of Kandy (a.k.a. Nayakar Dynasty) were rulers of Kandy kingdom
in Sri Lanka
as their capital from 1707 to 1815 and also the last dynasty
to rule Sri Lanka
. They were from the royal family of Madurai Nayaks of Balija
.They were of Telugu
origin . There were four kings of this lineage and the last king was exiled by the British
to Vellore Fort
. They assumed the Kandy throne through marriage alliances with the much prevailing Marumakkathayam law
. These kings were Hindus
later converted to Buddhism
and were responsible for renaissance of Buddhist culture in the Island.
The Mahanuwara dynasty that preceded the Kandy Nayaks always married brides from royal family of Madurai Nayaks and Tanjore Nayaks.The Nayaks of South India started of as governors of Vijayanagara Dynasty during 14 and 15th centuries who ruled parts of Tamil Nadu.After the Vijayanagara Empire collapsed in mid 16th century these governors declared independence, establishing their own kingdoms in Gingee, Tanjore, Madurai and Chandragiri.They were of Telugu origins, one of the reasons for a large set of Telugu population in Western parts of Tamil Nadu.
When the last king of Mahanuwara dynasty died without an heir, his queens brother from Madurai was chosen to throne as they followed the Marumakkathayam law. And successive kings were from the same kin from Madurai.
The Nayaks of South India also had military relations in 17th century when Karaiyar generals of Jaffna sought the support of the Nayaks of Tanjavur in 1620 to fight against the Portuguese.
These branches of Madurai Nayaks were reportedly headed by Bangaru Thirumalai whose son was adopted by the last Nayak Queen Meenakshi. Bangaru Thirumalai was a direct descendant of Thirumalai Nayaks younger Brother and was a Military governor in Tirunelveli and Madurai provinces.
The preceding Dynasty
The last king of Kandy of Mahanuwara dynasty was Sri Vira Parakrama Narendra Singha who ruled from 1707 to 1739.This King ascended the throne in 1707 when he was seventeen and was considered to be a very pious and scholarly. In 1708 the king married a bride from Madurai Royal family, the daughter of Pitti Nayakkar. Again, in 1710, he married another bride from Madurai.He had no children by either of the queens. He also had a Kandyan wife from noble family of Matale. She bore him a son, the king also had a concubine from a high caste, who bore him a son named Unambuwe, and did survive. The bar to his succession was the lack of royal status in the mother.
Thus, the king nominated, as his successor, the brother of his first queen who had remained at the court ever since his sister married him. According to the law of succession that prevailed in Ceylon, the throne passed almost always from father to son, born of a mahesi or from brother to brother. Marumakkathayam literarily means inheritance by sister's children (as opposed to sons and daughters).
Sri Vijaya Raja Singha 1739-1747
of King Narendra Singha ,i.e. Narendra Singha's first wife's brother, from Madurai
, ascended the throne of Kandy, as Sri Vijaya Raja Singha.Coming from the line of Vijayanagar kings
of South India
and henceforth filling the Sinhala
The new king, considered to be a man of considerable culture, devoted his entire attention to the furtherance of the national religion Buddhism
despite being a Hindu
. He is said to have caused life sized images of Buddha
in recumbent, standing and sitting postures to be cut in the rock caves in various parts of the country. His reign also marked several conflicts with the Dutch
who were ruling the coastal provinces, based on trading issues. Sri Vijaya Rajasinha destroyed the churches and initiated a persecution against the Portuguese
and Dutch, which was continued under Kirti Sri. It ceased only because the king considered that certain calamities which fell upon the country were due to his action.
He married a bride from the Royal family of Madurai.But by 1736 the 200 year old Nayaka dynasty of Madurai came to an end with Muslims taking control of the whole country.
Marriage alliance with Madurai Royal Family
When the king ascended the throne he sought a wife from South India
. For this purpose he sent messengers to Madurai
in 1739. Since the Madurai Nayaks
had now lost the power and prestige they enjoyed in the days of Vijayaranga Chokkanatha, the family members thought it advisable and even desirable to accept the offer from the king of Kandy.Hence the family of Bangaru Thirumala
,who was now residing in Vellaikuruchi Fort near Thirupachetiram in Sivaganga Zamin responded.
Two brothers Rama Krishnappa Nayaka and Narenappa Nayaka, kinsmen of Bangaru Tirumala
Nayaka meet the Kandyan envoys at Ramnad
.Narenappa Nayaka had a daughter of marriageable age and agreed to the Kandyan request. The brothers with their families and some kins accompanied the envoys to Ceylon
for the daughter's nuptial
; settled in Kandy with their kith and kin. Narenappa Nayaka was destined to be not only the father-in-law of one king, but the father of the next two kings of Kandy; for his two sons, the one five or six years old in 1740, and the other still an infant were successively to succeed Sri Vijaya Rajasinha.
Sri Vijaya Rajasinha married another Madurai princess in 1747.Each bride brought a contingent of relatives with royal lineage ultimately making Kandy their permanent home.
The king, however, died childless soon after, having nominated as his successor, his eldest brother in-law who had been living in the court ever since his sister had married the king. Thus by this peculiar mode of succession the son of Narenappa Nayaka who claimed kingship with the ruling Madurai Nayak family now ascended the throne of Kandy as Kirti Sri Rajasinha.
Sri Kirti Sri Raja Singha 1747-1782
Kirti Sri Raja Singha was Vijaya Raja Singha's wife's eldest brother from Madurai
.Hence another Brother-in-law to throne, thus the second of the South Indian
line. He was a tender young man when he succeeded his brother-in-law, and it was not until the year 1751 that he ascended the throne as Kirti Sri Raja Singha.
He devoted the first few years of his reign to the advancement of literature and religion. The king, later with the Dutch assistance got down to learning Bhikkus from Siam (Thailand) for the purpose of advancing Buddhism in Sri Lanka, also building the Raja Maha Vihara (Gangarama) was built at Kandy. Kirti Sri built the existing inner temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic, and caused the Mahavansa chronicle to be continued from the time of Parakrama Bahu IV down to his own reign.
Attack on Dutch Forts
In 1761 King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha attacked the Dutch garrisons
, completely destroying them, and killing Dutch while some surrendered and ended as prisoners.
In order to revenge the humiliation, the new Dutch governor Van Eck had immediate plans to attack Kandy,but the weakness in fortification and garrison forbade the Dutch. Later they did attach in 1764 and in 1765. Hence, in the early part of 1763 the Dutch were only consolidating their positions and gradually expelling Kandyans from the territories taken over from Dutch. Throughout 1763 the King continually sought peace and sent his envoys to discuss terms. The Governor wished the King to cede the three four and seven Korales and Puttlam and hand over the entire coastline of island to the Dutch. The king was not agreeable to any demand that diminished his sovereignty and was deliberately delaying a settlement hoping for help from the English in Madras after his discussion and negotiations with John Pybus 1762.
Meeting with the British
The King in mid 1762 sought help from George Pigot
, Governor of Fort St George Madras
for assistance. The British eager to obtain the monopoly of trading in cinnamon, pepper, betel nut (puwak) from the Kandyan Kings also wanted to expel the Dutch from the coasts. A reason to call on the British for assistance by the Kandyan King in 1762 was that after the treaty of Paris
, the Dutch poured troops into Sri Lanka
. They were bent on capturing Kandy
from six directions (1764). Anticipating such a scenario the King sent an envoy to the English Governor
to assist him in expelling the Dutch. This envoy, a junior Kandyan Official in the military made a clandestine trip to Madras Fort, and the English responded by sending their councilor Mr Pybus.
John Pybus, a writer of the British East India Company, sailed to Kandy with a backup of five ships and about 200 armed men. A British vessel brought Pybus to Trincomalee on 5 May 1762. The Dutch knew of the arrival of Pybus through their spies and they were kept informed of his movements. Pybus took an exhausting covert trip to meet the King on 24 May 1762. After several talks without any conclusive decisions Pybus left after a month. The King gave him a ring, sword, a gold chain with breast jewels and left the country crossing the river at Puttalam pass while the The Dissawa who accompanied Pybus presented the ships commander Samuel Cornish a gold chain and a ring in the name of King "Keerthi Sri Rajasinha ".
John Pybus in his notes described the King as a man of tolerable stature, reddish in complexion and very brisk in his movements. Pybus was amazed as to how the kandyans had managed to fight a war with Dutch and had captured Matara Dutch Fort. He wrote that "They had put every European to the sword except two officers who are now prisoners of the country."
He married the daughter of one Nadukattu Sami Nayakkar in 1749. He further married three more Nayakkar queens from Madurai
, but had no children, but had six daughters and two sons by his favorite Sinhala lady (Yakada Doli), daughter of the late Dissave (Headman) of Bintenna, granddaughter of the blind and aged Mampitiya Dissave. Both his sons survived the king and his daughters' married Nayakkar relatives of the king. Mampitiya's sons claim for the throne was overlooked and the choice fell on the king's brother who was living in court.
The king died on January 2, 1782, of the injuries caused two months before by a fall from his horse after a reign of 35 years which the people saw as a great religious revival, and had a sentimental attachment to the King.
Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha 1782-1798
Brother of Kirthi Sri Raja Singha, the new king who ascended the throne as Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha came from Madurai as a child along with his brother. Hence he was raised as a Kandyan and a Sinhala; emerging as a brilliant pupil of the Malwatte Temple's chief Prelate at that time. He was quite a sophisticated person and learned many languages amongst which were Pali and Sanskrit. A lavish patron of Buddhism, he was a great aficionado of poetry and he himself was a poet.
He died childless in 1798 without nominating a successor. The burden fell on Pilimatalava, the first Adigar (Prime Minister) Pilimatalawe, an able, ambitious and intriguing chief, to select a successor to the vacant throne. The controversial Adigar was also seen as one of the main reason for the demise of the dynasty.
Sri Vikrama Rajasinha 1798-1815
Son of a sister of King Rajadhi Raja Singha's Queen Upendramma. The new king who ascended the throne was Sri Vikrama Rajasinha, the former kings' nephew, barely 18 years old. He would also be the last king of the Kandy Nayakar dynasty and the last of Sri Lanka.During his time the British colony was fully established on other parts of Sri Lanka.
There was a rival claimant to succeed King Rajadhi Raja Singha, the brother of Queen Upendramma, who had a stronger claim. However, Pilimatalawe, the first Adigar (prime Minister) choose the South Indian Prince to the Kandyan Throne, with reportedly deep seated plans to usurp the throne to set a new dynasty of his own. The young king, upon ascending the throne had to face lot of conspiracies.
During his time, the British
who had succeeded the Dutch
in the Maritime Provinces had not interfered in the politics
of the Kandy. But Pilimatalava, the first Adigar of the king started covert operations with the British, to provoke the King into acts of aggression, which would give the British an excuse to seize the Kingdom. Later the King had to execute Pilimatalawe for attempting to murder him, after two previous pardons on treachery.
The new First Adigar Ehalepola, Pilimatalawe nephew was no better as the British quickly won his support. A rebellion instigated by him Ehalepola was suppressed and Ehalepola fled to Colombo and joined the British. After failing to surrender (after 3 weeks of notice), the exasperated king ordered the execution of his family. A propagandised account of the execution was widely circulated by sympathisers, however the veracity of these accounts are questionable.
Now the British marched into Kandy, after gaining people support, who were eager to dispose the king. The King was taken as a royal prisoner to Vellore Fort
, near Madras
along with his family members.
He was living on a small allowance given to him and his two queens by the British Government. It is claimed that this allowance was paid to his next-of-kin for next 156 years and stopped only when Sri Lanka regained its sovereignty in 1948.
For centuries Kandy
, originally known as Senkadagala, has been the bastion of Sri Lanka
's culture and its spiritual centre. The palace
complex at Kandy
includes Sri Lanka's most venerated shrine
, the Dalada Maligawa or Temple
of the Sacred Tooth Relic
Raja Maha Vihara (Gangarama) was built at Kandy by the second Nayak king Kirti Sri Raja Singha while his successor Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha was a lavish patron of Buddhism. The first Nayak king Sri Vijaya Raja Singha is noted for various erection of Buddhist statues throughout the Kingdom. The Kandy Lake overlooking Kandy was constructed by Sri Vikrama Raja Singha.
Imports to Kandy
Kandyan people's spartan lifestyle meant they required only fewer fancies apart from basic amenities.But still imports included silk
, and Japanese copper
, mamootys, musket barrels, and lances. For items imported from Bengal cloth
etc. The Dutch
had imposed an import duty of 15%.
Spices like cinnamon
and betel nut
(puwak) were the most sought after by the Europeans traders. Elephants
were the chief imports of the Kandyan kingdom. The business was mainly done through the Dutch
. Also pearl fishery on the bay of Trincomalee was done by the Dutch apart from mining of precious stones like sapphires, topazes
. According to John Pybus, the Dutch also sold arrack
thus completing the systematic destruction of this Paradise Island
was yet to be introduced to these regions.
Kandiyan army mainly used guerilla tactics in warfare, which they practised with great success. The soldiers were equipped with spears, bows and arrows, swords and guns.
Kandyan kings had several types of Cannons
for firing 4 to 8 ounce balls and the King had two carriage
mounted cannons at his palace
. They also manufactured gunpowder
. For Naval warfare the Kandyan kings were dependent on the Dutch
- Robert Binning, A Journal of Two Years' Travel in Persia, Ceylon, etc. Volume 1. (Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1857)
- Horace Hayman Wilson, The history of British India, from 1805 to 1835. (James Madden, 1858)