing the same drum break, or playing instrumental portions or versions of a broad range of records. This part of the culture was initiated by Kool DJ Herc
in 1972 using breaks from James Brown
, The Incredible Bongo Band
and English rock group Babe Ruth
in his block parties. Brown's music—"extensive vamps" in which his voice was "a percussive instrument with frequent rhythmic grunts", and "with rhythm-section patterns ... [resembling] West African polyrhythms"—was a keynote of hip hop's early days. By 1975, Grandmaster Flash
and Afrika Bambaataa
had taken up Kool Herc's breakbeat style of DJing, each with their own accompanying rappers
. Flash was especially associated with an important break known as "The Bells"—a cut-up of the intro to Bob James
's jazz cover of Paul Simon's "Take Me To The Mardi Gras"—while Bambaataa delighted in springing occasional rock music breaks from records like "Mary, Mary
", "Honky Tonk Women
", "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
" and Grand Funk Railroad
's "Inside Looking Out" on unsuspecting b-boys.
The earliest hip hop records replaced the DJ with a live band playing funk and disco influenced tunes, or "interpolating" the tunes themselves, as in "Rapper's Delight" (Sugar Hill, 1979) and "King Tim III (Personality Jock)" (Spring, 1979). It was the soft, futuristic funk closely tied to disco that ruled hip hop's early days on record, to the exclusion of the gritty James Brown productions so beloved of the first b-boys.
Figures such as Flash and Bambaataa were involved in some early instances of moving the sound away from that of a live band, as in Flash's DJ track "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel" (Sugar Hill, 1981), and even innovating popular new sounds and sub-genres, as in the synthesizer-laden electro of Bambaataa's "Planet Rock" (Tommy Boy, 1982). Often though the rawer elements present in live shows did not make it past the recording studio.
Bambaataa's first records, for instance, two versions of "Zulu Nation Throwdown" (Winley, 1980), were recorded with just drums and rhymes. When Bambaataa heard the released records, a complete live band had been added. Something closer to his intentions can be heard on a portion of Death Mix, a low-quality bootleg of a Zulu Nation night at James Monroe High School in the Bronx, released without his permission on Winley Records in 1983. Likewise on the bootleg Live Convention '82 (Disco Wax, 1982), Grand Wizard Theodore cuts the first six bars of Rufus Thomas's "Do the Funky Penguin" together for five and a half minutes while an MC raps over the top. Grandmaster Flash's "Superrappin'" (Enjoy, 1979) had a pumping syncopated rhythm and The Furious Five emulating his spinbacks and needle drops and chanting that "that Flash is on the beatbox going..." The beatbox itself however, a drum machine which Flash had added to his turntable set-up some time earlier, was absent on the record, the drums being produced by a live drummer.
Kool Moe Dee's verbal personal attacks on Busy Bee Starski live at Harlem World in 1982 caused a popular sensation in hip hop circles. In the same way, groups like the Cold Crush Brothers and The Force MCs were known for their routines, attitude and battle rhymes. Tapes of battles like these circulated widely, without making it to record. Apart from some social commentary like Melle Melle's one verse on "Superrappin'", Kurtis Blow's ruefully comedic "The Breaks" (Mercury, 1980) and a spurt of records following the success of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five's "The Message" (Sugar Hill, 1982), the old school specialized lyrically in party rhymes.
David Toop writes of 1984 that "pundits were writing obituaries for hip hop, a passing fad" which "Hollywood had mutated into an all-singing, all-dancing romance" in movies like Flashdance and Breakin'. Against this, Run-D.M.C., The Beastie Boys and the label Def Jam were "consciously hardcore", "a reaction against the populist trend in hip hop at the time" , and "an explosive emergence of an underground alternative". For Peter Shapiro, Run-D.M.C.'s 1983 two-song release "It's like That"/"Sucker MCs" "completely changed hip-hop" "rendering everything that preceded it distinctly old school with one fell swoop. In a 47 point timeline of hip hop and its antecedents spanning 64 years, Shapiro lists this release as his 43th point. Reviewing Toop's book in the LA Weekly, Oliver Wang of Soul Sides concurs, hailing Run-D.M.C. as inaugurating the new school of rap.
Run-D.M.C. rapped over the most sparse of musical backing tracks. In the case of "Sucker MCs", there was a loud, brutal drum machine, a few scratches and nothing else, while the rhymes harangued weak rappers and contrasted them to the group's success. "It's like That" was an aggressively delivered message rap whose social commentary has been defined variously as "objective fatalism", "frustrated and renunciatory", and just plain "reportage". Run-D.M.C. wore street clothes, tracksuits, sneakers, one even wore glasses. Their only possible concession to an image extraneous to that of kids on the street was the stylistic flourish of black fedoras atop their heads. This stood in sharp contrast to the popular artists of the time, who had variously bedecked themselves with feathers, suede boots, jerri curls, and red or even pink leather suits.
The group's early singles are collected on their eponymous debut (Profile, 1984), introducing rock references in "Rock Box", and recognized then and now as the best album of hip hop's early years. The next year, they appeared at Live Aid and released King of Rock (Profile, 1985), on which they asserted that they were "never ever old school". Raising Hell (Profile, 1986) was a landmark, containing quintessentially hip hop tracks like "Peter Piper", "Perfection" and "It's Tricky", and going platinum in the year of its release on the back of the huge crossover hit "Walk This Way". The group had rapped over the beat from the 1975 original in their early days, without so much as knowing the name of the band. When Raising Hell's producer Rick Rubin heard them playing around with it in the studio, he suggested using the Aerosmith lyrics, and the collaboration between the two groups came about. The album's last track was "Proud To Be Black", written under the influence of Chuck D of the as-yet unrecorded Public Enemy. On "My Adidas" the band rapped that they "took the beat from the street and put it on TV".
Comments from Darryl McDaniels, AKA DMC of Run-D.M.C., make this connection to the underground explicit: "[T]hat's exactly what we did. We didn't really think it was pioneering, we just did what rappers did before us was doing on tapes. When a lot of the old guys, like Kool Moe Dee, The Treacherous Three , and Grandmaster Flash, got in the studio, they never put their greatness on records. Me and Run and Jay would listen ... and we'd say, 'They didn't do that shit last night in the Bronx!' ... So we said that we weren't going to be fake. We ain't gonna wear no costumes. We're gonna keep it real.
The other production credit on Raising Hell
went to Run's brother, Russell Simmons
. He ran Rush Artist Management, now Rush Communications
, which as well as handling Run-D.M.C., managed the Beastie Boys, LL Cool J, Whodini
and Public Enemy. Simmons also co-owned Def Jam Recordings, the important new school label, with Rubin. Simmons rose with Def Jam to become one of the biggest moguls in rap, while Rubin claimed credit for introducing radio-friendly brevity and song structure to hip hop. Def Jam's first 12-inch release was the minimalist drum machine breakdown "I Need A Beat" by LL Cool J (1984). This was followed by "I Can't Live Without My Radio" (Def Jam, 1985), a loud, defiant declaration of public loyalty to his boom box which the New York Times
in 1987 called "quintessential rap in its directness, immediacy and assertion of self". Both were on his debut album for Def Jam, 1985's Radio
("Reduced by Rick Rubin", read the liner notes), which contained another minimalist b-boy classic with shards of rock guitar, "Rock the Bells". Perhaps rock fan Rubin's natural proteges were the Beastie Boys, sampling AC/DC
on their Rock Hard
EP on Def Jam in 1984, and recording a Run-D.M.C. outtake and a heavy metal parody on their hugely commercially successful debut album Licensed To Ill
(Def Jam, 1986). In 1987, Raising Hell
surpassed three million units sold, and Licensed to Ill
five million. Faced with figures like these, major labels finally began buying into independent New York hip hop imprints.
- See also: Golden age hip hop
The Juice Crew
Marley Marl's first production was an "answer record" to "Sucker MCs" in 1983 entitled "Sucker DJs" by Dimples D. Soon after came 14-year-old Roxanne Shanté
's answer to UTFO
's "Roxanne Roxanne", "Roxanne's Revenge" (1985), sparking off the huge wave of answer records known as the Roxanne Wars
. More disses (insults intended to show disrespect) from Shanté followed: "Bite This" (1985), "Queen of Lox" (1985), introducing Biz Markie
on "Def Fresh Crew" (1986), "Payback" (1987), and perhaps her greatest record, "Have a Nice Day" (1987). MCs from Marley's Juice Crew like Big Daddy Kane
, Kool G Rap
and Masta Ace
came to define the "fast rap" style characteristic of the late eighties, and the producer introduced to recorded hip hop a breakbeat that became ubiquitous in this period, James Brown's "Funky Drummer" break, on Kool G Rap & DJ Polo
's "It's a Demo" (Cold Chillin'
Boogie Down Productions
|BDP's 1987 album By All Means Necessary (left) and Malcolm X posing for Time in 1964 in response to death threats (right). "By any means necessary" is a much-quoted phrase from a statement made by Malcolm X.
Shante's "Have a Nice Day" had aimed some barbs at the principal two members of a new group from the Bronx called Boogie Down Productions (BDP): "Now KRS-ONE you should go on vacation with that name soundin' like a wack radio station, and as for Scott La Rock, you should be ashamed, when T La Rock
said "It's Yours", he didn't mean his name". Boogie Down Productions had manufactured a disagreement with the Juice Crew's MC Shan
, releasing "South Bronx" and "The Bridge is Over" in reply to his "The Bridge" and "Kill That Noise" respectively.
KRS-One considered Run-D.M.C. the epitome of rap music in 1984 and had begun to rap following their lead. But he has also said that BDP's approach reflected a feeling that the early innovators like Run-D.M.C. and LL Cool J were by 1986 tainted by commercial success and out of touch with the streets. Boogie Down's first album Criminal Minded
, 1987) admitted a reggae influence and had KRS-One singing to the tune of the Beatles on the title track. It also contained two tales of grim street life played for callous laughs, "The P Is Free", in which KRS throws out of his car a girl who wants crack cocaine
in exchange for sex, and "9mm Goes Bang", in which he shoots a drug dealer then cheerfully sings "la la la la la la". Songs like these presaged the rise of an underground that matched violent lyrics to the hardcore drum machine tracks of the new school, such as was being pioneered by Philadelphia's Schoolly D
. The cover of Criminal Minded
was a further reflection of a move towards this sort of radical image, depicting the group in half-light holding artillery. The next album By All Means Necessary
(B-Boy, 1988) left that element behind for political radicalism, with the title and cover alluding to Malcolm X
KRS-One became involved with the Stop the Violence Movement at this time. Boogie Down Productions, along with Run-D.M.C. and Public Enemy, associated the new school with rap music with a strong message.
Eric B. & Rakim
Eric B. & Rakim appeared with the Marley Marl produced "Eric B. Is President" and "My Melody" on Zakia Records in 1986. Both tracks appeared on Paid in Full
(4th & Broadway
, 1987). Just as B.D.P. had, the pair reflected changes in street life on their debut's cover, which depicted the two wearing huge gold chains and surrounded by money. The album cemented James Brown's status as a hip hop source, while Rakim's allusions showed the growing influence of mystic Islam-offshoot The Nation of Gods and Earths
among hip hoppers. The music was minimalist, austerely so, with many writers noting that coupled with Rakim's precise, logical style, the effect was almost one of scientific rigour. They followed Paid in Full
with Follow The Leader
, 1988) (on which they were open-eared enough to sample The Eagles
), Let The Rhythm Hit 'Em
, 1990) and Don't Sweat The Technique
(MCA, 1992). Rakim is generally regarded as the most cutting-edge of the MCs of this new school.
Jess Harvell in Pitchfork
in 2005 wrote that "Rakim's innovation was applying a patina of intellectual detachment to rap's most sacred cause: talking shit about how you're a better rapper than everyone else. Christgau in the Village Voice
in 1990 wrote of Rakim's style as "calm, confident, clear. On their third album, as on their phase-shifting 1986 debut," he continues, "Eric B.'s samples truly are beats, designed to accentuate the natural music of an idealized black man's voice. Looking back at the late eighties in Rolling Stone
in 1997, Ed Moralez describes Rakim as "the new-school MC of the moment, using a smooth baritone to become the jazz soloist of mystic Afrocentric rap.
Public Enemy, having been reluctantly convinced to sign to a record label, released Yo! Bumrush the Show
on Def Jam in 1987. It debuted the Public Enemy logo, a hatted b-boy in a sniper's gunsights, and contained both battle rhymes ("Miuzi Weighs a Ton", "Public Enemy #1") and social-political fare ("Rightstarter (Message to a Black Man)" and the anti-crack
"Megablast"). It was influenced by the energy of early Run-D.M.C. and LL Cool J, and the booming Roland TR-909
drums of Schoolly D, and was a critical and commercial success, particularly in Europe, unusually so for a hip hop album at that time. Bumrush the Show
had been recorded on the heels of Run-D.M.C.'s Raising Hell
, but was held back by Def Jam in order for them to concentrate on releasing and promoting the Beastie Boys' License to Ill
. Chuck D of Public Enemy felt that by the time their first record was released, BDP and Rakim had already changed the landscape for how an MC could rap. Public Enemy were already recording their second album It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back
(Def Jam, 1988) when Bumrush
hit stores. It Takes a Nation of Millions...
contained criticism of the media on "She Watches Channel Zero?!" (looping Slayer
's "Angel of Death") and "Don't Believe the Hype" (in which Chuck D declared himself "leader of the new school" rapping from "the book of the new school rap game"), dealt again with crack on "Night of the Living Baseheads", rapped from the perspective of a black conscientious objector breaking out of prison on "Black Steel in the Hour of Chaos". Chuck D accused the FBI
of tapping his phone in "Louder Than a Bomb", declared himself a "Rebel Without a Pause" and flipped the title of a Beastie Boys hit to rhyme about the Black Panthers
in "Party For Your Right to Fight". All this was to the dense, fast-paced squalls of noise created by Public Enemy's production team, The Bomb Squad
. The landmark album was followed by 1990's Fear of a Black Planet
(Def Jam), whose "Fight the Power" described Elvis Presley
and John Wayne
as racist and declared "most of my heroes don't appear on no stamps".
Native Tongues et al
An underground that was to become gangsta rap
had existed almost as soon as Run-D.M.C. had inaugurated the new school of hip hop. Philadelphia's Schoolly D self-released "Gangsta Boogie" in 1984, and "P.S.K. What Does It Mean?"/"Gucci Time" in 1985, leading to Saturday Night
(Schoolly D, 1986, Jive
, 1987). The West Coast, which became the home of gangsta rap, had Toddy Tee's influential Batteram
mixtape in 1985, and Ice-T
's "Six in the Morning" in 1986 before N.W.A.
's first records, leading to the hugely successful Straight Outta Compton
in 1988. Pop-rap crossovers from the West Coast would also see great success in this time, with Tone Loc
's "Wild Thing" on the Californian independent Delicious Vinyl
, and MC Hammer
's smash hits "U Can't Touch This" and "Pray". Developments in the New York new school continuum in this climate were represented by the Native Tongues
groups—The Jungle Brothers
, De La Soul
, A Tribe Called Quest
, Queen Latifah
and Monie Love
—along with fellow travellers like Leaders of the New School
and Brand Nubian
. They moved away from aggressive, macho posturing, towards ambiguity, fun and Afrocentricity. Their music was sample-crowded, more open and accessible than their new school predecessors. De La Soul's debut sampled everyone from The Turtles
to Steely Dan
, while A Tribe Called Quest matched tough beats to mellow jazz samples and playful, thoughtful raps. In the nineties, West Coast gangsta rap evolved into the slow, P-funk influenced keyboard sounds of G-funk
; the East Coast responded with a new breed of hardcore by the likes of Black Moon
and the Wu-Tang Clan
, and tales of New York street life in the debut records of Nas
and the Notorious B.I.G.
The "golden age" of hip hop is a phrase usually framing the late 1980s in mainstream hip hop, said to be characterized by its diversity, quality, innovation and influence, and associated with Public Enemy, KRS-One and his Boogie Down Productions, Eric B. & Rakim, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, and the Jungle Brothers due to their themes of Afrocentricity and political militancy, their experimental music, and their eclectic sampling. This same period is sometimes referred to as "mid-school" or a "middle school" in hip hop, the phrase covering acts like Gang Starr, The UMC's, Main Source, Lord Finesse, EPMD, Just Ice, Stetsasonic, True Mathematics, and Mantronix.
"A few weeks ago I was DJing a party and a young twentysomething came up to me to request 'some old-school.' I asked for clarification – after all, Run DMC and LL Cool J are considered old-school, but technically, they invented the new school. The response: 'I don't know, some Tribe Called Quest
or something.' After gently picking my jaw from off the floor, I turned back to my crates and wondered to myself, 'If Tribe is old-school, what does that make Kurtis Blow
? In utero?'"—Oliver Wang, "Book report", San Francisco Bay Guardian
, April 6, 2003.
b. "I always get frustrated when I see a link to this site on some hipster’s blog with a tagline like 'taking it back to the old school', when I very rarely post anything recorded before 1989. I mean, I guess a lot of what I post here is old, but that don’t make it old school, yaoming? Like how you gonna call Leaders of the New School old school?"—Noz, "Lady Don’t Tek No Beat", Cocaine Blunts and Hip Hop Tapes, January 10, 2005.
- Cepeda, Raquel (ed.) And It Don't Stop!, New York: Faber and Faber, Inc., 2004. ISBN 978-0571-21159-3
- Coleman, Brian. Check the Technique, 2nd. ed., New York: Villard, 2007. ISBN 978-0812977752
- Cross, Brian. It's Not About a Salary..., New York: Verso, 1993. ISBN 978-0860916208
- Shapiro, Peter. Rough Guide to Hip Hop, 2nd. ed., London: Rough Guides, 2005. ISBN 978-1843532637
- Toop, David. Rap Attack, 3rd. ed., London: Serpent's Tail, 2000. ISBN 978-1852426279