Mathematical process of finding the derivative of a function. Defined abstractly as a process involving limits, in practice it may be done using algebraic manipulations that rely on three basic formulas and four rules of operation. The formulas are: (1) the derivative of math.xmath.n is math.nmath.xmath.n − 1, (2) the derivative of sin math.x is cos math.x, and (3) the derivative of the exponential function math.emath.x is itself. The rules are: (1) (math.amath.f + math.bmath.g)' = math.amath.f' + math.bmath.g', (2) (math.fmath.g)' = math.fmath.g' + math.gmath.f', (3) (math.f/math.g)' = (math.gmath.f' − math.fmath.g')/math.g2, and (4) (math.f(math.g))' = math.f'(math.g)math.g', where math.a and math.b are constants, math.f and math.g are functions, and a prime (') indicates the derivative. The last formula is called the chain rule. The derivation and exploration of these formulas and rules is the subject of differential calculus. Seealso integration.
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