Internal-combustion engine in which air is compressed to a temperature sufficiently high to ignite fuel injected into the cylinder, where combustion and expansion activate a piston (see piston and cylinder). It converts the chemical energy stored in the fuel into mechanical energy, which can be used to power large trucks, locomotives, ships, small electric-power generators, and some automobiles. The diesel engine differs from other internal-combustion engines (such as gasoline engines) in that it has no ignition system and so is often called a compression-ignition engine. Diesel fuel is low-grade and comparatively unrefined. Compared to other internal-combustion engines, diesel engines are more reliable, last longer, and cost less to operate, but they also produce more air pollution, noise, and vibration.
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