Dhikr ذکر, Plural اذكار Adhkaar (Zikir
"pronouncement", "invocation" or "remembrance") is an Islamic
practice that focuses on the remembrance of God
. Dhikr as a devotional act often includes the repetition of the names of Allah
, supplications and aphorisms from hadith
literature, and sections of the Qur'an
The origins of dhikr and its practice is an issue which is disputed within the Muslim
community. While Muslims agree it has sanction in both the Qur'an and sunnah
, its method is disputed with some considering types not mentioned in the above sources as bid'ah
while others disagree.
Known also as Misbaha
, these are usually beads
upon a string, 99 or 100 in number, which correspond to the Names of God in the Qur'an
and other recitations. The beads are used to keep track of the number of recitations that make up the dhikr.
Muslim inmates in the United States are allowed to utilize dhikr beads for therapeutic effects (see, ). This was a result of a successful action brought pursuant to 28 USC @ 1983 (by Imam Hamzah S. Alameen in the State of New York against Thomas A. Coughlin III, the Department of Corrections) arguing that prisoners have a First Amendment Constitutional right to use dhikr beads.
Some Islamic scholars argue that using the beads are forbidden, however. Many claim that the usage of the fingers to count is better as that is what was practiced by Muhammad. The issue is still hotly debated in some communities and there are a number of differing opinions on the matter.
orders engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies. Each order or lineage within an order has one or more forms for group dhikr, the liturgy
of which may include recitation
, instrumental music
, and trance
(Touma 1996, p.162). Dhikr in a group is not limited to these rules but most often done on Thursday and/or Sunday nights as part of the institutional practice of most orders.
Dhikr is sometimes accompanied with traditional instruments such as the Daf, Ney, Dombak, Tar (lute), Setar (lute), Santur, and so on. Recently, modern instruments have also been used to perform dhikr.
A group dhikr ceremony in Arabic countries is usually called the hadrah. In Turkey the group ceremony is called Zikr-i Kiyam. The hadrah marks the climax of the Sufi's gathering regardless of any teaching or formal structure. Musically this structure includes several secular Arab genres and can last for hours. (ibid, p.165)
The hadrah section consists of the ostinato-like repetition of the name of God over which the soloist performs a richly ornamented song. Often the climax is reached through cries of "Allah! Allah!" or "hu hu" ("He! He!"), with the participants bending forward while exhaling and stand straight while inhaling.
- Habib Hassan Touma (1996). The Music of the Arabs, trans. Laurie Schwartz. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-88-8.
- Bruce Privratsky, Muslim Turkistan, p.104.
- Kabbani, Shaykh Muhammad Hisham, Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine, Vol. 2, As-Sunnah Foundation of America, ISBN 1-87103-86-9,1995, p.2.