Until the 15th cent. any formal communication or negotiation among nations was conducted either by means of ambassadors specially appointed for a particular mission or by direct correspondence among heads of states. This procedure was not always satisfactory, however, and by the mid-16th cent. several countries had established permanent representatives in foreign states. One of the first powers to do this was Venice, which in 1496 appointed two merchants as representatives in London because the journey to England was "very long and very dangerous." Other countries later followed suit.
By the end of the 17th cent. permanent legations had become widespread in Europe. There was no uniformity in titles and status among various ambassadors, however, and agents operating below the ambassadorial level, although influential, were often corrupt. At the Congress of Vienna (1815) this system was corrected, and a classification of diplomatic ranks was adopted. Four grades of diplomatic representatives were recognized: ambassador, papal legate, and papal nuncio; minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary; minister; and chargé d'affaires. This codification went far toward professionalizing the diplomatic service and established it as a branch of the public service in each nation.
As the diplomatic service became a regularized institution, its functions began to grow. While the ambassadors themselves continued to act as personal representatives of their particular heads of state, their staffs necessarily expanded as various types of attachés were assigned to the embassies. Today secretaries, military, cultural, and commercial attachés, clerical workers, and various experts and advisers are all part of the diplomatic corps. Diplomatic business is generally conducted according to forms long established by custom, including memorandums, informal oral or written notes, or formal notes. Although French was once the universal language of diplomacy, both French and English are used today.Diplomatic Service of the United States
In the United States, ambassadors are appointed by the President and are subject to the approval of the Senate. Although the consular service and the diplomatic service were once separate in the United States, the Rogers Act of 1924 combined the two branches into the Foreign Service. The Foreign Service Act of 1946 reorganized the Foreign Service, raising salary levels and introducing the merit system for promotions to all but appointive positions. Today the Foreign Service is under the control of a Deputy Undersecretary of State, assisted by the Foreign Service Institute.Diplomatic Immunity
The persons of diplomats enjoy diplomatic immunity, i.e., they are exempt from search, arrest, or prosecution by the government to which they are accredited. This immunity, which derives from the concept of extraterritoriality, is deemed necessary for diplomats to properly carry out their official duties. They are allowed communications and transportation without interference, and their embassy and residence enjoy similar privileges of extraterritoriality. This tradition of diplomatic immunity was violated by Iran during the Iran hostage crisis.Diplomatic Relations
The larger countries of the world have permanent diplomatic relations with scores of other nations, whether those nations are considered friendly or unfriendly. If two countries have no diplomatic relations, their interests may be represented by diplomats of other powers, and when two states are at war their interests are usually represented by neutral states. In the event that a nation refuses to admit a diplomat from a foreign nation or demands his or her recall, the diplomat's government must either comply or break off relations.
In the 20th cent. there have been numerous meetings of heads of state and foreign ministers and various types of international conferences, all of which have tended to lessen the traditional diplomatic function. Moreover, some claim that modern communications have also changed diplomacy greatly by removing whatever autonomy diplomats may once have had in making policy decisions. The possibility of telephone or other direct contact with a superior has allegedly reduced diplomats to a quasi-messengers. Even if this may appear true, diplomats continue to serve as expert advisers, and while not empowered to make final decisions, they greatly influence the decision-making process.
See G. Mattingly, Renaissance Diplomacy (1955); Sir Ernest Satow, Guide to Diplomatic Practice (4th ed. 1957); H. Nicolson, Diplomacy (3d ed. 1963); F. J. Merli and T. A. Wilson, ed., Matters of American Diplomacy (1974); R. F. Schulzinger, The Making of the Diplomatic Mind (1975); H. Jones, The Course of American Diplomacy (1986); A. K. Henrikson, ed., Negotiating the World Order (1986); C. V. Crabb, Jr., American Diplomacy and the Pragmatic Tradition (1989).
Staff of a state's international-affairs department that represents the state's interests in foreign countries. It fulfills two functions, diplomatic and consular. The standards for foreign-service jobs are similar in most countries. Before the 20th century, wealth, aristocratic standing, and political connections were the chief requirements for high-ranking diplomatic positions. Political appointees still hold the top positions in many foreign missions, but their subordinates generally must demonstrate their education and intellectual ability through a competitive examination. Foreign-service personnel have special legal rights (e.g., they do not have to pay taxes to their host country). Seealso ambassador.
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Latvia was occupied on June 17, 1940 by Red Army troops and officially annexed to the Soviet Union on August 5, 1940. But the United States, from 1940 through 1991 never recognized the forcible and illegal annexation of the Baltic States in conformity with the principles of the Stimson Doctrine (US Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles`s Declaration of July 23, 1940), and more than 50 countries followed this position. The Republic of Latvia, from 1940 through 1991, continued to exist as a state de jure according to international law during the whole period of its actual occupation and annexation. Therefore, some Latvian diplomatic and consular representations continued to function from 1940 through 1991 in some Western countries (USA, Australia, UK etc.), dealing with a limited part of state functions of the Republic of Latvia.
The diplomatic service of the Republic of Latvia, as the sole institution of its executive power, continued its limited range of activities abroad for about 50 years. In July and August 1940, Latvian envoys who continued to be accredited to the USA and UK governments made official protests against Soviet occupation and annexation of their country. This Service met many difficulties due to the lack of a legal government in its homeland. Members of the Latvian diplomatic service in Western countries continued to formulate and express the official opinion of the Republic of Latvia, and protected the interests of Latvia and their citizens abroad throughout these 50 years. Latvia was not allowed to establish a government-in-exile in any Western country or sign the Declaration of the United Nations (1942), as Latvian diplomats wished.
The Heads of the Latvian Diplomatic Service were: Kārlis Zariņš (Charles Zarine) (1940-1963), Arnolds Spekke (1963-1970), and Anatols Dinbergs (1971-1991). The main directions of activities of the Service were: protection of rights and property of the Republic of Latvia and its citizens abroad (including consular issues), regular reminders to the international community as to legal rights of the Latvian nation to regain its independence, etc.
While the homeland was under the rule of occupation authorities, the Service gained some new and, in comparison with de facto independent countries, different experience in diplomatic work and thus advanced the complete restoration of Latvia's independence in 1991. As mentioned above, the specific character of the Latvian foreign service activities is a real affirmation of the unique situation that the Republic of Latvia continued its existence de jure, and many countries never considered its annexation by the Soviet Union to be lawful and just.
After Latvia's parliament declared the end of a "transitional period" and claimed de facto full independence on August 21, 1991 in the aftermath of the failed Soviet coup attempt, and wide international recognition of restored independence started, the legations and consulates of the Diplomatic Service were transferred to the Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Anatols Dinbergs, a diplomat who had served his country for almost 60 years, was promoted to the rank of Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the United Nations (September - December 1991) as well as Ambassador to the USA (1991-1992).