Interest rate charged by a central bank for loans of reserve funds to commercial banks and other financial intermediaries. The discount rate is one important indicator of the condition of monetary policy in an economy. Because raising or lowering the discount rate alters the rates that commercial banks charge on loans, adjustment of the discount rate is used as a tool to combat recession and inflation.
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Set of institutions, conventions, and practices whose aim is to facilitate the lending and borrowing of money on a short-term basis. The money market is, therefore, different from the capital market, which is concerned with medium- and long-term credit. The transactions that occur on the money market involve not only banknotes but assets that can be turned into cash at short notice, such as short-term government securities and bills of exchange. Though the details and mechanism of the money market vary greatly from country to country, in all cases its basic function is to enable those with surplus short-term funds to lend and those with the need for short-term credit to borrow. This function is accomplished through middlemen who provide their services for a profit. In most countries the government plays a major role in the money market, acting both as a lender and borrower and often using its position to influence the money supply and interest rates according to its monetary policy. The U.S. money market covers financial instruments ranging from bills of exchange and government securities to funds from clearinghouses and certificates of deposit. In addition, the Federal Reserve System provides considerable short-term credit directly to the banking system. The international money market facilitates the borrowing, lending, and exchange of currencies between countries.
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Consider the task to find the present value PV of $100 that will be received in five years. Or equivalently, which amount of money today will grow to $100 in five years when subject to a constant discount rate?
Assuming a 12% per year interest rate it follows
The discount rates typically applied to different types of companies show significant differences:
Reason for high discount rates for startups:
One method that looks into a correct discount rate is the capital asset pricing model. This model takes in account three variables that make up the discount rate:
1. Risk Free Rate: The percentage of return generated by investing in risk free securities such as government bonds.
2. Beta: The measurement of how a company’s stock price reacts to a change in the market. A beta higher than 1 means that a change in share price is exaggerated compared to the rest of shares in the same market. A beta less than 1 means that the share is stable and not very responsive to changes in the market. Less than 0 means that a share is moving in the opposite of the market change.
3. Equity Market Risk Premium: The return on investment that investors require above the risk free rate.
Discount rate= risk free rate + beta*(equity market risk premium)
For fixed continuously compounded discount rate we have