is an emotion
that is typically associated with things that are perceived as unclean
, or infectious
. In The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
, Charles Darwin
wrote that disgust refers to something revolting. Primarily in relation
to the sense of taste, as actually perceived or vividly imagined; and secondarily to anything which causes a similar feeling, through the sense of smell, touch, and even of eyesight. Disgust is one of the basic emotions of Robert Plutchik
's theory of emotions. Disgust invokes a characteristic facial expression, one of Paul Ekman
's six universal facial expressions of emotion. It is also associated with a fall in heart rate, in contrast, for example, to fear
Disgust may be further subdivided into physical disgust, associated with physical or metaphorical uncleanness, and moral disgust, a similar feeling related to courses of action.
Origins and development
Disgust is thought to have its origins in (and in some cases to be identical to) instinctive
reactions that evolved as part of natural selection for behavior which tended to prevent food poisoning, or exposure to danger of infection. Disgust is frequently associated with waste
products such as feces
, secretions from the human body (such as mucus), and with decomposing flesh
, and insects
, such as maggots
, associated with it.
As in other human instinctual drives, disgust has an instinctual and a socially constructed aspect. Psychologist Paul Rozin has studied the development of feelings of disgust in children.
Jonathan Haidt is a researcher whose work involves exploring the relationship between disgust and various traditional concepts of morality. His theory of social intuitionism seeks to explain the apparently irrational and visceral reactions to violations of the moral order.
William W. McCorkle Jr. is an evolutionary anthropologist whose research has focused on the ritualized compulsion to handle dead bodies in special ways with regards to the activation of disgust and contagion systems in humans. McCorkle argues that contagion is not triggered by an actual threat, such as a toxicity of the human body; however, he proffers the theory that dead bodies trigger an aggregate number of mental systems involved in agency, Theory of Mind, and other systems linked to social intelligence which signal the potential threat of the corpse and any surrounding areas or predatory threats to individuals in the vicinity. This activation causes individuals to perform ritualized behaviors to corpses (and their remains/cremains). Moreover, McCorkle theorizes that contagion is an evolved psychological mechanism that utilizes biological warning systems such as disgust to trigger precautionary tags to sensory input in human minds from the environment for survival.
Disgust and shame
, a leading American
philosopher, wrote a book published in 2004 entitled Hiding From Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law
which examines the relationship of disgust and shame
to a society's laws.
A recent study found that women and children were more sensitive to disgust than men. Researchers attempted to explain this finding in evolutionary terms. While some find wisdom in adhering to one's feelings of disgust, some scientists have asserted that "reactions of disgust are often built upon prejudices that should be challenged and rebutted."
experiments have revealed that the anterior insula
in the brain is particularly active when experiencing disgust, when being exposed to offensive tastes, and when viewing facial expressions of disgust.
Many patients suffering from Huntington's disease
, a genetically transmitted progressive neurodegenerative disease, are unable to recognize expressions of disgust in others and also don't show reactions of disgust to foul odors or tastes. The inability to recognize disgust in others appears in carriers of the Huntington gene before other symptoms appear.