Definitions

disposed of

Abatement of debts and legacies

Abatement of debts and legacies is a common law doctrine of wills that holds that when the equitable assets of a deceased person are not sufficient to satisfy fully all the creditors, their debts must abate proportionately, and they must accept a dividend.

In the case of legacies when the funds or assets out of which they are payable are not sufficient to pay them in full, the legacies abate in proportion, unless there is a priority given specially to any particular legacy. Annuities are also subject to the same rule as general legacies.

The order of abatement usually goes as follows:

  1. Intestate property (property not disposed of in the will itself) will abate first
  2. The residuary estate will abate next
  3. General devises (gifts of cash) will abate next
  4. Demonstrative devises (gifts of stock, or orders to sell property and give the proceeds to the beneficiary) will abate next
  5. Specific devises (gifts of tangible property) will abate last

Definitions

A specific devise, is a specific gift in a will to a specific person other than an amount of money. For example, if James's will states that he is leaving his $500,000 yacht to his brother Paul, the yacht would be a specific devise.

A general devise, is a monetary gift to a specific person to be satisfied out of the overall estate. For example, if James's will states that he is leaving $500,000 to his son Sam then the money would be a general devise.

A residual devise is one left to a devisee after all specific and general devices have been made. For example James's will might say: "I give all the rest, residue and remainder of my estate to my daughter Lilly." Lilly would be the residual devisee.

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