(also known as Gadopentetate dimeglumine
) is the first paramagnetic magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) contrast agent
. First described in 1981, and introduced in 1988, it is used to assist imaging of blood vessels and of inflamed or diseased tissue where the blood vessels become 'leaky'. It is often used when viewing intracranial lesions
with abnormal vascularity
or abnormalities in the blood-brain barrier
. It is usually injected intravenously. Gd-DTPA is a gadolinium
complex of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and is classed as an acyclic, ionic gadolinium contrast medium. Its paramagnetic
property reduces the T1 relaxation time
(and to some extent the T2 and T2* relaxation times) in NMR
, which is the source of its clinical utility.
Marketed as Magnevist by Bayer Schering Pharma, it was the first intravenous contrast agent to become available for clinical use, and is in widespread use around the world.
Gadolinium based agents may cause a toxic reaction known as Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF) in patients with severe kidney problems.